South America
ISO 639-3
-24.40°, -60.45°
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Buckwalter, Albert S. & Orlando Sánchez. 2007. Toba. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key.

Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes General Notes Source
above encima, arriba acima location we-ta-šigem; paʔa-šigem The latter is 'located-up'. See Language page
and y e grammar See Language page
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment alo See Language page
at en, a em, a location See Language page
back espalda costas body l-laḳ Also means 'roof' 07.510. See Language page
bad mal mal quality winarahi; mueperahi See Language page
belly barriga barriga body da-ʔam -ʔam is 'belly'. Cf. 04.221. See Language page
below abajo, debajo abaixo location we-ta-ɲ-a See Language page
big grande grande quality ʔamaḳtaḳ See Language page
black negro preto colour n-aweʔ; l-aid-aʁaik See Language page
blood sangre sangue body l-tago-ʔ-ḳ Plural form. See Language page
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body l-wet-a Cf. 'bruise' 04.852. See Language page
bone hueso osso body l-piʔinek See Language page
breast pecho, seno peito body l-tete See Language page
child niño, niña criança human nogot; negot See Language page
cloud nube nuvem environment l-ʔok See Language page
cold frío frio quality tummaʔoko; -kosarečo See Language page
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page
day día dia time n-aʔaʔḳ See Language page
dirty sucio sujo quality n-šipaʁan See Language page
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page
dry seco seco quality d-aḳaḳa; ʔim See Language page
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality saḳ yi Lit. 'not sharp'. See Language page
dust polvo poeira environment n-amoʁo-yaʁa Lit. '(prefix)-make dust-action (nom.)'. See Language page
ear oreja orelha body l-tela See Language page
earth/soil tierra terra environment ʔalwa See Language page
egg huevo ovo fauna l-koʔoweʔ Cf. 'penis' 04.492. See Language page
eye ojo olho body l-ʔaite See Language page
far lejos longe quality ḳayoḳt-a See Language page
fat/grease grasa gordura body l-čita; l-piyo See Language page
father padre, papá pai kinship l-taʔa See Language page
feather pluma pena fauna l-awe Also means 'hair' 04.140; 'fleece' 06.220; and 'leaf' 08.560. See Language page
fire fuego fogo environment nodek See Language page
flower flor flor environment l-awo-ʁo; l-asowi-aʁa Both forms lit. '3p possessor-to flower-action (nom)'. Cf. 14.750. See Language page
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment šiwe See Language page
fruit fruta fruta flora al-a Same as 'seed' 08.311. See Language page
good bueno bom quality tʸuri; -uri See Language page
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body l-awe Also means 'feather' 04.393; 'wool' 06.220; 'fur' 06.280; and 'leaf' 08.560. See Language page
hand mano mão body l-waḳ; n-apokn-a The latter is lit. '3p possessor-grasp-instrument (fem)'. See Language page
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar -maǰi This morpheme occurs with prefixes indicating gender, number, position, and motion. Also for 'they' 02.960. See chart in language descriptions. According to position: ka 'absent', da 'standing', na 'coming', ɲi 'sitting', so 'going', ǰi 'lying'. See Language page
head cabeza cabeça body l-ḳaik See Language page
heavy pesado pesado quality de-salʸi; sa paʔat-ta The latter is lit. 'not (zero)3p actor willing-continuative'. See Language page
how? como como grammar ooyo See Language page
1sg yo eu grammar ayim For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms See Language page
if si se grammar A contrary to fact construction is a combination of subjunctive + -riʔi + -ini. See Language page
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location we-ta-igi; paʔa-igi The latter means 'located-inside'. See Language page
intestines intestinos intestinos body la-il-šik; la-wel l-ʔek -wel mean 'interior'. -ʔek means 'occupant'. See Language page
lake lago lago environment lapel See Language page
leaf hoja folha environment l-awe Also means 'hair' 04.140; 'wool' 06.220. See Language page
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body n-ʔemaḳ See Language page
leg/foot pierna perna body l-či See Language page
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ḳasoʁonaʁa Also means 'mountain, hill' 01.220. See Language page
liver hígado figado body l-lamek See Language page
long largo comprido, longo quality alok; ḳalot-ege See Language page
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna l-ala-ʁat Lit. '3p possessor-announce-instrument'. See Language page
man/male hombre homem human yale See Language page
meat/flesh carne carne fauna l-apat Also means 'flesh' 04.130. See Language page
moon luna lua environment kaʔago-ʁoik -ʁoik is 'adjectivizer (masc)'. The masculine article so is always used with the moon. See Language page
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship l-ateʔe See Language page
mouth boca boca body al-ap See Language page
name nombre nome human -'ihare See Language page
near/close cerca de perto quality sa ḳaya-pke See Language page
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body l-anaʔḳ See Language page
neck cuello pescoço body l-ḳosot Cf. 'gill' 03.654. See Language page
new nuevo novo quality dala-ʁaik Lit. 'new, green-adj. (masc)'. See Language page
night noche noite time pe See Language page
no/not no não grammar See Language page
nose nariz nariz body l-mik See Language page
old viejo velho quality yi See Language page
one uno um number [ʔoon]-olek; [ʔoon]-ole From Span. 'uno/una-diminutive'. Respectively: masc and fem. See Language page
other otro outro grammar See Language page
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body d-alola See Language page
person/human being persona pessoa human šiy-aʁawa; šig-aʁawa -aʁawa means 'companion'. See Language page
rain lluvia chuva environment awot See Language page
red rojo vermelho colour tok; tog-aʁad-aik tok ~ tog- mean 'red'. See Language page
right/right hand derecha direita location/body al-oik See Language page
road/path camino caminho manufacture lʸ-ik See Language page
root raíz raiz flora l-paʔaʔ See Language page
rotten podrido podre quality n-čiga See Language page
sand arena areia environment atoʁo See Language page
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality yi-ta; lʸaʔ See Language page
short corto curto quality saḳ alok; [pičis]-olek Respectively: 'not long, tall'; and from Span. 'petiso-diminutive'. See Language page
shoulder hombro ombro body l-alʸak See Language page
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental -c̷iiʔo; -c̷riʔo See Language page
skin piel pele body l-ʔok Also means 'body' 04.110. Cf. 'shell' 03.655. See Language page
sky cielo céu environment pigem Also means 'heaven' 22.310. See Language page
small pequeño pequeno quality kočoʔ-oɲik; l-[i]ale-k -oɲik is diminutive; the latter refers to small person/child. See Language page
smoke humo fumaça environment l-malaʔḳ See Language page
star estrella estrela environment waḳah-ɲi; waḳ-ɲi -ɲi is 'down'. See Language page
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ʔipaḳ See Language page
stone piedra pedra environment ḳaʔ; komaʔ See Language page
tail cola, rabo rabo body l-ʔad-aʁašit -ʔad- means 'puncture'. See Language page
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar -maǰi-pi This occurs with prefixes indicating gender, number, position, and motion. See 'he/she' 02.930. See Language page
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page
thin delgado fino quality sa l-ka-ʔage See Language page
this este/esta este grammar See Language page
2sg xx xx grammar ʔam See Language page
throat garganta garganta body l-ḳoičiki Cf. 'neck' 04.280. See Language page
three tres tres number [trees]-olḳ-a; [trees]-ole From Span. 'tres-diminutive'. Respectively: masc and fem. See Language page
thunder truenos trovão environment n-alat-aʁa Lit. 'prefix-rumble-action (nom)'. See Language page
bite morder morder body i-nak See Language page
blow soplar soprar body i-ketet-eek Lit. '3p actor-blow-out'. See Language page
breathe respirar respirar body l-ʔat Also means 'air, wind' 01.710. See Language page
burn quemar queimar environment y-awik See Language page
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body yo-ḳolʸišin; y-iʔiko-tak The latter refers to local custom of chewing algarroba pods. See Language page
climb subir subir motion wi-šigem See Language page
come venir vir motion anak See Language page
cook cocinar cozinhar impact de-woši See Language page
count contar contar mental n-alo-ḳten Lit. '3p actor-align-cause'. See Language page
cry llorar chorar mental iyoʔo; iyoʔomro Also iyučo; iyučwo. See Language page
cut/hack cortar cortar impact i-pelek; y-apiat See Language page
die/be dead morir morrer state lew-aʁaik Lit. 'die-adj.' See Language page
dig cavar cavar impact n-šiʔ See Language page
dream soñar sonhar mental de-čoʁon See Language page
drink beber, tomar beber body n-yom See Language page
eat comer comer body de-keʔe; čik Respectively: intrans. and trans. See Language page
fall caer cair motion w-a-ɲi Lit. '(zero) 3p actor-free position-aspect-down'. See Language page
fear miedo medo mental #NAME? See Language page
flow fluir fluir motion i-paʁan See Language page
fly volar voar motion w-ayo See Language page
grow crecer crescer state n-kik; n-kigi-šigem Mean 'move'. Also n-kig-eek. See Language page
hear oír ouvir mental wa-ʔaḳa See Language page
hide esconder esconder motion y-oʁoh-ɲi See Language page
hit golpear, pegar bater impact i-waʁan See Language page
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other l-asoḳ-ta-ʔa Lit. '3p actor-grasp-continuative-object'. See Language page
kill matar matar impact y-alawat See Language page
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental y-ayaten See Language page
laugh reír rir mental l-aši; d-ayalgiyi See Language page
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion n-naa-ɲi Lit. '3p actor (self)-coil-down'. See Language page
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body n-kaʔal-eek; l-kaʔal-aʁaik See Language page
open/uncover abrir abrir other y-awač-igi See Language page
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact y-asaken See Language page
say decir dizer mental i-ʔaʁat See Language page
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page
see ver ver mental n-awaa-či-giɲi; de-mehn-aʁan See Language page
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact y-ayin See Language page
sit sentar(se) sentar state n-soʔoo-ɲi See Language page
sleep dormir dormir body do-ʔoči See Language page
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body i-ta primarily transitive See Language page
spit escupir cuspir body n-ḳaigoḳ See Language page
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact de-poḳo-gi Lit. '3p actor-split-through'. See Language page
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact n-lom See Language page
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact i-ʔaǰ-igi Lit. '3p actor-puncture-into'. See Language page
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state n-ačah-ɲi See Language page
steal robar roubar other de-kači See Language page
suck chupar chupar body n-apigoḳ; lʸip The first form also means 'kiss' 16.290. See Language page
swell hincharse inchar body l-alaač-i See Language page
swim nadar nadar motion d-aloʁon See Language page
think pensar pensar mental See Language page
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact y-asaḳ See Language page
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact i-koɲiʔ Means 'imprison'. See Language page
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other may be transitive or intransitive See Language page
vomit vomitar vomitar body anol See Language page
walk caminar, andar andar motion kewo; pe-ta-ɲi Respectively: '(zero) 3p actor-go'; and '(zero)3p actor-step-continuative-down'. See Language page
work trabajar trabalhar other do-ʔonat-aʁan See Language page
yawn bostezar bocejar body d-ato-tak Lit. '3p actor-yawn-continuative'. See Language page
tongue lengua lingua body l-ačaʁat See Language page
tooth diente dente body l-we See Language page
two dos dois number [doos]-olḳ-a; [doos]-ole From Span. 'dos'-diminutive-(with 'plural-several' on the first form). Respectively: masc and fem. See Language page
water agua agua environment ʔet-aʁat Lit. 'drink-item (masc.)'. See Language page
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar -- no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted See Language page
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar -- See Language page
wet mojado molhado quality y-akit; d-apapi -akit is 'humid'; -apapi is 'wet'. See Language page
what? que, qué que grammar 'negeʔt See Language page
when? cuando quando grammar lagi See Language page
where? donde onde grammar 'w-a-ʔage See Language page
white blanco branco colour y-apagaḳ; l-apagaʁ-aik See Language page
who? quien, quién quem grammar 'negeʔt See Language page
wife esposa esposa kinship l-wa See Language page
wind viento vento environment l-ʔat See Language page
wing ala asa body l-awa Cf. 'arm' 04.310. See Language page
woman/female mujer mulher human ʔalo See Language page
yellow amarillo amarelo colour yo-ḳowi See Language page
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ḳamiʔ; ḳami See Language page
foot pie body l-apiaʔ See Language page
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ḳaltaḳ See Language page
all todo todos other ʔenawak See Language page
ankle tobillo tornozelo body n-ḳonakamo See Language page
armpit axila, sobaco axila body l-saḳtaki See Language page
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body da-ʔat-aʁan -aʁan is intransitivizer. See Language page
lung pulmón pulmão body l-ači-ʔ Plural form. See Language page
sweat sudar suor, suar body n-soḳ-či-giɲi Lit. '3p actor-perspire-directly-down'. See Language page
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body de-šiki See Language page
bark corteza casca environment l-so See Language page
fingernail uña unha body l-nat See Language page
heart corazón coração body l-kiǰaḳte See Language page
sun sol sol time nalaʔ The feminine article aso is always used with the sun. See Language page
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ḳasoʁonaʁa Cf. 'lightning' 01.550. See Language page
green verde verde quality d-adala See Language page
hot caliente quente quality d-apaḳa; n-apaʁa-ya-ɲi See Language page

Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. mikai See Language page
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ḳoyo See Language page
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread No generic term.
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ʔeleʔ See Language page Widespread
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ḳotoʔ See Language page
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page No generic term.
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae tegesan See Language page Widespread South America
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family -- See Language page
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris pioḳ See Language page Not native; widespread
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna nyaḳ See Language page
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata malaʁ-aik See Language page Lit. 'blue-adj (masc)'.
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. lakataik See Language page
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna n-ʔad-aʁan-aḳ See Language page Lit. 'prefix-puncture-intrans-agent (masc)'.
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria pot-aʁan-aʁat See Language page Widespread Lit. 'touch-intrans.-instrument (masc.)'.
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis -- See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) toʔolʸoʁoi See Language page Also waḳahɲi l-ʔat-ek, 'star 3p possessor-defecate-object (masc)'; kai-n-aton, 'horse-3p possessor-glan penis'; kai-n-adoʔo, 'horse-3p possessor-hat'; kai-n-atoina, 'horse-3p possessor-bell'.
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) waloḳ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given')
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens -- See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. -- See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift.
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ʔawaḳ-pi See Language page Lit. 'bladed growth-plural many'.
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ʔawaʁa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum l-ašiid-ek See Language page Lit. '3p possessor-puff-object (masc)'.
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ʔipaḳ (fem.) See Language page
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia)
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta [manǰooka] See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. From Span. 'mandioca'.
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas [wataata] See Language page From Span. 'batata'.
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. -- See Language page
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) čimai; ʔapaʁa; ḳaʔapaʁa See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. ltaɲi; ʔaadai; lalʸiyaʁai See Language page plant
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. n-šiʔila See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. šipatoḳ; lpataik See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation Respectively: against 'piraña' and 'stingray'.
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ḳagesaḳ; ḳaigesaḳ See Language page
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis teʔesaḳ See Language page
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae wačoʔo See Language page
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera toʁotoḳ See Language page
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ḳočiʔl See Language page
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones pelaḳtoik; pelaḳtoit See Language page
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera pioḳ l-ala-ʁat See Language page Lit. 'dog 3p possessor-announce-instrument'.
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera lotaʁaɲi See Language page
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ʔayat See Language page
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page No generic term.
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda našiyo See Language page
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae palačiǰaʁa See Language page Also palačidegaʁa ~ palačiriǰaʁa.
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ʔal See Language page
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu [kos] yale See Language page From Span. 'cochino'.
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus čigoʁonaʁa See Language page
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ɲiʔimši See Language page

Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material l-paḳt-a Lit. '3p possessor-weave-object (fem)'. See Language page
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material damegaʁa al-a Lit. '[a certain tree] 3p possessor-seed, fruit'. See Language page
bed cama cama culture-material l-malaʔ See Language page
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material n-soʔon-aʁaki Lit. '3p possessor-sit-enclosure'. See Language page
canoe canoa canoa transport l-lʸikot-a; n-pedaʁanaʁa The latter is a dugout, made from the bottle tree. See Language page
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page
broom escoba vassoura culture-material l-kelog-aʁan-aḳte Lit. '3p possessor-sweep-intrans-instrument (fem)'. See Language page
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology al-ogo See Language page
fence, palisade cerco cerca other [laamde] From Span. 'alambre' (wire). See Language page
firewood leña lenha other nodek l-asoḳ; l-ašik nodek is 'fire'; -asoḳ/-ašik mean 'fuel'. See Language page
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology wiya In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology swiwre multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page
knife cuchillo faca culture-material l-ailon-ek; l-ainon-ek; l-ain-ek See Language page
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool n-ḳačipe especially for clearing fields See Language page
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool -taɣriɣi; taɣiɣire hunting, warfare See Language page
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page
bow arco arco subsistence tool aaku; ec̷pooku arco See Language page
paddle/oar remo remo transport -- See Language page
plate plato prato culture-material koki; n-[plačiilʸo] The latter from Span. 'platillo'. See Language page
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool l-ataʁaki See Language page
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material n-[pelaato] From Span. 'plato'. See Language page
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool l-ḳatel-aʁan-aʁaki Lit. 3p possessor-bake-intrans-enclosure (nom)'. See Language page
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology wriiʔi See Language page
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page
wax cera cera other pik l-apa ~ l-apa dapik Lit. 'honey 3p possessor-lump'. See Language page
honey miel mel food dapik only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture l-aɲik See Language page
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ʔawaḳ-pi Lit. 'grass-plural many'. See Language page
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology anumo See Language page
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page
paper papel papel acculturation ʔhʸumeruko See Language page
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology de-čoʁon See Language page
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ʔolgaʁa See Language page
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology n-wačiki See Language page
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other l-ašiid-aʁan-aʁaki Lit. '3p possessor-puff-intrans-container (nom)'. See Language page
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation [kaaɲa] From Span. 'caña'. See Language page
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material n-saat-a-gi Lit. '3p actor-gird-(aspect)-in'. See Language page
shoes zapatos sapatos dress l-apelaʔ See Language page
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page
cat gato gato acculturation miiča Also Span. 'micho'; similar term occurs elsewhere in the Americas. See Language page
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page
hat sombero chapéu dress n-adoʔo See Language page
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology iyaraʔo See Language page
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool enripi See Language page
salt sal sal food towe; ḳaʔ ɲ-iʔiwa The latter means 'salty'; lit. 'rock prefix-salty'. See Language page
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology #NAME? Also means 'read'. See Language page
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool n-ašiid-aḳte; n-asaw Respectively: lit. '3p possessor-puff-instrument (fem); lit. 'bird wing'. See Language page
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page
hunt cazar caçar food #NAME? To kill game is itko-wo. See Language page
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food šigiyak Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool čimai; ʔapaʁa; ḳaʔapaʁa See Language page
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool -- See Language page
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool l-ʔad-aʁan-aʁaki Lit. '3p possessor-punch, pound-intrans-container'. See Language page
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool l-ʔad-aʁan-aʁat Lit. '3p possessor-punch-intrans-instrument (masc)'. See Language page
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food l-soč-i Lit. '3p possessor-soft-(nom)'. See Language page
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page
house other noyik See Language page