Yuma

Family
Yuman
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
yum
Location
32.79°, -114.60°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 7ama/yvi H2:148; 7ama/y H3:211 7 is glottal stop, / is acute accent on preceding vowel inheritance Halpern 1-6 in IJAL 1947, 48 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other missing Jane Hill
and y e grammar missing Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment xam7u:/ly H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -i H3:210; -k H3:210 unknown Jane Hill
back espalda costas body 7ashlyma/k “my back” H1:29, saly-ma/k “back” H3:207 sh is [ʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7ala:/yk “it is bad” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body i:to/ H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location maxa/k H3:211 “underheath” unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality *vata/y “to be big” H1:26 inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body cakye/w H4:22 inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour nyi:ly H3:209 inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body -ixwe/T H3:210 T is retroflex t inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body caxavasuyk H5:92 “he blows” inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body missing Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body missing Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body u:ye:/yk “he breathes” H1:31 inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment tapo/m H5:95 inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body canye/7 H4:22 inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human xu:ma/r H3:212 unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion aku:ly H5:106 inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7akwe/ H1:30 inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality xacu/r “to be cold” H4:20 inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion adhi:/k “he comes” H1:31 inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact alYulYk “he cooks” H1:27; alYulY “to cook” H5:97 inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental ami/, ame/ “to weep, cry bird calls” H5:107 inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact akye/T H6:148 cut off piece inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time missing Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state apo:/yk “they die” H1:28, apu/y H4:29 inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact axwe/lyk “he digs” H1:29 inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna xatalwe/ H1:27 (coyote) inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental shama:/k “he dreams” H1:31; shatu:ma/cvek “they dream” H1:31 inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body asi/, ase/ H4:29 inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality aru/vek “it is dry” H1:27 inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment 7ampo/T H1:30 inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body missing Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment 7ama/T H1:26 inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body aso:/ (meat) H4:29, ama/ H4:29 inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna missing Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body i:tho/ H1:29 inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body acerq “to defecate” H5 106 inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion a:lyaqv H5:93 inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality missing Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship 7anyko/: “my father”; nyako/ H3:212 unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental mashadhe/k “he is afraid” H2:151 inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna missing Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment 7a7a/w H1:26 inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna 7aci:/ H3:212 inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment missing Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion aye/rek “he flies” H1:31 inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment 7asa/ H3:211 inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body i:me/ H3:207 inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality axo/Tk “it is good” H1:29 inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state missing Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body i:7e/ H3 208 inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body i:sha:/ly H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar missing Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body missing Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental 7a7avk “I hear” H1:31 inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality 7ane/x “to be heavy” H4:20 inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion taduly/ “to hide in hand” H4:25, inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact a:qwe/t “beat, strike w/ stick” H4:28 unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other share/q “he grasps it” H1:27; xalyqic “to grasp” H5:94 unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar missing Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact tapu/y H5:95 inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental u:pa/w “to know, recognize” H4:20; atap “to know, put down” (see throw) inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment missing Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental missing Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment missing Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body i:me/ see “foot” inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion apa/ H5:97 inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment uravteva “there will be lightning” H6:148 inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body 7i:pa/y “be alive, be human” H3:205 inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body missing Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality 7aqo/l “to be long” H4:20 inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body missing Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 7i:pa:nyc “that man” H1:29; 7i:pa: “man, male” H3:154 inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna missing Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment xaly7a/ H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 7anta/yc “his mother” inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body i:ya:/ H3:207 inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human amuly “to have a personal name”, shi:muly “to have a clan name” H6:155 inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality xi:pa/n “to be nearby” H4:21 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body missing Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality missing Jane Hill
night noche noite time ti:nya:m “to be night” H4:21 inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar waly ... ma H4:29 inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body i:xu:/ H1:31 inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality 7aku/c “to be old” H4:20 unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number 7ashe/nt H1:27 inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body 7achkwara/v “the sick one” HI:26; ac ara/v “to be sick” H6:150 inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human pa7i:pa:/ H1:30 inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact kaco/ “to pound lightly” H5:93; tawe/ “to grind” H5:95 unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment 7u:v7a/w “to rain” H4:20 inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour 7axwe/T H3:209 inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture 7u:nye/ H3:212 inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora shama:/ H3:210 inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment saly-7a/y H3:207 unique Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental a7i/, a7e “to say” H2:150 a7i:m “he says” inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing Jane Hill
see ver ver mental ayu:/k “he sees” H1:28 inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ta:dho:yv “to sharpen edged tool” H5:93 inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact akya:m “he shoots” H 1:26; akye “to shoot” H5:95 inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality missing Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body missing Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state ana/k “he sits” H 1:27; ava/ “to sit, dwell” H5:107 inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body 7akwe/ly “hide, leather, skin” H3:210 inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment 7ama/yva H2:148 inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body ashma/ H4:26 inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality 7ano/qk “it is small” H1:29 unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment missing Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact adha/pk “it is split” H1:29' a:dha/pk “he splits it” H1:31; tadha/p “to split” H6:164 inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state av7a/w H5:107 inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment missing Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other kacaci:/ck “he steals” H1:29; na:r “to steal” H5:101 inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora 7a7i:/ “wood, tree” H3:209 inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment 7avi:/ H3:212 inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body cato/q H4:22; api/s (suckle) H4:23 unknown Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body xaly ashu/c H6:153 unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion missing Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body missing Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar nya: H3:211 inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality la7a/wsh “emaciated” H4:21 unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental alynyi:dhu:/ck “he thinks” H1:27; aly7e/ H4:19 “to think, prefer, believe”, aly7i or aly7e H5:102 inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ava/ “this, a short distance away” H3:211 inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar missing Jane Hill
three tres tres number xamo/k “to be three” H4:21 inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body malyaqe/ H3:212 “throat, voice” inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact a:pk “he throws it” H I:25 ata:p “to throw, put down” H5:94 inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment missing Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact axe/r H5:95 inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body i:pa/ly H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body i:dho:/ H1:29 inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Jane Hill
two dos dois number xavi/k “to be two” H4:21 inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion av7a:/ H5:97 inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7axa/ H2:151 inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality 7axa/y “to be damp” H3:204 inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar missing Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar makyi/k H I:26 inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour xama:ly “to be white” H4:20 inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar makye/-ny “whom” H2:148 inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship missing Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment matxa/c “the wind” H2:151 inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body missing Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human missing Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour 7aqwe/s “to be yellow” H4:20 inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae cam?adhuly Ant inheritance Proto-Yuman unknown Merriam 61:465, Halpern 1:27 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus muh-hwah' Badger (Taxidea) inheritance Proto-Yuman IA mehwaa, C. mxwa; Kiliwa mxwaa=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq unknown Merriam 61:451 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus as-spah'-et-se'-kwit-sah' Bald eagle (Halioeetus) inheritance Colorado River Yuman only Mojave ɂaspa 'achii kwachtha “eagle that eats fish” unknown Merriam 61:455 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp kwampa/nyq Bat inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai qà(·)păɲqa unknown Merriam 61:451, Halpern 1:28 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor ah-pon' Beaver (Castor) inheritance Proto-Yuman Iipay Aa āp-pin'; and note Resemblant C. kpiny unknown Merriam 61:451 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus kwil-ă-nyo' Big round tule (Scirpus lacustris) unique unknown Merriam 61:475 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis āl-hwă' Big skunk (Mephitis) inheritance *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) Proto-Yuman Mixco1978:96 (Langdon 1976:873 Metath) unknown Merriam 61:451 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus hă-tah-loo Big wolf inheritance Colorado River Yuman only Maricopa hatkult gordon 151 unknown Merriam 61:449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis 7amo Bighorn (Ovis) inheritance *?-mu(w) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:80, 91 WW %mo: unknown Merriam 61:451, Halpern 1:30 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna et'-se-yēn' A bird unique unknown Merriam 61:463 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus mŭCH whet'-tah A bear (Ursus) inheritance Proto-Yuman badger-big (see badger) unknown Merriam 61:449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus 7ak7u/ly Blacktail jackrabbit (Lepus texianus group) inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa kɂuły; Yavapai (ɂ)kúla, unknown Merriam 61:453; Halpern 3:209 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus nah-mĕ' Bob-cat (Lynx californicus) inheritance *nymi- Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91; Yuma name/ Halpern 1:30 unknown Merriam 61:449 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera xan7a.vlye/p Butterfly unique resemblant Mojave hunapnap unknown Merriam 61:465, Halpern 3:208 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? hre-kă-poo-soo' California jay (Aphelocoma) unique unknown Merriam 61:455 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota xamkye/ swallow inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Co. xmka: unknown Halpern 3:208 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana mus-em'-kwer-yahk' Coot (Fulica, Mudhen unique unknown Contains the -yaq “lying.in” element Merriam 61:461 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii xaly7a/w Cottontail rabbit (Lepus audoboni) inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai hló, Kiliwa xa?law; unknown Merriam 61:453, Halpern 3:205 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. 7ax7a/. Cottonwood (Populus) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Co. xɂa, Yavapai ɂhá(·); unknown Merriam 61:467, Halpern 1:30 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans xatalwe/ Coyote (Canis lestes or ochropus) inheritance Colorado River Yuman only derivation on “wolf”; Maricopa hatalywe unknown Merriam 61:449, Halpern 1:27 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ah-kahk Raven (Corvus corax) inheritance Proto-Yuman Sound imitative but probably good as *qaaq unknown Merriam 61:455 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii es'-mi-kă-peet' Indian whiskey (Datura) loan Cocopa Cocopa şmál ka·pí·ţ; Note Yavapai smá·lkktū·, Mojave ɂamalykatu unknown Merriam 61:475 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus ah-kwah', kwak in combining form (also mule deer) Deer, blacktail (Odocoileus columbianus) inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa kwak xntil; IA ɂekwak; Maricopa qwaaq unknown Merriam 61:451 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris a-haht' tsuk-tsuk' Dog (old time, nose blunt) inheritance **(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 (this has a modifier) unknown Merriam 61:453 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura hwis-ke'-av Dove (Zenaidura) inheritance Colorado River Yuman only Mojave huskiv so CR (Colorado River Yuman) unknown Merriam 61:455 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae hun'-nah-mo' All ducks inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai qnmo: unknown Merriam 61:461 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ?aci/ Fish (any) inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH; Yuma 7aci/. Halpern 1:30 unknown Merriam 61:465, Halpern 1:30 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera missing inheritance missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera xaly7asmo/ Fly inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa şxlʸmu unknown Merriam 61:465, Halpern 3:208 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon met-kwah-vah' Gray fox (urocyon) inheritance *p-rxa·w/m-rxa·w Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FOX; note Cocopa màţkawá·, Yuma form MIGHT be a loan from Cocopa unknown Merriam 61:449 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna hahn'-n>yĕ; xanyk7o/ “bullfrog” (Langdon 1979:637) Frog (Rana) inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG unknown Merriam 61:463 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos es-spah' Golden eagle (Aquila) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Co. špa unknown Merriam 61:455 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ah-vā-se' Gopher or bull snake (Pityophis) inheritance Colorado River Yuman only Note Mojave ɂave thii; so CR unknown Merriam 61:463 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) hot-lŏ-mots grass (any) unique unknown Merriam 61:475 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera >hīk-ahm-putk' Grasshopper inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai kąpámka, Kiliwa xnkpaap, Cocopa łxmpaţ unknown Merriam 61:465 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. ă-tees' Ground squirrel (Citellus tereticauda) inheritance Proto-Yuman C. ci·š unknown Merriam 61:451 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus mahm'-ve' Great horned owl (Bubo) unique unknown Merriam 61:455 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis missing inheritance missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae met'-kwin'-ne-ask' Horned toad (Phrynosoma) inheritance Note Cocopa cxnyaş which seems to end with same element but is simplex in Cocopa unknown Merriam 61:463 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing inheritance missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae nexni/.x Humming bird inheritance Proto-Language Also in Cocopa unknown Merriam 61:459, Halpern 3:207 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. mil'-yah-oov' Tobacco (not Whiteman's tobacco which is ah-ov) loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown IA ɂup; C. ɂu·p, etc. and cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi unknown Merriam 61:475 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera >nye'-ēl Head lice inheritance *?-?il Proto-Yuman Does this contain *?-?il WORM Langdon 1979:639? (Proto-Yuman); also in Mojave unknown Merriam 61:465 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos sik'-kwe-lah' Mockingbird (Mimus) loan Cocopa Note Cocopa C. šàkwi·lá·, different from Mojave sakwathɂaaly unknown Merriam 61:459 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera sum-pool'k' Mosquito inheritance *smpul Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 under “FLY”, *smpul “mosquito” unknown Merriam 61:465 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor haht'-ah-kool' Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes) inheritance Colorado River Yuman only Looks like the Maricopa “wolf” word, hatkult unknown Merriam 61:449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys tek-sĕ' Pocket gopher (Thomomys) inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:872 Metath unknown Merriam 61:453 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. ah-vĭh' rattlesnake (Crotalus) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? unknown Merriam 61:463 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp missing missing missing 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus hus-e-kwah' i-hah' Red-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius) inheritance Proto-Yuman 'Iipay Aa hah'-se-kwi'; Looks like a Delta-California form, cf. Cocopa şqway qlucá·w unknown Merriam 61:457 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis ets-ŏr Red-tailed hawk (Buteo borealis) unique unknown Merriam 61:455 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus tal'-ye-pŏ' Road runner (Geococcyx) loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Takic Langdon 1976:873; see note on Iipay Aa form WW %pu: unknown Merriam 61:455 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss mo-we'-ulk Salmon loan direction unknown Iipay Aa Iipay Aa mo-weelk'; loan direction unknown unknown Merriam 61:465 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? >han-tus-ēl' Scaly lizard (Sceloporus) unique unknown Merriam 61:463 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ah-vĭh' snake (any) inheritance unknown Merriam 61:463 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae hrel-yŏ-tōt' Spider inheritance Proto-Yuman IA hellytutt “black widow spider”; C. xłycuc unknown Merriam 61:465 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing inheritance missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae hahn'-n>yĕ mek-oor' Toad (Bufo) inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman FROG with a modifier unknown Merriam 61:463 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) to-mar'-ră-pet' A tree unique unknown Merriam 61:477 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura as-sā' Turkey buzzard (Cathartes) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Co. C. šayí·, unknown Merriam 61:455 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines kwape/T “ Desert turtle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai kpít; and note Serrano/Kitanemuk krprtt, kopotat; Yuma axnaraxna/r “turtle” Halpern 3:207 is cognate in Proto-Yuman unknown Merriam 61:463, Halpern 3:208 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica ?axmá Valley quail (Lophortyx) inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:871 Metath unknown Merriam 61:455, Halpern 1:30 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis han-nah-mo' Western Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) semantic shift Proto-Yuman word is usually “duck” or “chicken” unknown Merriam 61:461 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos ahCH-hah' White pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) loan Chemehuevi or Paiute direction unknown; same word in Chemehuevi, western S. Paiute unknown Merriam 61:459 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. a-thō' Willow (Salix sp.) inheritance with *-yaaw Proto-Yuman JHH but in Langdon somwhere with no recon unknown Merriam 61:469 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. ah-mi'-ĕk Wood rat, round-tail (Neotoma) inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa ?+maql, Yavapai (ɂ)mālka;, 'Iipay Aa ɂemallk; Resemblant Cocopa ɂamíły?? unknown Merriam 61:453 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ets-e-pi' worm inheritance Colorado River Yuman only CR; Note Mojave 7ichipay kuurems “flea” unknown Merriam 61:465 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. mes-paw' yellow jacket inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa cpaaw, 'Iipay Aa metpaaw, Mojave thaampo unknown Merriam 61:465 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna cam7adhu/lyc “the ant” H1:27 inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna xaly7asmo/ H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 7a:ve/ H1:29 inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna xalyto/T H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (10)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material cape/T “to thatch” H5:102 inheritance Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7axmo/ “mortar” H1:26 inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool xamalye/L H3:208 unknown Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture xam7u:kye/ “pestle” H3:208, xam7u:che/ “muller, mano” H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7u:ti:/sh “bow” H3:206 inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ipa:/ H6:149; loan Jane Hill
house other 7ava/ H1:26 inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large AG dense sedentary no