Lake Miwok

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
no
Location
39.00°, -122.62°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location liile “high, on top” inheritance C1965 (unless noted otherwise) Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar Se/wi, Se unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other mu7e, 7awe/echu unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar he T is post-alveolar inheritance Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ko/lon laja/aki “foot's wrist” unique Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ta/wlik he/lla “underneath the arm” unique Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment wi/ilok inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -wa CH inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body lu/uma inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7o/bu “to be bad” inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body pu/luk inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location doka/awi unique Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7a/de loan Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ma/Ta unknown Jane Hill
black negro preto colour mulu/umulu inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body ki/ccaw inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body p'u/cca-, pu/cca loan direction unknown Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body pa/aTal “sores” inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body ku/lum unknown Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body mu/u inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body he/n- inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment ju/(u)l- (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ju/ute unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human 7e/laj loan direction unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion 7e/ttu inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment mo/lpa inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality ti/pmuTi t is interdental inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion 7o/niG- G: adjacent consonant is geminate if preceding V is short stressed inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kusne/eru loan Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality 7eme/ene unique Jane Hill
count contar contar mental mi/ttu, me/ttu “to count, read” inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental 7i/inte unknown Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ka/awa unknown Jane Hill
day día dia time hi/i inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state jo/ok loan Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact he/mma unknown Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna hu/un (might be “panther”, but “wolf” elsewhere too) inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality huwu/mnaka unknown Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7u/kuc inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7u/SSu inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality ka/aj unique Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality 7aalu inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment wi/ilok inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body 7a/lok inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment jo/wa loan Jane Hill
eat comer comer body jo/lum inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna pHa/kpHak, pa/kpak loan Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body Su/t S is post-alveolar inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ke/e inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion 7u/t- unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality 7eda/ak, 7e/dak “long, tall, far” inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body Se/tta inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship 7appi inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental co/wa unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna pa/kah “flower, feather” inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment wi/ki inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna ka/ac loan Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion Sola/a inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment pa/kah inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion li/lu- inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing Jane Hill
foot pie body ko/lo inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora 7u/unu unique Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 7eme/ene unique Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state me/lih inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body Sa/apa (head) unique Jane Hill
hand mano mão body 7u/kku, 7u/ku inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar 7i/Ti inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body Lubbuduk loan Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental 7a/lu inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality 7i/iwak unique Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion So/la (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pa/ka loan Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other wi/lik inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hi/nti inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ka/nni, ka/ni inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar miTi inheritance Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location tu/ule, -tule unique Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body pu/luk inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body pu/cpucuSi “to be itching” inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact ka/tt- unknown Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ne/nut- inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment po/lpol inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental jo/mu inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment Sa/anim unique Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body k'eSi/iliwa (direction), keSeeliwa unique Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body lo/olo inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ca/Te unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ke/lip unique Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body Su/kuh unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body ku/lla inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality 7eda/ak unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ke/et (head) inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body po/SSol “lungs” inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human ta/jh inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna Su/kki “deer, meat” unique Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment kome/enawa inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 7u/nu inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body lu/ppe inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human la/kte unknown Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body Sodo/omaj unknown Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality jo/le unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body hele/eki inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality Suku/u inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time ka/wul inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar he/lla inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body hu/k inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality kila/a, kela/a unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number ke/nne inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other wi/t inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar ne/e7oni unknown Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ma/ak “sick” unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ko/oca unknown Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact 7u/Tuk inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment 7u/upa inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour 7a/wa- unknown Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ko/kkowa (direction) unknown Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture mu/k “trail, road” inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora Su/uli loan direction unknown Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality ku/uh (of meat) unknown Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment Su/kuj unknown Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental li/law- unknown Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact Se/eka inheritance Jane Hill
see ver ver mental 7u/TeG- inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality hu/na (of knife; also “pain, disease”) unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact tu/wen inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality c'oTo/oj, ch'oTo/oj loan Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body kaca/aja loan Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental 7ojah inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state ho/wo unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body Su/luk “skin, peel, shell” loan Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment li/ilewali inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body 7ee/c, 7e/c- inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality k'u/chchi, k'u/cci loan Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment ka/al inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hu/kSu inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tuke/eTi inheritance Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ha/pa unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact pa/c- loan Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact kHo/c'a loan Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ta/lah (of person or thing) inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment to7le inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other wu/la inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora tu/maj inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment ho/ka “rock, boulder” unknown Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body c'um- inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body ka/lah unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body po/hhol loan Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion 7u/puh inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body ko/ok inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ma/a inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7ikko (plural) inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality t'u/dduju loan Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality c'iw7ele (of a person, naturally thin, scrawny) unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental ta/wkupo inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ne/e inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi/i inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number dele/eka, tele/eka inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body dolo/omen loan Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact Le/t'a- loan Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment ta/alawa inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ca/nih unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body le/ttip inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body ku/t inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other tu/upHliTi “turn around” unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7o/TTa inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body ku/na unknown Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion wi/caj unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment ki/ik inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ma/a (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ma/a (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality ka/at loan Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hi/nti inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hi/ntikat inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar 7eke/e inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour ceTa/aw, ciTa/aw unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar ma/nti inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship ku/lle inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment he/na inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body ta/wlik 'arm, wing' inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human po/cci, p'o/cci loan Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other ta/whal loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body ha/wwuk inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour Su/len ke/e “baby's excrement” unique Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mi/kko (plural) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. wákkah abalone unique underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae puTúukun tree ants, small ants (CHM: ant (all kinds)) unique underived Merriam 57:529 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana hah-loo (erased?) antelope “here in early days” loan Miwokan unknown Mip hah-loo- “antelope” underived Merriam 57:515 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus ni'-ah badger unique underived Merriam 57:513 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus pahn'-nak sool bald eagle loan Hill Patwin pahnak may be paanak “not to behave in a certain way”??? (this is a fishing eagle, not like Golden Eagle which is scavenger JHH) phrase X eagle Merriam 57:517 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata 7umúuwe Wild pigeon, Columba fasciata inheritance Miwokan Note Mip 7um:a:wil; Misn oo-mah'-wil-loo JHH; but some sound-im. here underived Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp wáali bat inheritance *wirE:s Utian Callaghan 1962:102 underived Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor tími beaver unique underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp kunúunaj stinkbug unique might share root with Mip, Misn kyn:istal:li- “black beetle” (JHH) other complex -aj Callaghan 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus kóol round tule inheritance *xo:l... Utian Callaghan 1962:106 underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis káluk skunk inheritance Pmiw only Bodega Dic underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus húun wolf inheritance Miwokan Pmi *hu:n; an areal or perhaps Penutian word: Ceb xu:n “wolf” (Callaghan 1971:30; PW *hul (Callaghan 2001:325) underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis léep; hah-loo imitation of a large mythical game animal; bighorn sheep loan Miwokan unknown Mip hah-loo- “antelope” WW %lewasip underived Callaghan 1965; Merriam 57:515 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna méle, míle bird inheritance *mi(:)Te- Utian Proto-Utian *mi(:)Te- (Callaghan Utian 1986:3) underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger holóot'aj large black ants loan Wappo “probably from Western Wappo ho:lotTew' “ant” with -aj by analogy with other insect terms” 39. Mib has almost exactly the Wappo word. other complex -aj Callaghan 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus kúle bear semantic shift Miwokan Pmiw *kule “bear” < Pmie *kul “black” (presumably originally Pmi as “black”), a typical “bear” word underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus c'ámih jackrabbit inheritance Pmiw only Bodega Dic; Callaghan 2001:325 underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus jáwe blackberry (Merriam confirms 57:535) unique underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? lúmen cokóoko blue grouse (same as “mountain quail” in Callaghan) unique phrase lume- “yellow pine” Merriam 57:519 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tóleh wildcat inheritance *tol:o:a/*to:lom:a ? Miwokan Perhaps not really Utian, “Pco to:roma 'wildcat' is probably a loan from Miwok” (Callaghan 1997:33) underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera wolóolok butterfly loan Hill Patwin Patwin forms bo:lbolik, ba:lbalik, walalakai “butterfly, poppy” reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus mol'-luk California condor loan Miwokan Hill Patwin This form is also Proto-Wintun; Whistler (1977) thought it was of Miwokan origin. Word is in Mip and Misn, etc. but Callaghan thought this was Patwin word WW %moloko underived Merriam 57:517 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? sajíic mountain bluejay (et) loan Kashaya Pomo note sw pomo s'ayí jay (1965:120); Proto-Pomo *c'ay(:)yi; Pmiw *$ajiic, Pmis *Tajich; an areal form but in this case probably a recent loan due to high similarity and non-cognacy with Miwokan WW %chaj underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? panáak woodpecker (et) loan unknown Note Clear Lake Wappo panak “woodpecker” 106; see Troike ms. on this very widespread form; Pmi is *palaT:a-?, Pynim is *pHala:tatH Callaghan 1997:61, who notes “there are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. tóktokciTe chipmunk (Merriam confirms 57:515) unique phrase, reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota káttawkataw swallow (Merriam 57:521 OK for Hirundo; also tsah'-de “cliff swallow, barn swallow”, tse-lik'-tse-lik “Cliff swallow” “ unique Almost certainly a loan but source unidentified reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana lóhlok, tóhlok mudhen loan Hill Patwin “probably fro Hill Patwin LoLok 'mudhen' and Hill Patwin toLok 'mudhen'” 1965:244 reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii nómeh cottontail (et) loan Pomo note Pomo forms no:mi, nomik, and Patwin nomi:k “cottontail”; but Pmiw *nome$ so an old loan underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. lakáhtumaj cottonwood tree (Merriam has pah-tah'-pah al'-wah 57:533) unique Some kind of metathesis related to Mip tat:ahkal??? Note Merriam's form areal, cf. Wappo pah'-to, Yukki paNtme7 phrase lakah-tum-aj meaning of elements unknown Callaghan 1965 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7óle coyote inheritance Miwokan Pmi *7ole- (Callaghan 1971) underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos káakali crow loan unknown might be loan from Costanoan Callaghan Bodega Dic 33, but note Mics ka:kulu- underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus şúkki deer, meat loan unknown widespread form, may be from Yokuts "elk" word WW %sok underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana şanák7ala valley pine (Merriam confirms as P. sabiniana) inheritance *san(:)ak Miwokan Callaghan 1971; Callaghan 2001 says may be a deep Yok-Utian loan word from Pmis into Yokuts) phrase X tree Callaghan 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris háju dog (et) inheritance Miwokan similar forms in Patwin, Wappo, nearly all Pomo; but Pmi; see Bodega Dic, C2001:325 WW %kaju underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum wittum Indian string, probably Inidan Hemp, A. cannabinum unique underived Merriam 57:539 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura púllu dove loan Hill Patwin Patwin puluk “mourning dove” (Shepherd 2005:141); Proto-Wintun *puluq underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae wátmaj Merriam “ducks, any” 57:523 inheritance Yok-Utian Pmiw *wat, also in Yokutsan; C1997:60 lists as possible Yok-Utian (but sound-imit. and loan-y JHH) WW %wat other complex -aj is suffix Merriam 57:523 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kíTen elderberry tree (et) loan Northern Pomo Note Northern Pomo kiTē “elderberry”; Callaghan 1962:103 also notes Mu xitna; JHH notes Wappo k'aTe underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus táami hulíila moose (Merriam confirms as “elk” 57:513) unique phrase Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna káac fish unique underived Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera kúkuh flea inheritance *ky:ky$ Miwokan Callaghan 1971:21 underived Callaghan 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. c'ijáak yellowhammer loan Hill Patwin “probably from Hill Patwin č'i:yak, č'iya:k “yellowhammer”” (1965:286) underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera hakáali fly unique underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon túucaj fox (et) (CHM says Urocyon 57:513) loan Patwin Note Patwin t'ucay “coyote”, S. pomo duZa “fox” 144 other complex -aj is suffix Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna kolóolo frog unique May be a sound-symb. variant of Pmiw form which has /t/ in Mib; Bodega Dic p. 40 has Pmiw *koto:la (?) 'frog, toad, notes S. Pomo go:tolo “tadpole” reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos şúul eagle , bald eagle(et) loan Hill Patwin 1965:150 probably Hill Patwin su:l “eagle”; and note SE Pomo, E. Pomo sul “condor” underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer 7áşkajak gopher snake (Merriam confirms) unique relative clause “one who gets angry under 7a$kaj Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) púTa grass unique Note Misn po:ca “grass”, no other Mis resemblants. underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera kóoTo grasshopper inheritance *ko:To- ? Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. cíTe ground squirrel inheritance Pmiw only Bodega Dic ; Note Wappo cihma ?? underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. cúmuk tree squirrel (et) loan Hill Patwin Note Hill Patwin čumuk “squirrel” (c1965); note also Kashaya Pomo cumaT, southern Pomo čumaT' “gree squirrel” (reconstructs to Ppomo *ku:máT7 McClendon 1973:92) underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus túkkuli hoot owl (Merriam confirms as Great Horned owl 57:517) inheritance Miwokan Pmi *tuk:ú:li Callaghan Bodega Dic WW %(hu)tukul underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis kúle grizzly bear semantic shift Miwokan see “bear” underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus káwaj horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae c'ujúulak hummingbird loan Patwin “probably from Patwin t'uyulok 'hummingbird'” (1965:234) underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. kájaw tobacco inheritance Pmiw only Callaghan speculates MIGHT be Pmi (eastern forms have ka:sy-), it is Pmiw underived Callaghan 1965 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic c' álaj insect loan Wappo “probably from Western Wappo č'ále 'bug'” (1965:235) other complex -aj is suffix Callaghan 1965 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp t'óbt'obmele snowbird (et) (Merriam confirms for Junco) unique Callaghan's etymology compares to a Pomoan word for band-tail pigeon, an utterly different bird reduplicated Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica mónmon7ala juniper tree ? Merriam says is Cupressus goviniana 57:531 unique phrase, reduplicated monmon tree Callaghan 1965 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera kéet head louse inheritance *keT:- Miwokan Callaghan 1971; Bodega Dic underived Callaghan 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos wátmaj mallard duck (Merriam has oo-de-i watmaj “big duck” 57”523 inheritance Yok-Utian see “duck” WW %wat other complex -aj is suffix Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. 7éjje7ala manzanita tree inheritance Miwokan Mip 7e:je, Misn 7e:je-, etc. (JHH) phrase manzanita tree Callaghan 1965 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa múunkaj milkweed? California poppy? muun is “milk” unique other complex -aj Callaghan 1965 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos pújpuj, p'újp'ujmele mockingbird? unique reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera şójjo mosquito inheritance *shoj:u Utian Callaghan 1986:58 underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera potóopoto hakáali moth (“grey butterfly” unique potoopoto looks like Yukian “gray, brown” word phrase, reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor 7úppukşe panther, lion unique Looks like Pmi 7upuksu “gray ground squirrel”!! A joke? Euphemism? This a “critter” word originally?? underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus tsōl-tsōl mountain quail; loan Hill Patwin Proto-Wintun *čHol “mountain” and *čHolčHol “mountain quail” (Shepherd 2005:74) reduplicated Merriam 57:519 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. c' áa type of shellfish, oyster? Merriam kah'-e 57:529) unique underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? wéşweş bluebird, crested loan Hill Patwin “probaby from Hill Patwin wê·swès “crested bluejay'” (1965:205) reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum káaj clam, clam shell, seashell, shellfish loan unknown Note Salinan A, M xaiìk “mussel underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys şúwwut gopher inheritance *sykw:ot Utian Callaghan 1986:57 underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum 7íttum poison oak inheritance Pmiw only Bodega Dic ; note Wappo k'icu:ma “poison oak”; what is status of k'? underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. holóomaj rattlesnake loan Wappo Note Wappo holo:wik'a “snake” other complex -aj Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp 7awáakan red ants unique underived Callaghan 1965 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus c'akáttu, cak'átta blackbird (Merriam confirms as OK 57;519) loan Hill Patwin “probably from Hill Patwin c'akatu “black bird”” 1965:204); but note Pmis *chakup-:a- (Callaghan 1997:58) WW %chak underived c'ak is probably the root but nature of -attu increment is unclear Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis şújju chicken hawk (Merriam confirms as red-tail 57:517) inheritance Miwokan Pmi *suj:u- Callaghan 1971 underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus huláaki roadrunner unique Note Wappo ho-lā'-lik “blue grouse” ?? underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis tah-te'-nuk Ruddy duck unique underived Merriam 57:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica kic(c)in wormwood (Merriam:Sage herb) inheritance Miwokan Pmie *kyčin; Pmiw kičin “with reverse assimilation postulated for Miw and Mip” Callaghan 1971:31; note PW *qeti (Shepherd 2005) underived Merriam 57:537 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss káşşi salmon inheritance Miwokan but with difficulties: Pmiw *kas:i, *ka:si; surely has something to do with Pmis *ko:sum (Callaghan 1997:42) underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? petéeli lizard (Merriam confirms as Sceloporus 57:527) inheritance Miwokan Pmiw *pe:te:li, also Mip pit:e:le- Callaghan 1971:24 WW %petel underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna p'ódwaj snake loan Hill Patwin “probably from Hill Patwin porwan “snake”” with -aj by analogy” (1965:117) other complex -aj Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum se-ke'-te soap plant (C has şikíiti for an unidentified edible plant) inheritance *saka-:ni- Miwokan Callaghan 1971; WW %svkv underived -ti may be increment etymologically Merriam 57:539 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata hoo-goo'-tah-mi Rhus trilobata (the plant), berries are jawe unique phrase huku (?)-tum-aj (approximation); meaning of elements unknown Merriam 57:537 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco 7íit7it sparrow hawk (et) (Merriam confirms 57:517) loan Patwin C. notes Patwin 7i:t7it “sparrow hawk”; see also Yokutsan *?yt'ychH (Callaghan 1997:59 and Palewyami form reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae pókkon spider inheritance *pok:um Miwokan Callaghan 1971:28 “Mil /n/ is unexplained” underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis wíiceke spotted skunk (et) loan Patwin C. notes Patwin wi:cikaj “civet cat” underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae 7ukúuke toad frog (Merriam confirms as “toad” 57:57) unique underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) 7álwa, 7ála, -ala tree (et) inheritance *7alkwesh Utian Callaghan 1971; Callaghan 1986:62 underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura húuş, hús buzzard loan Hill Patwin “probably from Hill Patwin hu:s “buzzard” (1965:208); but note Pmis hu:$u- and Pmie *chy:$y-;PW *hu:s, PM *hy:s, *hu:s Callaghan 2001:326; an areal word also in Yukian JHH CHECK WW %hus underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines meléeja turtle unique Pmiw only Bodega Dic; Callaghan 1997:60 underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia şáaTa live oak (Q. wislizeni CHM57:533) inheritance *sa:Ta Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata hah'-ke-ah al-wah Q. lobata loan Pomoan note Proto Pomo *xa7k'i(b7) “oak, live(?)”. McLendon 1973:83 The resemblance is to the Protolanguage JHH phrase X tree Merriam 57:533 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica cokóoko quail (same word is in “blue grouse”) unique Note Mib $okkóttok “quail?” (Bodega Dic p. 67) reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis láka goose (et) loan Patwin Note Patwin lak'a7 “small goose”74; but this a very widespread form; Pcos *la:lak, Nisenan la:lak', Maidy lylyk' (Callaghan 1997:59); also Wappo lokh WW %lala ~ %lak underived Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos k'áwk'aw pelican (Merriam has hel'-wah “white pelican” 57:523) unique seems unlikely to be %hew reduplicated Callaghan 1965 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica mutte grapes (CHM: the fruit; the vine is to'-loo, we-wah 57:541) inheritance Miwokan Note Mip mute- “grapes”, Misn mute- “grapes” underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) şiníija oats (et) loan Southwestern Pomo Spanish semilla or Russian pishnica “wheat” > SW Pomo $iniTča “wheat underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica ke'-le (thorn) moo'-mah (fruit) wild rose inheritance *kil:i- “horn, antler” Utian Bodega Dic; Mib has a cognate verb meaning “be hard, sharp” so Pmi may have included “thorn”. Note Misn kle'-de-de' “wild rose”, presumably from the same root. Utian is Callaghan 1997;33. Proto-Wintu **kHi:l “thorn”. underived Merriam 57:535 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) híipakah large sunflower (Merriam ah-hi 57:541) unique probably a neologism: hii-pakah lit. sun-flower compound hii- “sun” Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. káje willow (generic) (et) unique Callaghan notes similar Pomo words for “manzanita” but I think this is too much of a semantic stretch; plants not similar in form or function JHH underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. jullu woodrat unique underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) koo-lā'-pal-lah hairy caterpillar unique compound kule “bear” Merriam 57:529 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper tsah'-li smooth caterpillar unique same as “insect, bug” underived Merriam 57:529 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. láşkin, jáşkin yellowjacket (Merriam has the latter 57:529) unique Note Mib ja$$um “to gig, spear, poker” underived Callaghan 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia kah-li-tsoo'-ke Yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique phrase must be, but can't find elements Merriam 57:521 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum múlleponi Yerba santa (?) (Merriam confirms 57:537) unique underived must be complex etymologically Callaghan 1965 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna 7awa/akan “red” unknown Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna me/le, mi/le inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna haka/ali unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna haju loan direction unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna pu/Ta unique Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna Su/kki “deer, meat” unique Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna p'o/dwaj loan Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna po/kkon inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food 7ulki acorn soup, acorn mush inheritance Proto-Western Miwok Callaghan 1970:99 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology wejáawali hell, lower world unique again, we have wali here, what is? Also Pmiw *weja 'world' phrase wéja- 'base, bottom, lower' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
feather headband dress c'ijáak yellowhammer, flicker stick (part of dance costume that fits across the forehead) loan Patwin Note Luiseno "cheeyat" word! simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kíwwa arrow, arrow shaft unique see Shepherd's Proto-Wintun p. 104 on the *khi- words meaning 'thorn, sharp object' simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other piTéenuka to striaghten (an arrow) unique derived píTe- 'to be straight, smooth' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool káac jolúmni bait (lit. fish food) unique phrase Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation papélweji school (book-house) loan Spanish loan blend WW %papel compound Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material 7olúut Basket (general term), bowl, gallon unique is this the 'round' word? Does it maybe goe with Mis 7alu/y-ma??? Note also Wintun *o:n 'gathering basket' simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material húuja bead, beads loan Southeastern Pomo but note e.g. *ho:wot (Pmie) Callaghan 1997:58 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool kóono bow, gun inheritance *kó:no Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970:40 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool cáwah net, fish net unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation wotéeja bottle, glass loan Spanish WW %botella simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation pápel paper, letter, newsaper, book loan Spanish possibly by way of Patwin papel or E. Pomo pápel7 WW %papel simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology hójpu chief, boss inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmis haja:-po- 'chief' (Callaghan 1971:18), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool líja club unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food tonónka to be done, to cook something inheritance *To:m- Proto-Miwokan Note Mins To:mu 'to boil over' (callaghan 1997:53; Callaghan 1965 notes Patwin tHó:no 'all burned up', tHóntàrò7 'to catch fire' derived Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
corpse food jokkóoca dead person, dead people unique compound jok- 'to be dead', jóok 'to die', to be dead Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology lákih to dance, a dance inheritance *laxiš Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology 7oléenawa Old Man Coyote inheritance *ole:- Proto-Miwokan Callaghan 1970:94 compound Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool héllam digging stick unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool háaru cup, dipper, shaker loan Spanish WW %jarro simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7úukuc to dream inheritance *7ektu Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:48 simplex this is iterative of 7úkuc 'to dream once' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kajíina chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
earring other missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other wikíitumaj firewood inheritance *túmaj Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970:75 and first part from Pmi *wyké- 'fire'? compound wíki 'fire' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food lúskume, lúckume to fish with hook and line, to hook fish unknown probably from Pmiw *luCku 'swallow' w/ causative other complex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool şucca string, fishing line unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool lúskumeni fishhook unknown see remark on 'fish with line' other complex suffix -ni Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
acorn bread food cíppa acorn bread, any type of bread inheritance *cíp:a Proto-Western Miwok Callagan 1970:13 (Bodega Miwok Dictionary) simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
wheat food tilíiku wheat loan Spanish possibly from Western Wappo tíli:kù7 or S. Pomo tilí:ku WW %trigo simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology wuTe to be wild, ghost unknown note Mie wyt:a 'to wail for the dead' simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology 7ále grave inheritance *7al:é- bury Proto-Western Miwok Callaghan 1970:87 simplex 7álle 'to bury' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
alcohol food kájkajkik whiskey (lit. 'hot water') semantic shift reduplicated, other complex káaj 'to be spicy hot, acrid, bitter' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology jómta to doctor, doctor loan unknown note Hill Patwin yomta, Southern Pomo yomta 'doctor'; very widespread form WW %jom simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food mijéel honey loan Spanish WW %miel simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
house other wéeji house unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food 7ónah to hunt or fish, go on a long hunt, stalk, hunting, a hunt unique This looks like pMis *wy:ny 'to walk' and the Utian forms in Callaghan 1997:27 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kučíija knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
mat culture-material héTi mat, mattress unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool támih large stone mortar unique also tukúlli, portable mortar, a small, round rock about six inches deep used for pounding pepperwood berries 141 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
necklace other pojénni necklace, necktie, collar inheritance *póje- Proto-Western Miwok Callaghan 1970:60 other complex póje- to put something around neck Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool húTik needle, awl, bone awl unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport 7ólak oar, mush spoon inheritance *7o:lak Proto-Western Miwok Callaghan 1970:96 other complex 7óol-- to dip the oars, 7óolak 'to row, be rowing' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tówaj pestle, mano, a cylindrical stone or an iron bar used as a pestle unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
pinole food 7úşkun pinole, balls of powdered manzanita inheritance *7úşkun Proto-Western Miwok Callaghan 1970:100 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other şúmkitumaj an Indian pipe, a plant that grows along the creek and produces small stalks which were used for smoking, 'smoking stick' inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:41 WW %sokon compound şúmki 'to smoke a pipe or cigarette, smoke from a pipe or cigarette; tumaj 'wood, stick' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
pitch food jútte pitch, gum, chewing gu inheritance *jut:e- Proto-Miwok JHH other complex júute 'to chew' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool 7óoja pot loan Spanish WW %la olla simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool túlim quiver unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology şok'óşşo cocoon rattle, rattle inheritance *şokoş:a- Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1971:18 WW %soko simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food kójjo salt inheritance *koj:o- Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kolénni clothes, things to wear unique also númmanuma 'clothes, possessions, things equipment' 103 fromnúma 'some sort of' other complex kóle 'to wear' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool túkah trap (and in word for spiderweb, pókkontukah) unique also mowénni from mówen 'to trap' simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology kója song, singing, to sing inheritance *kója Proto-Western Miwok Callaghan 1970:39 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hócci spear, a stick weapon six feet long with an arrow point made of flint, for self-protection and bear fighting unknown note S. Pomo hóž:I 'spear", but note also Miss hoca 'spear' simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wíttum Indian string, bowstring, Apocynum unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material T''úkuh purse, bag, change purse, suitcase loan Western Wappo one inf. Thinks is t' with plain t simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
string of shell money other t'úpşeTi a short string of beads unknown probably loan with the t' other complex tup- 'to break horizontally Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kawáacu sugar, sugar from sugar pine, honey, anything sweet loan Western Wappo simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
sweathouse other lámma sweathouse, round house inheritance *lam:a Proto-Western Miwok Callaghan 1970:43 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology lílaw to say, tell (includes 'story') unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology hókol to cremate unique is this cog with wyky words?? simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics kájaw tobacco inheritance *kájaw Proto-Western Miwok possibly Pmi (Callaghan 1970:33) simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
tule boat transport nuuh boat loan Hill Patwin Note Proto-Wintun *nuh 'boat' (Shepherd 2006:134); see also Callaghan 2001:322 WW %nuh simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material c'ájwa a large basket used for shaking hulls loose from acorns, a type of basket for letting dough rise unique unknown also cáajaka 'sifter' 11 WW %chaj2 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing missing Jane Hill
medicine narcotics wéne medicine, herb inheritance Proto-Miwok JHH see Mip; note Hill Patwin wene, SE Pomo wéne, both 'medicine' WW %wene simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material túnuk cradle, cradle basket unknown note Patwin tunuk 'cradle', but see 'daughter', 'child', 'doll' words in Mib, Mip simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation čiríife police loan Spanish WW %cherife simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food máajuş corn loan Spanish probably from S. Pomo may:yish or W. Wappo ma:ish WW %maiz simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
beans food jíhol beans loan Spanish perhaps by way of SE Pomo yíhol or some other lg. WW %frijol simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation káatu cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kóono bow, gun semantic shift *kó:no Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970:40 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress sumléelu hat loan Spanish maybe from W. Wappo sómle:lu7 'hat WW %sombrero simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material cu/ulculu “one-way roof” unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ciko/ote loan Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture ta/mih (large), unique Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool he/llam unique Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture to/waj “pestle” unique Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool ko/ono “bow” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ki/wwa “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
house other we/eji inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium seasonal no