soldier

Semantic Field
acculturation
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
soldado
Meaning Portuguese
soldado

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla missing missing Jane Hill
Cupeño soldaadu soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño neqpikat soldier (fighter) unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino missing missing Jane Hill
Serrano suldādu7 soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk kwakač soldier semantic shift other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal shünnü7ash (sg.) wattam (pl.) soldier unique Spanish maybe from soldado??? WW %soldado derived, other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim missing missing Jane Hill
Kawaiisu syna7asi soldier loan Spanish uncertain WW %soldado other complex but note syna7a-vi 'coyote', and syna- MyB Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi sonta:wI, sunta:wI soldier loan Spanish also su:ljatsI < English WW %soldado simplex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute so:7itstsI soldier loan English WW %soldier other complex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute soo-cI soldier loan English WW %soldier other complex reinterpreted as having dim. Suffix Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone sojysi, sojysy soldier loan English Dayley not sure it's English -- intermediate language? WW %soldier simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tuu-kkwasun soldier (old word) semantic shift *kwasu Northern Uto-Aztecan shirt' Hill/Miller kwa-12 phrase black-clothes Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche ekasahpana7 soldier unique compound red-chested (refers to Spanish uniform w/ red sash) R Jane Hill
Western Mono suntaatI7, sontaatI7 forest ranger, soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tokwasu-ga7yoo soldier unique also oodu wehe-ga7yoo compound kwasu 'shirt' Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok sulta:to- soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok sulta:tu- soldier loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok sulda:du- soldiers loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Maidu missing missing Jane Hill
Nisenan sulta:nu soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani tHawTHal soldado semantic shift Proto-Yokutsan not Sp., means "killer", must be related to the tawta 'die' words derived Harrington Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo zúlšiš soldier loan English WW %soldier simplex WJH Jane Hill
Wintu missing missing Jane Hill
Yuki šulTa:n soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
Wappo sólta:Do7 D is barred d soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun súltatu soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno missing missing note: sululalu 'white man' 163 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno sululalu soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Wash 2001 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7emečeš soldier semantic shift Proto-Central Chumash B 7em'echesh 'army, enemies' derived Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa epal kuhyan soldier (one who carries a gun) unique phrase Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa xWa army, soldier, fighter, warrior semantic shift Proto-Yuman Kiliwa xwa 'warrior, enemy' simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave suultaw army, soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai sultá:va soldier, scout loan Spanish simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa miy=kw-x+7al=u=h-7=h+uuy soldier (lit. made into a Mexican) unknown compound h+uuy is 'made' part Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ziix quixáaza soldier, police (persona con arma) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua hja-diʔ-bǔ hja-diʔ-bǔ unique same term used to mean "guerrillero" Phrase forest-non.subj-loc; 'those from the forest' See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu surara (C11) surara (C11) loan - WW %surara Port source; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani tõtado (IDS) loan Span/Port soldado WW %surara See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Yanomam wayu waju unknown Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam sotatu sotatu loan Span/Port soldado Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria surara surara loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo churara ʈʃurara loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo WW %surara See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano surára suɾáɾa loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano surara surara loan - WW %surara See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Hup sudada sudada loan - WW %surara Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Nheengatu, Yanomamo WW %surara Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw sulaàl’ ʃulâl’ loan - WW %surara See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani isimali isimali unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Pemon surara missing Carib? Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Makushi surara surara loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa mara'pëtëkën (MM); waaria (IDS) maraʔpëtëkën (MM); waaria (IDS) unknown Alternate: waaria See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna surara suɾaɾa loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana sálu sálu loan Span/Port soldado Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa tsoráara tsʰoɻáaɻa loan - WW %surara Port source; Via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Piapoco úwi, úwisàiri úwi, úwisàiri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena tsurudawa tsurudawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero c̷u'rudawa (Sp loan) tsuʔrudawa (Sp loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare surudawa surudawa See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi sorare sorare loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Waurá sitatu sitatu loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora tsodáho tsʰotáʔo loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane ámócasimɨnaafi (='fighter') (W97) ámókasimɨnaaɸi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Wai Wai [sowtatu]; [soča]; [surati] [sowtatu]; [soča]; [surati] loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Cofán sundaro, sondaro sundaro, sondaro phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra sodaro sodaro loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro chontanto ʃontanto See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez [soldau] [soldau] See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna tchúrára (Alv44) tʃúrára loan - WW %surara See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina sõodaro sõodaro loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Pumé guadia [Span loan] See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [sotdawa] [sotdawa] loan - WW %surara See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar súntar súntar See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa suntar suntar See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna suntag suntag loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Daniel Valle
Yagua sũtaru sũtaru loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa čurado ɨ'ca' (K76) tʃurado ɨʔtsaʔ loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Carapana soldau soldau See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Tuyuka surara surara See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Koreguaje sõtaoʉ sõtaoʉ loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona [sũtˀatˀo] [sũtˀatˀo] loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kokama tsuntaru tsuntaru loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi -l-ɔwayã -l-ɔwayã unknown See Language page PLE
Sanumá sotato sotato loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Kelsey Neely
Cavineña sodaro sodaro loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Movima solɗao (from Sp) solɗao See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai kaito 'warrior' kaito 'warrior' unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE