spear

Semantic Field
subsistence tool
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
lanza
Meaning Portuguese
lança

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla missing missing Jane Hill
Cupeño waqal spear unique is this related to pawxan 'club' above? other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño $e'lalash arrow, spear (H) unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino ah-nahCH spear for fish inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
Serrano nŭ-cher kin'-ne-what spear for hunting unique other complex Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk muihwat mortar, spear (shoot, grind are homophones?) inheritance *mu7a/i Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2314 derived, other complex Anderton 1988:408 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal mūsht fishing spear unknown maybe from 'shoot'??? other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim moost' spear for fish unknown also in Tub, maybe from 'shoot' other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu missing missing with.instrument-move.in.circle-ABS Jane Hill
Chemehuevi sigisigI lance, used in fighting inheritance *sik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2318 reduplicated Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute sigishshI spear for spearing bears, sword inheritance *sik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2318 reduplicated Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute cigi-sI spear inheritance *cik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 797 other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone poyo kuyyinnympy spear unique phrase Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tytonax a spear unique is final x a typo? English is tytona, and no accusative is given simplex ty- may be an IP Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche tahkana7 spear inheritance *takka Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 66 simplex R Jane Hill
Western Mono (a)nadywatInu spear unique copound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tsegesa spear for fighting, sword inheritance *cik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 797; also tutonganoo simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok hoca- spear unknown note Pmil hócci 'spear' that Callaghan notes with Pomo word simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok wimá:- spear unique also hylá-, hyl:ylá- simplex Freedland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Plains Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Lake Miwok hócci spear, a stick weapon six feet long with an arrow point made of flint, for self-protection and bear fighting unknown note S. Pomo hóž:I 'spear", but note also Miss hoca 'spear' simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu she'-bo-sŏ spear for war inheritance *bosó Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362; yah'-kah fishing spear other complex ši- probably 'perform action with hand' Merriam 41:275 Jane Hill
Nisenan boso knife, spear, spearhead inheritance *bosó Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi too'-koi spear for fish inheritance Proto-Yokutsan simplex Merriam 44:185 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami to-koi'-tan fish spear inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Yawelmani t'ukuy 'to spear fish' simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Washo 7itMépu7 fish spear unknown also, bayák'aw derived 7it- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu k'i:r spear inheritance *k'ir Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:110 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki t'uk' gig, spear inheritance *t'uk'- Proto-North Yukian note Yawelmani t'uk'oj' 'fish gig, harpoon'; and sis-haNt 'fish spear' 181. t'umol' war spear 317 simplex Schllichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo t'áp'e:ma a spear unknown derived Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun he'-por spear for fish unknown ruxe 'arrows, spears' Mason 1916:434 simplex Merriam 39:99 Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A cenii/ fish-spear unknown towt'ké7 salmon spear Turner 1987:101 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M cik<Enai/ fish-spear unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno ahk-ki'-e spear for fish (hmm, same as word for 'trap', probably wrong) unknown derived looks like -7i7 inst suffix Merriam 37:517 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno qujiwaš lance unknown al-ic'uq-š lance Applegate 1973 ms:3-17 derived ic'uq to pierce Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa e-kwoolCH spear for war unknown simplex Merriam 38:213 Jane Hill
Cocopa nYša7úr spear unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave 7utat spear inheritance *7-ta(:)t Proto-Yuman see 'needle'; Kiliwa 7+tat 'thorn' simplex maybe really 7atat, but backformed from poss. Nyutat??? P 43 Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai missing missing Jane Hill
Kiliwa missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) iconip battle spear unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua hũag-at-naʔ hũag-at-naʔ unique Derived hurl-nmlz-clːtree.like/stick See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Waorani tapa doubtful loan Aguaruna, Bora See also Secoya ui tupɨ See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï luhkui luʰkʷi unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami šokopi (EM72) ʃokopi inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Possibly loaned into Makiritari sukuhi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam šokopi, faɾo (EM72); rahaka (WM99) ʃokopi, faɾo; ɾahaka inheritance; unknown Alternate: faɾo, ʃokopi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam šohemas, šokop (EM72) ʃohemas, ʃokop unknown; inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Possibly loaned into Makiritari sukuhi; Alternate: ʃohemas Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria jõ'sã-ri paro jõ'sã-ri paro inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Or maybe family-internal loan Derived ~josa-dʉ; force.into-CLS:cylindrical.straight See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo paribo, tãumu paribo, tãumu unknown, unique Proto-Tukanoan tãu 'metal' Also found Siona. Also: tãumu Classifier -bo See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano jõsẽ-rĩ́ phĩ́ jõsẽ-rĩ́ phĩ́ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Or maybe family-internal loan See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano ñosẽrimiji ñosẽrimihi inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Or maybe family-internal loan Compound ñosẽri 'spear (v.)' See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki ui ui loan Tupi-Guarani 'arrow' See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup cɔ̃h(teg) cɔ̃h(teg) pronged fish spear inheritance Proto-Nadahup Derived spear(v.)=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw tôòw rẽr tôw hẽh unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani kuérere-bo kuérere-bo unknown North Arawak? means 'club' in Nadeb, Yucuna, and Macaguan. bo classifier See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan lats loan Spanish Maybe via Arawak; See e.g. Yavitero lansa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Guayabero baóin unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Pemon supari (A1981); supararii (E1980) supari (A1981); sʊparari (E1980) semantic shift - WW see 'machete'; %sipara/sapere Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio suubararii subarari loan - WW %sipara/sapere Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa ərainčihtyə əraintʃihtjə unknown May be cognate Makiritari See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna wejrukú wehɾukú inheritance? Also: kahilá (ritual lance, used in dances) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana mulúku mulúku inheritance Proto Rio Negro Alternate: mulikъna, hъida, muɾúku Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana čʰipʰirari tʃʰipʰirari loan - WW via Carib, %sipara/sapere Ultimate source Spanish; see Akawaio suubararii; other Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa molóko moɺóko inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro noótsígú noótsígú loan Boran 'machete/metal' Simplex -gu "long, flat" classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
Yir-Yoront kal7 spear inheritance *kalka pPaman Poss. pPNy Barry Alpher
Gumatj bindyurrwuy unique Claire Bowern
Dhay’yi dharpum inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu dhindi CHECK Claire Bowern
Warrwa dyennil inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang dyurlgarrarrdyigi unique Claire Bowern
Jawi errol inheritance Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu gami unique Claire Bowern
Dhuwal gara inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhangu garna inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru jinal loan WW WW %jinal Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul jinal loan WW WW %jinal not certain Claire Bowern
Nimanburru jinal loan WW WW %jinal not certain Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr jinal loan WW WW %jinal Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta karrparta loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Yulparija karu loan Claire Bowern
Ngarluma kurrtyarta inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu lama unique Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl mungurl unique Claire Bowern
Burarra rra unique Claire Bowern
Nyikina tyinal loan areal WW WW %jinal tipped spear Claire Bowern
Mangala tyinal loan direction unknown WW %jinal Claire Bowern
Karajarri tyinal loan direction unknown areal WW %jinal Claire Bowern
Bardi tyinal loan WW WW %jinal not certain Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga tyok:olo unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kularta loan direction unknown Western Desert? other types; tyinal, mangul, pilparli WW %kularta other types; tyinal, mangul, pilparli Patrick McConvell
Mudburra pankili loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
Jaru karnarrinymi loan Ngumpin WW %karna lan is verb; many names for types Patrick McConvell
Gurindji karna inheritance milarrang with bamboo/reed WW %karna milarrang with bamboo/reed Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi tyinali loan Ngarinyin WW %jinal Patrick McConvell
Bunuba tyinali loan Ngarinyin WW %jinal Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng ngone inheritance generic but short fighting in loans WW %ngone also Miriwung Patrick McConvell
Djapu gara inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija karlumpu inheritance Gaj. Karlumpung WW %karlumpu Patrick McConvell
Wardaman karnin loan Jaminjung also beer; kija big spear; also ngone WW %karna Patrick McConvell
Jingulu karnarrinymi inheritance karna may be inheritedi Jam/Mirdni and loan into Ngumpin Patrick McConvell
Miriwung tuwun unknown in Gaj also Patrick McConvell
Achagua tʃáawinaa (lit. 'jaguar-arm' tʃáawinaa (lit. 'jaguar-arm' unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco ùlibàna ùlibàna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena murucú murukú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero lansa (Spanish loan) lansa (Spanish loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi tonotene tonotene unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Waurá yuku'mi juku'mi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora aamú, hójtsɨva aamɯ, ʔóxtsʰɨβa inheritance; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane áámɨ áámɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai warata warata inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana walata walata inheritance See Language page PLE
Makiritare sukuhi (IDS), yaichadü (KH) sukuhi (IDS); jaitʃadɨ (KH) loan; unknown Yanomaman See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Mapoyo pua pua See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai raaΦu raaΦu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa mayara jiyákepö (mayara 'long stick'+jiyákepö 'ready' majara hijákepɔ (mayara 'long stick'+jiyákepö 'ready' See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca supqua supkua See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá miássu miássu See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán sata, dasan´cho (steel spear) sata, dasanʔtʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra kchĩrpógo ktʃĩɾpónko unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro anivi aniwi See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez gueth guetj See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna tana-má-en (Alv44) tanaʔmáʔen unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina larui laɽui unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Pumé yipʰatɛ; niyatéh 'metal lance, for hunting large animals' (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave yukon jukon doubtful loan Saliva dokono 'arrow' See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Warao hat (veɾb?) hat (verb?) See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar nángki naŋki See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa nagki naŋgki See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna nágki, túpu nángki, túpu inheritance; loan Bora tɯpoo 'arrow' See Language page Daniel Valle
Yuhup cɔh(teg) cɔh-teg See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses siante siante unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo yɨkati yɨkati unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua hĩčityityã; -ro hĩtʃitjitjã; -ro loan; unique Spanish hacha See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua lansa (Spanish loan) lansa See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua tucsina tuksina See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano chuki (CP94) tʃuki See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa dahkuo'da' dahkuoɁdaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva cuẽlãhẽ, waihnixe kuẽlãʔẽ, waiʔnixe unique See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano gãhṍã́ besu-ro gãhṍã́ besu-ro See Language page Addison Martinez, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana besuʉ bɛsuɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna rocaragʉ, sareragʉ lokaɾagɨ, saɾɛɾagɨ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Yuruti ã'sĩ́põã-besu-pĩ ã'sĩ́põã-besu-pĩ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana jõsẽdi pʰi jõsẽdi pʰi See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano saa'ré-rí-bã́hĩ́ saa'ré-rí-bã́hĩ́ See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tanimuca be'ho-a be'ho-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo behu-ɨ́ behu-ɨ́ See Language page
Tuyuka sade-rí-pĩ sade-rí-pĩ [prob. loan Siriano] See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja hadɛ́řikʰářò hadɛ́rikʰárò See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje cʉnarʉ kʉnarʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona chao perebë tʃao perebɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya ui tupë, ui yo, ui ui tupɨ, ui jɔ, ui See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana nhẽpỹrỹg ɲẽpɨ̃ɾɨ̃g unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama ɨhuɨratsu, rejun ɨwɨɾatsu, rexun semantic shift from 'bow' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi aši aši unique See Language page PLE
Sirionó eðoto-hi; eď̶akʷa-hi eðoto-hi; eď̶akʷa-hi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina oudyáátya oɯdʲáátʲa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Nɨpode Witoto dukḯ-ra-ǰoi-kï dukɯ́-ra-dʒoi-kɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto dukḯ-ra-θï, dukḯ-ra-da dukɯ́-ra-θɯ, dukɯ́-ra-da See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto dukï-ra-θï dukɯ-ra-θɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá sokopi, laga (large lance point), laga alugusiai (smaller lance point), samha, sokopi (EM72) sokopi, laka (large lance point), laka alugusiai (smaller lance point), samha (EM72) inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito juhuáana (lanza hecha de la madera de la palmera pihuayo, antiguamente usado para cazar y en las peleas); jírisi (flecha; entre los iquitos es un tipo de lanza hecho de isana, parecida al harpón, pero con punta más pequeño; no se utiliza con arco); arapuú huwáana unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo akachinya akatʃinja See Language page Becky Walker
Cavineña hada-hada; c̷ati hada-hada; čati unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara chuki (P04) tʃuki See Language page PLE
Trumai eše; hōata; kōfene; komore eše; hōata; kōfene; komore unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang rògro rɔŋro See Language page PLE
Bankalachi Toloim pah'-hool arrow, stone pointed; also me-hi'-ye; moost' “spear for fish” 187; te'-us “arrow” 225; bahul (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone takkam-muchin “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla huyal (arrow) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok pa/jpu- “arrow” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Chemehuevi huu “arrow”; inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno ya7 “arrow” inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno ya7a “arrow” inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno ya7 “arrow” inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tslewe “arrow” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno kal-awa “arrow inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
Cocopa nysha7u/r unknown Jane Hill
Comanche paaka7 semantic shift Jane Hill
Cupeño huyal [hujal] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen pawi loan (Henshaw; Turner 1983:230, Jane Hill
Gabrielino -hu: "arrow", hu:r inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu huwa-zi “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7-pa7 “flecha” loan Jane Hill
Kitanemuk huch inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ki/wwa “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño hu:la “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu no\k'o/ loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
Mojave 7utat unknown Jane Hill
Mutsun tuyos “arrow” loan O77:24 Jane Hill
Nisenan 7olaw “arrow” loan Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pongosa “arrow” unique Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok jac:i- “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
Plains Miwok hawlo- “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A et'oi'yiN' (A) , et'eyitinai/ (pl) “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M et'eyini/' 'arrow' unknown Mason 1918:130 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) haxa/aza “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
Serrano hu:-T “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute o:-S, u-S “arrow” (uq:wi-S) inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok muckul-, unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute uu “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal paahuul “arrow” (are other kinds) inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone pakan “arrow”, loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Wappo me/cHe inheritance Jane Hill
Washo meshgi/c'et unknown J494 Jane Hill
Western Mono pa/ga “arrow”; inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu no:t “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ?pa/ “arrow”, (?)pa\kwi:rva v is beta loan Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami k'elk'al' unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi cikid “arrow” unknown K07:244 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne t'uyos inheritance Golla 1964:60 Jane Hill
Yuki ke/-yu (CHM), kiu “arrow” inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma ipa:/ H6:149; loan Jane Hill
Arabana katji loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Bardi djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba jinali inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra jitabata unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu gaṉa unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ḻuŋgu Claire Bowern
Dhuwala matjaka unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari kalhthi unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU pirimpara loan Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 564 unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu gara unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang djuḻgarrarrdjigi unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng doowoon unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi jirnali inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu matjaka unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji mirlarrang loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru garna inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi errol errol inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri yantanpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija ngun k.o.s. loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
Malyangapa kalkurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Mangala mulja unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung doowoon loan Claire Bowern
Mithaka winrra inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra bankili Claire Bowern
Mudburra milarrang loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini wanakuyu unique Claire Bowern
Ngandi ma-gami unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma gurrjarda loan Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl mungoorl mungurl inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi windra inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla mangurl Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta yantana- (V2) inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta yantana inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina jinal; mangul jinal; inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi karkooro inheritance Claire Bowern
Pirriya kaniny Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta makuwarta unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu gaṉa Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu gami loan Claire Bowern
Unggumi jinal.ya jinal.ya loan into proto-language Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kularta inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru yajara unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa jinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
Worrorra jinalya jinalya loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Wubuy larda Mana unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu dhindi unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha windra, wathi windra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi kuju loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka windra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern