Esselen

Family
Hokan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
esq
Location
36.55°, -121.87°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ausai “over” unknown Shaul 1995, T&S 1981:121 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other komVnam unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
and y e grammar alalu Doc. 17a unknown Shaul 1995:223 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment missing Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body missing Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality pach- (Doc 19) unknown Shaul 1995:219 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body missing Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location huhuwai “under” unknown T&S 1981:121 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality putu/-ki, unknown Shaul 1995:199 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body missing Jane Hill
black negro preto colour ala/-ki “dark, black” unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:219 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body max/ana loan (Pinart; Turner 1983:230) Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body missing Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body -i/ya unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:202 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body missing Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body missing Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment missing Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human -pana "child, son" unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:202 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion missing Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment mech loan Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality Sutuk(i) unknown T&S 1981:121 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion i-yu/, i/-yu “come, go” unknown (Henshaw, Turner 1983:235) Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality efes unknown Shaul 1995:230 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental pekualanac unknown Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental siawa unknown Shaul 1995:217 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact missing Jane Hill
day día dia time asatsa, asa/tsa S. voc. unknown Shaul 1995:214 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state chuneipa, chunai- unknown Shaul 1995:195, 211 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact missing Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna humu-x loan direction unknown Shaul 1988:696 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental missing Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body etse, eshe loan direction unknown Shaul 1995:200 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality missing Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment missing Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tkxususu “ears”, tusu/s-- see S. voc. loan direction unknown Shaul 1995:200; Turner 1983:240) Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment maTa, matsa S. voc. inheritance Shaul 1995:197, 207; T&S 1981:107 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7ama loan direction unknown Shaul 1995:199 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna missing Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body -ixpa S. voc unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion missing Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality cuei-no (far-loc) unknown Pinart in Shaul 1995:195, 207 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship m-a7aT “3-father” unknown Shaul 1995:202 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental missing Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna missing Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment anih unknown (T&S 1981:110 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna kal(ul) , pl kohlkohl unknown T&S 1981:107, 111 from JPH Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion chololo/shi “running water” loan direction unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:200 Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment missing Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion missing Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment shannax unknown Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
foot pie body kxe/le loan direction unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality sale/-ki S. unknown Shaul 1995:214 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state missing Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body haka unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body tala-nVx unknown Shaul 1988:693 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar aniki “that one” unknown Shaul 1995:213 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body kxa/ta-sVx loan Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental missing Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality missing Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -sma unknown Shaul 1995:215 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar eni unknown Shaul 1995:209 Jane Hill
if si se grammar umases (Doc) unknown Shaul 1995:223 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact missing Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental missing Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment missing Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental ake- unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:224 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment missing Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body piya-s unknown Shaul 1988:696 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing Turner & Shaul 1981:96 Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body enne foila “I am well” unknown Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body missing Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality missing Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body missing Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human exe/-noch unknown Shaul 1995:197, 199, voc Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tatsi loan T&S 1981:120 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment missing Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship atsia unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:200 and voc Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body ishi unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human -map (Arroyo) unknown Shaul 1995:202 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality missing Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body lulusex unknown Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality helki (= “wet”) unknown Shaul 1995? Jane Hill
night noche noite time tomani-s unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ana “no” unknown Shaul 1995:223 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body xos, xoshi loan Shaul 1995:198 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality lalihe “old man” unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:204 Jane Hill
one uno um number pek unknown Shaul 1995:199 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body tamacu- “suffer” unknown Shaul 1995:208 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human 7efe/x:e, efexe unknown Shaul 1995:212 & voc Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment missing Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour missing Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture missing Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora missing Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment missing Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental al-pa “speak” unknown Shaul 1995:199 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact hasho/wi- loan direction unknown Shaul 1995:217 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental gics- unknown Shaul 1995:216 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ucui loan Shaul 1995:223 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality missing Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body missing Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state coso-n-tal “sitting” unknown Shaul 1995:223 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body missing Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment ot-no “in heaven” unknown Shaul 1995:207 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body achi, atsi- (Hen), ati- (Hen), achi (Pin loan direction unknown Shaul 1995:200, 217 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality ukxu/-s-ki “small” loan direction unknown Shaul 1995:199 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment tca-ha loan T&S 1981:117 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state missing Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment amutatas “stars” (Arroyo) unknown Shaul 1995:201 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other missing Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora i7i inheritance Shaul 1995:199 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment ciefe unknown JPH T&S 1981:109 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body missing Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion missing Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body pawi- unknown Shaul 1995:219 in note Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar aka- unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:211 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar laT, lawis unknown Shaul 1995:209 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality missing Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental lojma unknown Shaul 1995:228 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar missing Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar neme unknown Shaul 1995:209 Jane Hill
three tres tres number kxulep unknown Shaul 1995:198 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body missing Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact missing Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment missing Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact naquinamu “fasten” unknown Shaul 1995:223 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body missing Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body Ga. ahur, awur unknown Shaul 1995:197, 199 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Jane Hill
two dos dois number kxulax unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion neni? unknown T&S 1981:118 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment asa/snax,; asa-nax loan Shaul 1995:219 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar leT unknown ? Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality ka-ma/llep “you voy a mojar”, ka-mallain “moje/ (lips), loan direction unknown T&S 1981:107 Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar keT-?? unknown Shaull 1995:213 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar ke/ya- unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:208 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour helel- , hele/l-ki unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:214, 219 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar kini unknown Kroeber1904 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship -hawi unknown Shaul 1995:221 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment missing Jane Hill
wing ala asa body missing Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human ta- ; tanutch-k unknown Shaul 1995:220, 221 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nomeT “You pl.) unknown Shaul 1995:197, 209 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. klači abalone unique Esselen compares Scr karačmin “crayfish”; seems too semantically distant JHH underived Shaul 1988:699 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae otsoli-pša ant loan Costanoan compares M,R,S oto(l) “red ant” other complex -p$a animal suffix -p$a Shaul 1988:699 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus mackasex badger unique Esselen Note Salinan A t<mácax; SM has t<ó:io other complex -x classifier -x Heizer/Pinart I:79 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata sillik little pigeon unique Esselen underived Heizer/Pinart I:79 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus kapána; umis-wa (?) tule unique Esselen compares Mutsun pakir, not big-round-tule (Typha?) other complex -na classifier suffix -na Shaul 1988:698; Turner & Shaul 1981:116 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus humu-x (Pinart same) wolf loan Costanoan compares Costanoan (h)umu-(k/x) other complex -x classifier suffix -x Shaul 1988:696 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tcap-his flying birds in Kroeber glossed “birds; all birds that fly” unique Esselen other complex -pis agentive "flyer"?? In form, Henshaw's hyphen) turner & Shaul 1981:117 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus koltála bear unique underived note Miwokan kule “black”, word for “bear” in Lake Miwok Shaul 1995:226 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus sama-s jackrabbit loan Salinan Shaul notes Miw *cami$; Turner 1983:229 gives Sal. *sa:me7 “bush rabbit” other complex -s classifier suffix -s Shaul 1988:694 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus toloma wildcat loan Costanoan nearly identical forms in Costanoan, Miwokan WW %talom underived Shaul 1995:227 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii čiši, čiš- cottontail rabbit unique Esselen Shaul 1986:696 compares costanoan words čeye-s/š “hare” underived Shaul 1995:227 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. missing missing missing 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans mačka-s coyote unique Esselen compares Costanoan maya-n, mača-n; other complex -s classifier suffix -s Shaul 1988:696 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos icka crow unique Esselen underived Form from Henshaw in Shaul 1988:699; Turner & Shaul 1981:120 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus amisah (Henshaw) deer unique Esselen underived is sah the -$a classifier? Turner & Shaul 1981:120 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana ixai pine unique Esselen compares Mutsun xik- underived Shaul 1988:698 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris šošo dog unique Esselen Shaul 1988:699 notes various “chuku” forms reduplicated (Pinart form); 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kalul (Pinart) fish unique Esselen other complex -l classifier suffix -l Turner & Shaul 1981:116 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera wohehawi (de la Cuesta in Kroeber) flea unique Esselen phrase clearly 2 morphemes, translation undetermined Turner & Shaul 1981:120 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mumiru-x fly loan Costanoan compares Costanoan mumurV-(k/x) other complex -x classifier suffix -x Shaul 1988:696 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon huniša fox unique Esselen other complex -$a animal suffix -$a Heizer/Pinart I:79 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera polokoni grasshopper loan Costanoan Costanoan M, R, S polokV-s/nč unknown Shaul 1986:699 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. mexe, he:x ground squirrel loan Costanoan 1986:699 notes (h)e:x in Costanoan; appears in all Costanoan in Kroeber, Pinart underived Shaul 1995:227 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus tukunupš owl (not barn owl) loan Plains Miwok Note Proto-Miwokan *tukuli (approx), Salinan šo:konóy' WW %(hu)tukul other complex -sh classifier -sh Heizer/Pinart I:79 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae umin- hummingbird loan Costanoan compare Costanoan (h)umun(a) underived cited by Shaul without noun classifier??? Shaul 1988:696 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ka'a tobacco unique Esselen Shaul notes Miw *kajaw, and “PL”, “CS” forms (abbreviations not defined!) but I don't think there's enough there to be sure underived Shaul 1988:694 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera palaka mosquito unique Esselen notes Rumsen palaka-nš underived Shaul 1988:699 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor xeke-s (Pinart xekkesipša mountain lion unique Esselen Shaul 1986:699 notes Rumsen hek other complex -s, -p$a classifier suffixes -s, -p$a Shaul 1995:227 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. hakala, ha-lak-la mussel unique Esselen notes Plains Miwak 'atkal, Mutsun xakaw other complex -la classifier suffix -la Shaul 1988;695; Turner 1983:237 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys tanani (Henshaw) gopher unique Esselen underived Turner & Shaul 1981:120 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. ipišikša (Pinart); tsetselk-kamati (Henshaw) rattlesnake loan Costanoan compares Costanan ipi (wa/x/š) other complex -$a classifier suffix -$a Shaul 1988:699; Turner & Shaul 1981:120 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp missing missing missing 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis šwekeš-upsa (Pinart šeukker upsa) hawk loan Costanoan Shaul cites Costanoan šewker “red-tailed hawk” other complex -p$a animal suffix -p$a Shaul 1988:696 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss kilíwa (Henshaw; Pinart keleuai), kilínai salmon unique Esselen underived -wa is a plural on demonstratives in Shaul 1995 but apparently not on nouns Shaul 1995:227 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? mexile-n lizard loan Costanoan compare Costanoan mexer- other complex -n classifier suffix -n Shaul 1988:696 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae auallai toad unique Esselen other complex -la classifier suffix? -la Heizer/Pinart I:80 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata has+ white-oak unique Esselen other complex -s classifier suffix -s Kroeber/Henshaw 55 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica kumul quail loan Yokuts Yokutsan *humn-ul WW %hum other complex -l classifier -l Shaul 1995:227 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus pišuk whale unique Esselen Shaul note sresmblance to Bodega Miwok púuşu; underived Shaul 1988:693, 6 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos yeyexim pelican loan Costanoan compares Scr, R yeye-n/xem reduplicated Shaul 1988:699 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. makel (Henshaw) rat loan Salinan make/il in both SA, SM underived ends in -l but so does Salinan form so perhaps not countable as suffix Turner & Shaul 1981:120 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna otsoi-psha unknown Shaul 1995:195, 197 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tca/p-his “birds” unknown Henshaw in Turner 1983:228 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna mumiru-x loan direction unknown Shaul 1988:696 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna shosho S. Voc loan direction unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tse/tselkmati “rattlesnake” unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:200 and voc Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food tser-win mush (of acorns) unknown Henshaw other complex noun class suffix (ncs) -n Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress missing missing Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool lóto-s arrow unknown also pawi Kroeber 1902 53 other complex ncs -s Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material t'si-la basket (water-tight) unknown Henshaw; possibly from Salinan shla 'basket'??? other complex ncs -la Kroeber 1902 (Languages of the Coast South of SF, UCPAAE 2) Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool paxu-nax bow loan Salinan M Harrington copies as payunay other complex ncs -nax Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport ualkošex dugout canoe unknown Pinart other complex ncs -shax Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation ku7uh winnowing basket, small jug or bottle of liquor Henshaw simplex Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food missing missing Jane Hill
corpse food moho he died unknown Arroyo simplex Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology mepV-, mef dance unknown also lelima 'a dance simplex Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kaiyina-p-ca chicken loan Spanish Henshaw WW %gallina other complex the extra stuff not in Shaul 1995 list of ncs suffixes Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
earring other missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tu+mas-atc-hâ-pa devil or evil spirit (tumas 'dark'??) unknown Henshaw; also hatcox-pa, atchâ-pa 'you are a devil' compound, derived really guessing here but see Shaul 1995:216 for suffix -pa. Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other i7i wood unknown simplex Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other i-wa'-no house unknown Henshaw; Pinart aua simplex Shaul says -no may be a locative Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food missing missing Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kum-mal knife unknown HenshawPinart has xelusep Heizer 1952:76 other complex ncs suffix -l Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool pamma mortar unknown Pinart; has the pa- element common in mortar/pestle words, loan? simplex Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
necklace other am-hĕ'n-ni necklace of beads loan Salinan Henshaw WW %xene simplex Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool kušše pestle unknown Pinart simplex Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
pinole food amúxe pinole unknown the 7am- part looks like the Salinan 'food' word simplex Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other šuknas enne pipe (of reed) loan Costanoan Pinart WW %sokon other complex, phrase Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food mak-h<a-la-na salt unknown Henshaw other complex ncs suffix -na attested here Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology na me sing! unknown Arroyo; Henshaw ma-wi'-pa 'to sing', man-wi sing! simplex Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing missing Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology humul-pa tell, relate unknown derived suffix -pa see Shaul 1995(216) Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics k'a/-a tobacco loan Miwokan Henshaw simplex Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material ca'k-a winnowing basket unknown Henshaw; see also 'bottle' simplex Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing missing Jane Hill
medicine narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation mi's-ka-tas cat (Carmelo language?) loan Spanish Henshaw; this is %mis-mis-mis to call a cat WW %mis other complex Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture pamma “mortar” loan Pinart/Heizer Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture shaka “winnowing basket” unknown Shaul 1988:693 Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture kushshe “pestle” (mano del mortero) unknown Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool paxu-nax “bow” loan Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool pawi loan (Henshaw; Turner 1983:230, Jane Hill
house other iwa-no “at home” unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:208 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium seasonal no