bird

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
pajaro, ave
Meaning Portuguese
passaro

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim wā'-ă-tsoi bird loan Yokuts Yowlumne wā'-et-sā; (Merriam) unknown underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-461 0 0 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone kwinaa generic for any large bird, eagle (M: A bird inheritance *kwi'na Numic Stubbs 717b (2008;131) Western, Central Numic narrower (does not include small birds) underived Crapo 1976:127 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla wíkikmal ˈwikikmal bird inheritance *wiCtiki Uto-Aztecan S205, with consonant assimilation *tVk > kVk. (Stubbs 2009:67) same derived wikik (root) -mal (diminutive; always shows non-possessed -l) -7aʃ “pet” takes possessive classifier -7aʃ (Seiler 1977:305 Seiler&Hioki 1979:241 no info 0 see individual birds 0 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 feathers and featherwork were trade items Ubiquitous, since species is not known all habitats no
Central Sierra Miwok čička- bird inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss underived perhaps reduplicated etymologically Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi we-tseets, we-cheets wicíɂicI (Press) A bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205 (2008:67) narrower (does not include large raptors) other complex wicíɂi-cI bird-ABS (and note related “FLY” verb Merriam 59:533 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno chwiw bird unique underived Beeler 1978:174 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno weets; wits a bird unique underived Merriam 55:15 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno tswiw bird inheritance In Barbareno underived Mamet 2008:14 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cocopa ša bird inheritance *č-sa Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:81 underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
Comanche huutsúu bird (general) inheritance *hutti/huttu Numic Stubbs 205c (2008:69) same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cupeño mukikmal muˈkikmal bird (any kind) unique rarely wikikmal is heard; mukikmal is probably analogy with -muk “beak” same derived muˈkik-ma-l bird-diminutive-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals no info Hill & Nolasquez 1973:163 no info 0 depends on species 0 depends on species no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 depends on species, feather objects traded Americas diverse habitats no
Esselen tcap-his flying birds in Kroeber glossed “birds; all birds that fly” unique Esselen other complex -pis agentive "flyer"?? In form, Henshaw's hyphen) turner & Shaul 1981:117 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino chē'-ū ˈʧi:ja (?) bird inheritance Takic S967; cf Sr chi7a “to pick up food from ground the way birds eat”, which may be from a bird word in /chi-/, widespread in California; But note Chumash tswiw, which could easily yield something like Merriam's form. Possibly an arealism. narrower (does not include water birds ($a:t), raptors, vultures, condors)) underived if I'm guessing right about transcription, word has no npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 0 see for specific birds 0 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 N/A N/A no
Iipay 'Aa ɂaasha bird inheritance *č-sa Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:81 same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu wižiki-ži bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205 (2008:67) narrower (does not include larger songbirds (toko) or large raptors (kwaana)) other complex wižiki-ži bird-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa t+walu bird (generic) inheritance -waR “feather, bird” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:81 for P-Y same other complex t- not treated clearly, but some kind of derivation from -waRu “wing” Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk wicitat ˈwiʦitat bird, any kind of small songbird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205a (Stubbs 2009:67); wici forms in Serran and S. Numic, and Tb. has chikit (wi- is a prefix???) narrower (does not include raptors, water birds) other complex ˈwiʦita-t bird-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:569 no info 0 0 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 N/A N/A no
Lake Miwok méle, míle bird inheritance *mi(:)Te- Utian Proto-Utian *mi(:)Te- (Callaghan Utian 1986:3) underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
Luiseño 7ehéngmay Ɂeʹheŋmay bird inheritance *hini- Uto-Aztecan S897 (Stubbs 2009:152), PUA “fly”, cf. Cahuilla hingish “young bird”, but Lu. vowel is wrong same derived Ɂe-ʹheŋ-mal with diminutive; what is source of prothetic vowel??? -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:171 no info 0 see for specific birds 0 songbirds eaten no info hunted all roasted, boiled, used for feathers 0 0 see specific birds N/A N/A no
Maidu k'útt'yt'y\ y\ is grave accent on /y/ in Shipley bird (general) unique other complex k'ut “creature”, t'yt'y “non-productive plural suffix” (Elmendorf & Shepherd 1991:221 citing a P.C. from Shipley in 1998) Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mojave ɂichayer bird inheritance Colorado River Yuman Maricopa chyer Gordon 197 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mutsun tcirit-min bird inheritance *čirV:t- Utian Callagan 1962:102 relative clause -min "one who is/has" Callaghan 1962:102 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nisenan koo'-sum, koo-soo bird unique underived Merriam 57:241 0 0 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute hootseba A bird inheritance Uto-Aztecan Miller put hootseba together with 205c hutti/hutu (Stubs 2008:67). Probably sound-imitative, may not have a good etymology narrower (doesn't include raptors) underived Yerington Dictionary 0 0 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok tolo:ci- bird inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip underived -ci may be diminutive Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok tolo:ci- bird (generic) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived -:ci may be old diminutive Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
Salinan A ca:xwe bird unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:122 0 0 0 0 0 no
Salinan M sa:xe Turner has initial š bird unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:122 0 0 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) ziic z is /sh/ bird unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 616 0 0 0 0 0 no
Serrano wicit bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205a (2009:67)these wici forms in Serran and S. Numic; Tb. has chikit (is wi- a prefix??? Or is Tb a Miwokan loan?) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:63 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute witsitsI bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205 (2008:67) narrower (does not include large raptors) other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:716 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok cicka bird inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics; Mip chikchik “brownbird” might show an unreduplicated form underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute wicí-cI bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205 (2008:67) narrower (does not include large raptors) other complex has -ci ABS Givon 1979 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal chikkīt ʧiˈki:t bird loan Southern Sierra Miwok Callaghan 2001 SSM cicka is Yok-Utian narrower (does not include big birds like hawk, eagle, owl; may not include water birds like ducks, coots) other complex ʧiˈki:-t bird-npn Hill 2010:16 no info 0 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
Tümpisa Shoshone kasattsikantün, kasakantün bird unique *kasa is Proto-Numic “wing” (Stubbs 2008:333, unnumbered set) narrower (does not include large raptor birds) derived kasa-ttsi-kantün, wing-DIM-having Dayley 1989:47 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wappo c'íc'a bird (CHM confirms 52:577) unique Pomo *c'ihtá, but c'i bird words are all over the place in California and elsewhere. underived Sawyer believes -a is an old suffix Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
Washo sí:su, sisú:su bird unique underived Merriam 55:309; WPD 0 0 0 0 0 no
Western Mono tsiipa' bird inheritance Uto-Aztecan Note Yerington hootseba “bird”; Tarahumara cipi “small bird sp.”; Miller put hootseba together with 205c hutti/hutu (Stubs 2008:67). Probably sound-imitative, may not have a good etymology narrower ( I'm pretty sure this doesn't include large raptors, vulture, condor) underived Bethel et al.:254 0 0 most birds hunted for food, feathers also used 0 hunted men 0 0 birds kept as pets bought and sold; regarded as somewhat supernatural, guardian spirits, “tuk” (life) of owner no
Wintu č'ilč'iL č (Schlichter) and c (Pitkin) are same sound; L is always lamda (my L) in Pitkin, in Schlichter she writes Lambda glottal (my L') for glottalized sound and barred l (my L) for the non-glottalized one. bird unique Looks like a lot of other bird words; may have a sound-symbolism relationship to Shepherd's “bird” cognate reduplicated Schlichter 1981 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yavapai ɂčsá bird inheritance *č-sa Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:81 unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami we-we'-che Kroeber wiwitsi “bird” 1961:201 bird, junco, horned lark, small bird (see “other notes” for small bird loan Kitanemuk This form only in Yowlumne, Palewyami, Hometwoli,in 3 different branches of Y. , but geographically adjacent and adjacent to Kitanemuk. K. ˈwiʦitat, with a good UA etymology, seems a likely source. same underived Initial syllable reduplicated from Kitanemuk witsitat Merriam 58:529 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi tènip; dètchip (1907:198) bird (Merriam's Wik has latter form 58:369) inheritance Nim-Yokuts In Kroeber, in all Y. branches except Buena Vista and Palewyami same underived initial syllable reduplicated from Kitanemuk witsitat Kroeber 1961:201 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne wèwutsoi, wew'coy Kroeber's c is [ʃ] bird loan Kitanemuk This form only in Yowlumne, Palewyami, Hometwoli,in 3 different branches of Y. , but geographically adjacent and adjacent to Kitanemuk. K. ˈwiʦitat, with a good UA etymology, seems a likely source. Unless wits “buzzard” is somehow involved. narrower (I suspect this is for the smaller birds; see Kroeber's note) underived initial syllable reduplicated from Kitanemuk witsitat Kroeber 1961:201 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yuki č'i:mit bird, blackbird inheritance *č'imit' Yukian Schlichter 1985; here “Yukian” means “Proto-Northern Yukian” (PNY), “Yuki-Wappo” means “Yukian” in the broad sense other complex -it "perhaps an absolutive" Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yuma et'-se-yēn' A bird unique unknown Merriam 61:463 0 0 0 0 0 no
Akawaio torong toroŋ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa áadaro; kɛpirei-ni, wipiaro (H&R92) áadaro unique Also kɛpirei-ni, wipiaro (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona torono inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo míjido (generic term); ãcapoico; ẽtarʉ; jãjabʉtoico; jiorojomu; joromimico; mítacaca; uchivʉmicʉ; vayuveco; yaomaroco; yebaroaco míxido; ãkapoiko; ẽtaɾɨ; xãxabɨtoiko; xioɾoxomu; xoɾomimiko; mítakaka; uʧivɨmikɨ; vajuveko; jaomaɾoko; jebaɾoako, bĩ́hĩ́-kɨ, bĩ́hĩ́-do (H&R) doubtful loan, direction unknown Arawak, Achagua míʃi:du Arawak Achagua "míʃi:du". Also ãkapoiko; ẽtaɾɨ; xãxabɨtoiko; xioɾoxomu; xoɾomimiko; mítakaka; uʧivɨmikɨ; vajuveko; jaomaɾoko; jebaɾoako, bĩ́hĩ́-kɨ, bĩ́hĩ́-do uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Dâw tâwâát təwə́t inheritance may be 3sg + ? no info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano waibʉgʉ wʉgʉ (big); mirimagʉ (small) waibɨgɨ wɨgɨ; miɾimagɨ, bĩ́rĩbã-'gɨ̃́ (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan Also waibʉgʉ wʉgʉ (large bird) Narrower (small bird) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Eñepa tunko (IDS) tunko (IDS) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero mia-n mia-n doubtful loan West Tukanoan, e.g. Siona bĩʔã e.g. Orejon bĩjã uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï kili (little bird) unique Narrower: small bird uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Waorani ayabõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Hup hũtæ̃́h [Martins: wět] hũtæ̃́h [Martins: wět] unique animal-small' compound animal-small See Language page 0 0 many species, esp. by children 0 hunted men, children shot with arrows or darts 0 0 no Pattie Epps
Kakua febeʔ febeʔ unique compare Puinave wip underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan uʔuto uʔuto unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi toron (SM) toron (SM) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu uirá wirá inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam tšaro yõn, yõlwət (EM72) tʃaɾo jõn, jõlwət inheritance also jõlwət compound second word unknown; tʃaɾo = "game" (Goodwin-Gomez 90) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Nukak nɨ1jɨputu4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
Maihiki bĩjã bĩjã inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
Pemon torong (E1997) tɔrɔŋ (E1977) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro kó!píidú, adovíigí kóʔpíidú, adovíigí inheritance Central North Arawak Also adovíigí uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Sanumá tsalo tsalo inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Sikuani bara-tsuí-to, alirepe, bopena, dowatjikobü bara-tsuí-to, alirepe, bopena, dowatjikobü inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Tariana képira; puipída (H&R92) képira inheritance Central North Arawak Also puipída (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Tukano bĩrĩkɨ̃́ bĩrĩkɨ̃́ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria ~bidiche mĩnĩʧẽ, bĩ'dĩtʃaka (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Wapishana kutɨʔɨʐɨ kutɨʔɨʐɨ inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Yanomam fek, yaro (EM72 fek, jaɾo inheritance also fek uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yanomami -seimɨ seimɨ (noun class for birds)MM07 unique underived this is a classifier (?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yukuna kupira'aphá kupiraʔapʰá inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Yuhup wêt wêt inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Bardi garrabal garrabal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Bunuba jirigi tyiriki loan into protolanguage tyiriki Bunuban Jarragan tyirek>tyurlak - WW WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Burarra burdacha bawul unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhangu djikay(') dyikay(') inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhay’yi ḏakul'ŋaniŋ dhamin unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhuwal missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Djinang maypal waykiṉingi maypal waykirniŋi semantic shift cf maypal ‘shellfish’, “waykin” Burarra “on high” ? derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gajirrabeng jigeng tyikeng inheritance tyirike Jarragan WW als tyurlak WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gooniyandi jirigi jirigi loan into protolanguage tyiriki Bunuban Jarragan WW>tyurlak WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gumatj djikay(') dyikay(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gupapuyngu djikay(') dyikay(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gurindji jurlak tyulak loan WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Guugu Yimidhirr jijirr jijirr unique underived Poss. reduplication 0 0 0 0 0
Jaminjung jurlak tyurlak loan Ngumpin-Yapa WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jaru jiriga badyar loan Jarragan WW %tyiriki uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jingulu tyurlityi tyurlityi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Karajarri bandalmada pantalmata loan direction unknown Yawuru WW %bandalmarda compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kija jirekel jirekel inheritance jirilke Jarragan WW %tyireke underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Koko-Bera celc; miñ- miñ-celc bird (small) inheritance *culci Local general term for any small bird sp simplex
Kuku-Thaypan ambyul ambyul unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuku-Yalanji dikal jiway semantic shift *tikal Local To GYim /digal/ 'bird sp whose call signals movement of people in scrub' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kurtjar eeny eeny (= animal), eeny ma:rk.alim inheritance *miña pPaman poss. pPama-Nyungan Animals, incl birds, insects, but not humans, dogs, etc. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuuk Thaayorre marr; minh- minh-marr unique < pPNy *marra; reflexes usually 'wing' or '(wing) feather' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mangala cimpiriyartu cimpiriyartu unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mbabaram ab3r(v) abɨr(ə) unique RMWD holds YYoront /pirri/ 'emu' (< *purriwi) to be a loan from this. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Miriwung djigeng deriwun inheritance tyirike Jarragan WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngandi gajaguru gadyaguru unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngarinyin lowalarr, lowalat lowalarr, lowalat unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngumbarl wallee warli semantic shift ‘meat’ underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nimanburru garambal karambal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyangumarta kaparrku kaparrku unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyikina bandalmada bandalmada loan Karajarri WW %bandalmarda compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyulnyul karrambal karambel inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Pakanh thu(u)chi; minha minha-thu(u)ci inheritance *culci PPaman Small birds (pigeon & smaller) underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Rembarrnga missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ritharrngu djikay(') dyikay(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tjaapukay djarruy carruy bird (generic; also 'spirit') inheritance *carruy pYTj underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Olkol ant; inh- inh-ant bird (generic term for small birds) semantic shift With *manta ('small') Small birds (pigeon & smaller) underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Oykangand ant; inh- inh-ant bird (generic term for small birds) semantic shift With /ant/ < *manta ('small') Small birds (pigeon & smaller) underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Walmajarri tyiriki batyar loan Jarragan WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wardaman reworewo reworewo unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Warlpiri jurlpu jurlpu loan Wati WW %tyurlak underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wik Ngathan thoech thöc bird (generic) inheritance *culci pPaman Cognate w YYoront tholhth. Similar but non-corresponding forms elsewhere in Australia underived minh 0 0 0 0 0 no
Worrorra br'rnarra burnar'riya (FM) unknown proto-Worrorran onomatopeia? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yan-nhangu warrakan’ warrakan’ inheritance =animal simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yawuru barndalmarda bandalmada loan Marrngu WW %bandalmarda compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yidiny jarruy (TCG) caruy inheritance *carruy pYTj underived minya All bird spp are minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yir-Yoront tholhth; minh- & puth-lon; minh minh-tholhth inheritance *culci pPaman underived /puth-lon/ 'wing-having' 0 0 0 small birds: all seasons 0 0 no
Achagua míʃi:du míʃi:du doubtful loan, direction unknown Cubeo míxi-do See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco màsibèe; kuìpìra (H&R92) màsibèe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari ʔupira, ku(' )pira (Ramirez, 2001) ʔupira, ku(' )pira (Ramirez, 2001) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena utʃípie utʃípie See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero niľ̥i 'bird, animal' niľ̥i 'bird, animal' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Mandawaka sése sése See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi kotehala kotehala inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure aren aren unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá kuhupɨža-tɨ kuhupɨža-tɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora wahpéébe (T98) kʷaʔpʰéépe unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane xóóɨ xóóɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai torono torono inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana tolopït tolopɨt inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó tonoro tonoro inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Mapoyo konoro (sëkui) konoro (sɛkui) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai torowo torowo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari tyryny (any small bird) tɨrɨnɨ (any small bird) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa peshu (SM) peshu (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Kalapalo tolo tolo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca sue sue See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá ĩmbaná ĩmbaná See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán choin tʃoi̡ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Páez víchacue vitʃacue See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna weɾi weɾi doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina tahai tahai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke fo ɸo doubtful loan Witoto/Ocaina aɸójtsoji See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé pua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave wip wip unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar chíngki tʃiŋki See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa tuash tuaʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna píshak piʃak loan - WW %piʃku, from Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses uicchun uiktʃun unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo isa-ka isa-ka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua wiče witʃe loan - WW %piʃku, cf. Paéz βiča-kwe See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua pischcu piʃku See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá pisku See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua pishcu piʃku See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano urpitu, pisqo uɾpitu, pisqo See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa pʰiyuæ pʰiyuæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva ñide ɲide unique See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano bɨ̃́di bĩ́dĩ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Carapana 'bɨ̃́dĩ 'bɨ̃́dĩ, mini (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
Makuna bĩdĩ bĩdĩ inheritance See Language page Amanda Meeks
Yuruti 'bĩ́dĩ 'bĩ́dĩ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Waikhana bĩ'dĩkʰɨ̃ã bĩ'dĩkʰɨ̃ã See Language page Amanda Meeks
Siriano bĩ'rĩ́ bĩ'rĩ́ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca wĩʔ'dyã 'ka; wĩʔ'dyã 'ka wĩʔ'ʎã 'ka; wĩʔ'ʎã 'ka inheritance but cf. Tupi-Guarani See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo ʻbĩ́dĩ ʻbĩ́dĩ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka minimacʉ́ minimacɨ́, bĩdĩbã'kɨ̃́ (H&R) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja mĩ́nĩ́ mĩ́nĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje pĩ'a pĩʔa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona bi'an biʔan inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Karitiana ĩnh ĩnh unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama wɨra wɨra inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi wɨla wɨla inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó ŋireĩ̯ ŋireĩ̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá wyra wɨra inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina afóytsoyi aɸójtsoji inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto íguijˇïkoï íguijˇïkoï See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto óɸokuiño, jˇámaikuiño óɸokuiɲo, dʒámaikuiɲo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto θijˇi, oɸukuiño θidʒi, oɸukuiɲo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito siriíja (general term) siriíha (general term) unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo pishaka piʃaka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari me me See Language page PLE
Cavineña ča(ʔ)i; opati ča(ʔ)i; opati See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jamach´i xamačˀi See Language page PLE
Kwazá outo, outorɛ outo, outorɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima hoʔme xoʔme See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai uraʔi; kodetl uraʔi; kodetl See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang jẽsĩ sɛ̃sĩ See Language page PLE
Suyá séy séj See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi bitä bitǝ See Language page PLE
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone huiccuu “small bird (generic)” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla wikikmal inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok chi/chka- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
Chemehuevi wici7ic(i) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno ch-wiw' loan direction unknown Ono 1996:91 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno wish “any bird” loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno wic' Applegate 156 loan direction unknown A 156 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno si-ch-wiw “a bird” loan direction unknown Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
Cocopa sha inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche huutsu/u inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño mukikma-l [muˈkikməl] unknown Jane Hill
Esselen tca/p-his “birds” unknown Henshaw in Turner 1983:228 Jane Hill
Gabrielino che--/u- /chi7yu/ ?? inheritance CHM/MC267 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'aashaa [Ɂaˑˈşaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu wizhiki-zhi loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Kiliwa t-walu unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk wicitat inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok me/le, mi/le inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño 7ihe/ng-ma-l inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu k'u/tt'yt'y\ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave 7ichayer unique Jane Hill
Mutsun muuSik “bird of any kind, adult bird” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
Northern Paiute hudziba inheritance Thornes 03:543 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok tolo:ci- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok cicip:u-, cicicpu-, loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A ca:xwe unknown Turner 1980 Jane Hill
Salinan M sa:xe unknown Mason 1918:122 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ziic unknown Jane Hill
Serrano wici-t inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute witsi7- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok cicka- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute wichichI loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
Tübatulabal chikkiit loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone kasattsikantyn inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo c'i/c'a loan Jane Hill
Washo si/:su unknown J59, 290 Jane Hill
Western Mono tsiipa/7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Wintu c'il (also means “eclipse, bear”) inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ?chsa/ ? is glottal stop inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami wiwitsi loan direction unknown K1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi de\tchip, (de:chip) x unknown K07:242 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne we\wutsoi, wew'coy (n1) loan direction unknown K 1963 Jane Hill
Yuki ch'i:mit (bird, blackbird) inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Arabana paya inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi garrabal karrabal inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba jirigi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Burarra burdacha unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu djikay(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal dhamin Claire Bowern
Dhuwala djikay(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari paya inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU paia inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang maypal waykiṉingi semantic shift Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng jigeng inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi jirigi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu djikay(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji jurlak loan direction unknown Jarrakan Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr garrambal; birrajun karrambal; birrajun inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru jiyiga loan Claire Bowern
Jawi carabel; karrabel karrabil inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri bandalmada loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
Kija jireke-l inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: yurli inheritance? Claire Bowern
Mangala cimpirriyartu semantic shift Claire Bowern
Miriwung jigeng inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka paja inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra julaka Claire Bowern
Mudburra jurlaka loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini paya inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi X missing Claire Bowern
Ngarluma murla unique Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl wallee warli semantic shift Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi dawa unique Claire Bowern
Nimanburru garambal karambal inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla cimpirriyartu Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta wirujartiny inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta yintajarra unknown Claire Bowern
Nyikina bandalmada bandalmada inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul karrambal karrambal inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi kalku Claire Bowern
Pirriya paya inheritance Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta paya inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu warrakan' inheritance Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu (warrakan') inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri jiriki loan Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru paya inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa jalmarra(wudany)/(wurrany) jalmarra(wudany)/(wurrany) semantic shift Claire Bowern
Wubuy ngurudhu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu warrakan inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha palha inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka padla inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru barndalmarda barndalmarda inheritance Claire Bowern