stingray (generic)

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
rayas látigo, raya
Meaning Portuguese
arraia

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Baniwa Potamotrygon sp. ñámaro ɲámaɻo loan direction unknown Yanomami/Ninam Ninam, Yanomami jãmãɾu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona Potamotrygon sp. dziha:ri (M2000) doubtful loan - WW note similarity to WW spear/machete (from Span. sable?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo Potamotrygon sp. pãramebo (with stinger) pãlamɛbo (with stinger) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Dâw Potamotrygon sp. çeé’ cæ̌ʔ inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Eñepa Potamotrygon sp. pankeik; panke' (MM) pankeik; pankeʔ (MM) unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Hodï Potamotrygon sp. ku'laka'we iʰti unique iʰti (Rodman) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Waorani Potamotrygon sp. boyotai doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua buryatu buryatu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Hup Potamotrygon sp. j'æ̌ʔ ɟ'æ̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
Kakua Potamotrygon sp. ~pêjep ~pêjep-tɨb-~di (stingray-hurt-adjvz) unknown also means 'clay pan'? underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan Potamotrygon sp. póin póin inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Nheengatu Potamotrygon sp. yawawira jawawira inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 No info Probably complex See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam Potamotrygon sp. ~camaro (gom) ~tʃamaɾo (gom) loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown North Arawak: Baniwa, Tariana Tariana, Baniwa ɲámaɻo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Resígaro Potamotrygon sp. bahí (Seifart2011) bahí (Seifart2011) loan Bora missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Sikuani Potamotrygon sp. pone (2) póne inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Tariana Potamotrygon sp. hayámaɾu hajámaɾu loan direction unknown Yanomami/Ninam Ninam, Yanomami jãmãɾu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Tukano Potamotrygon sp. ãyâ ãjâ semantic shift East Tukanoan, Branch II from poisonous snake uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana Potamotrygon sp. ˀdyɨɨˀbɨrɨ ˀdyɨɨˀbɨrɨ loan - WW Carib, e.g. Tiriyo cipari See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Yanomami Potamotrygon sp. yãmãru jãmãɾu (IDS) loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown North Arawak: Baniwa, Tariana Tariana, Baniwa ɲámaɻo underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yukuna Potamotrygon sp. nukumi, jiña iwaká nukumi, hiɲa iwaká unique Also hiɲa iwaká uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Bardi Dasyatidae barnamb barnamb unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Burarra Dasyatidae an-maka an-maka unique “an” marker of noun class, “maka” can mean father’s mother 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Dhangu Dasyatidae djuḻaymuŋ dyuḻaymuŋ unique 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Dhay’yi Dasyatidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Dhuwal Dasyatidae maranydjalk ba:rrinyinŋa unique 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Djinang Dasyatidae ḻawarranya rlawarranya unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Gooniyandi Dasyatidae paya loan Nyikina from Marrngu WW %paya missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Gumatj Dasyatidae maranydjalk belpil semantic shift also word for “knife” underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Gupapuyngu Dasyatidae markala dhawatyiri unique 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Guugu Yimidhirr Dasyatidae mirbuy & warramarrathirr mirbuy & warramarrathirr white-spotted shovelnose ray & shovelnose ray unique underived /digarra/ 'stingray spine' is possibly generic 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Jaminjung Dasyatidae ngungkulma ngungkulma unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Karajarri Dasyatidae galo-galo-bigi galo-galo-bigi unique reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Koko-Bera Dasyatidae CHERNT; KO- & PONGKÓM; KO- KO-CHERNT & KO-PONGKÓM STINGRAY unique simplex
Kuku-Thaypan Dasyatidae atikarr atikarr unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Kuku-Yalanji Dasyatidae yawu yawu inheritance *yawu Local To GYim yawu 'small shark sp' and perhaps more widely (CYP E & W) to stingray terms in *ya(:)wa(ra) underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Kurtjar Dasyatidae ntooth & lkoyergh & lmoworth & mpechilgh & tharkithark ntooth & lkoyergh & lmoworth & mpechilgh & tharkithark unique No generic underived wanhthork ~ wooy 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Kuuk Thaayorre Dasyatidae thip; ngat- & punhth+aacin; ngat thip; ngat- & punhth+aacin; ngat calque *ngata, *cipa *ngata (fish) pPaman; *cipa (liver) pPama-Nyungan and poss. pre-PNy (cognates in Gunwinyguan) Unknown protoform poss. *kipa; 'liver' is a reference to the prominence of the liver in preparation as food mutual calque, Local; OR loan with source undeterminable: YYoront OR KThaay To judge from YYoront usage, ngat-thip is a generic and ngat punhth+aacin less likely; there are other specific terms not cited here underived 0 1 All rays are prepared for eating in an elaborate manner prominently involving the liver (thip), hence the name 0 speared (usually from hand); beginning in Post-Wet & peaking in Dry & Pre-Wet 0 0 variable
Mangala Dasyatidae paya paya unknown WW %paya underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Mbabaram Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Ngandi Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Ngarinyin Dasyatidae ngubun (di) ngubun (di) inheritance *ngupunV proto-Worrorran uncoded (di, nW classifier) 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Ngumbarl Dasyatidae yamburna yamburna inheritance perhaps with meaning change WW ??tyarrampu underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Nimanburru Dasyatidae yamban yamban inheritance perhaps with meaning change underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Nyikina Dasyatidae baya baya loan Marrngu WW %paya underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Nyulnyul Dasyatidae yamban yamban inheritance perhaps with meaning change underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Pakanh Dasyatidae weempa; nga'a- nga'a-weempa unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Rembarrnga Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Ritharrngu Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Tjaapukay Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Uw-Olkol Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Uw-Oykangand Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Walmajarri Dasyatidae paya paya loan Marrngu also in Nyikina WW %paya underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Wardaman Dasyatidae nuŋgurlma nuŋgurlma unknown uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Wik Ngathan Dasyatidae katheng kathvng sharks & rays (generic) unique underived gerundial of kathe- 'to tie': 2nd-order generic, as in minh katheng 'tying meats, i.e. sharks & rays', katheng warp 'sawfish' 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Yan-nhangu Dasyatidae bambi ba:rrka semantic shift cf Gupapuyngu “ba:rrkarr” meaning penetrating simplex 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Yawuru Dasyatidae bindanj bindanj unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Yidiny Dasyatidae murujum murujum unique underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 variable
Yir-Yoront Dasyatidae thip; ngar- ngar-thip calque *ngata, *cipa *ngata (fish) pPaman; *cipa (liver) pPama-Nyungan and poss. pre-PNy (cognates in Gunwinyguan) Unknown Protoform poss. *kipa; 'liver' is a reference to the prominence of the liver in preparation as food. Mutual calque, Local; OR loan with source undeterminable. YYoront OR KThaay Various spp; can also refer to sharks, hence generic for elasmobranch fish. underived 0 1 All rays are prepared for eating in an elaborate manner prominently involving the liver (thip), hence the name 0 speared (usually from hand); beginning in Post-Wet & peaking in Dry & Pre-Wet 0 0 variable
Achagua Potamotrygon sp. ijáduli ijáduli inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco Potamotrygon sp. itàanàa machàníiri (itàanàa '?', machàníiri 'without power') itàanàa matʃàní:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari Potamotrygon sp. jatúrí jatúɾí See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Yavitero Potamotrygon sp. yajíwe jahíwe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Mandawaka Potamotrygon sp. náːtuli náːtuli See Language page Ana Paula B.
Waurá Potamotrygon sp. iyapu; ka-pala-'ka ijapu; ka-pala-'ka inheritance? reflex of N.Arawak *inatu-li (Ramirez)? See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora Potamotrygon sp. bajɨ baxɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane Potamotrygon sp. báje (W97) báxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Wayana Potamotrygon sp. sipali sipali doubtful loan - WW note similarity to WW spear/machete (from Span. sable?) See Language page PLE
Tiriyó Potamotrygon sp. cipari cipari doubtful loan - WW note similarity to WW spear/machete (from Span. sable?) See Language page Becky Walker
Mapoyo Potamotrygon sp. supari supari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai Potamotrygon sp. šΦari šΦari doubtful loan - WW note similarity to WW spear/machete (from Span. sable?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa Potamotrygon sp. maschi mastʃi See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Cofán Potamotrygon sp. shipare See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Páez Potamotrygon sp. yoguaz yoguaz See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna Potamotrygon sp. na-ûn (Alv44) naʔun unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Pumé Potamotrygon sp. kʰũĩnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave Potamotrygon sp. iwin iwin doubtful loan Panoan *iwi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao Potamotrygon sp. hue hue See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar Potamotrygon sp. tsentsármau tsɯntsarmau See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa Potamotrygon sp. kaashap ka:ʃap See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna Potamotrygon sp. kaáshap ka:ʃap inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses Potamotrygon sp. i, secte [generics] i, sekte inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo Potamotrygon sp. iwi iwi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua Potamotrygon sp. ratu ratu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua Potamotrygon sp. raya (Spanish loan) ɾaja See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa Potamotrygon sp. cibárih sibárih loan - WW Carib See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva Potamotrygon sp. dechowa deʧowa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Tuyuka Potamotrygon sp. ãñacase-ro ãñakase-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Koreguaje Potamotrygon sp. janameo xanameo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona Potamotrygon sp. janame haname inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya Potamotrygon sp. ñanami ñanami See Language page Amanda Meeks
Kokama Potamotrygon sp. yawawira jawawiɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi Potamotrygon sp. yawɛwɨy, [sɛpali], from Wayana (Cariban) jawɛwɨj, [sɛpali], from Wajana (Cariban) inheritance, loan Carib: Wayana See Language page PLE
Sirionó Potamotrygon sp. hi̯rae ~ si̯rae hi̯rae ~ si̯rae unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá Potamotrygon sp. jawewɨt jawewɨt inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina Potamotrygon sp. bohtáñ̈i boʔtáɲ:i unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Murui Witoto Potamotrygon sp. coreño koreɲo (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito Potamotrygon sp. mɨyaára saápi (tigre raya) saápi (especie de raya mas común de la zona) mɨjaára saápi (tigre raja), saápi (especie de raja mas común de la zona) inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo Potamotrygon sp. sapi sapi See Language page Becky Walker
Wari Potamotrygon sp. papa (Sousa2009) papa (Sousa2009) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo Potamotrygon sp. ibabi ibabi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña Potamotrygon sp. ibabi ibabi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá Potamotrygon sp. tsã-kã'rũ tsã-kã'rũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima Potamotrygon sp. čaβoʔo tʃaβoʔo See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai Potamotrygon sp. patʔak patʔak See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Djeoromitxi Potamotrygon sp. txaõ tʃaõ See Language page PLE