Araona

Family
Tacanan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
aro
Location
-12.42°, -67.73°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Key, Mary Ritchie. 2007. Araona. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location bakʷeo; mawa See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment timo See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body be-bakʷa; be-sese See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality -isi; šili; masawe See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body ese; hememe-i See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tipao; tipae See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality haliǰa See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour sewa See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body ami See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body lokʷakʷa See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body e-c̷oa See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body ac̷o See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human 'bakʷa See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment boso; mozizi-bade See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality aboa See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality haa, hememe See Language page PLE
day día dia time c̷eiɲe See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality azalo; boso See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality azaha; kʷibi See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tobotana See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment poc̷ac̷a-i See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body e-iza-ha See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment mezizo See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna eha; walipa-ha See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body e-toa See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality okʷeda; aokʷe See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body e-c̷ei See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship kʷiča-po; tadi See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna e-iɲa See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment kʷa-ti See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment ec̷a See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment baepa mozizi See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora haha See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality ahai; da; hai-ǰa See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body šoa-iɲa See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body e-me See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar da; hoda; homa; oho See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body e-šoa See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality a-bikʷe See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar kʷipa, kʷipac̷io, hada See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar ema; yama See Language page PLE
if si se grammar -haomo; -c̷omo See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location emeo; meo See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body c̷ama See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment bai See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment akʷi-iɲa See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body zania bene See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body tiǰada; eta See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment popa See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body takʷa See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality abao; aokʷe See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna iɲakʷa See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human dea See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna e-ami See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment badi See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship kʷala; wadi See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body kʷac̷a See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human bani See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality hakʷepati, c̷awa See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body tiado See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body nala See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality šakʷa; -nana See Language page PLE
night noche noite time sisa See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body ewi See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality esi, poisa See Language page PLE
one uno um number peada; peada-we See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body neda; mikata See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human e-kʷiča; c̷edapo See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment nai See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour asele See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body me-anai bene See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture dizi See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora akʷi-c̷aha; c̷aha See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality iwi; oli; c̷oto See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment mezizo See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality akʷeo See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality a-poko-poko See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body bata; ebe- See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental bizo See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body biki See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment baepa See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality lopo See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment hodo See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora amaha See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment mahana See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body siča See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kana; naeda See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality apamotihi See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality lasa-lasa See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar mi; mi-ǰa; mi-ǰa-ha See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body See Language page PLE
three tres tres number kimiša See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment tili-tili See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body lao; c̷oi See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body wo; lepe See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body hana-miki See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body mia See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion tenaikana See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion pobe-a See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact hiɲa; sapa See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental topo See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental pa See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact hikʷi; sasa; hala/laha See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state mano See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact loe See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental tawi-ba See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body izi; laka See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body di; didia See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion bisa; pai See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental akeoli; aheni See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion kʷabec̷a See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state hewa; esi See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental c̷abaha See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion lobo-ti; sipa See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact iše; lawia See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other isea, toaba (?) See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact iše See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ba; ba-mewe See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental izibati See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ha-sisa; ha-wana See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ize; neti; c̷eiɲeba See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other eotata; silo See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact kʷelihi See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental a See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental ba See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact pi; pisa; hia See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state ani See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body tawi See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body kʷedi See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact noi; tozo; sala See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tedi; solo See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact šoto See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state neti See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other c̷ihi See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body bibi See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body c̷ope; c̷opolo See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion waoti See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental nime-a See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wanabotea, iša, iša-botea, ha See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ihi See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other balele-a See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body bataiyo See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion ahe See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other modo See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body kʷac̷a-wati See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body e-ana See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body e-c̷e See Language page PLE
two dos dois number beta; beta-kata See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment e-na; eowi See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kʷada; kʷada-ha See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality anaha See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar ai; kʷipa See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar kʷipac̷io; kec̷io, c̷io See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar ko, koc̷o See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour amae; apaha See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar aise; aiyaha See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship wane; mama See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment beni See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body naba-i See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human pona; mama See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour a-hawa See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mikana; mikana-ha See Language page PLE
foot pie body wac̷i See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ǰa-iša; iša See Language page PLE
all todo todos other babaowe See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tomihaha See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body nokʷizi See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body domi See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body mosozata See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body welolo See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body atai See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment akʷi-biki bewe; ehi See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body me-tezi See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body mosoho See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time zeti See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ewašokʷe See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality sawa-lili; a-sawa-lili See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality a-ašo, ašoda See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (135)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. biɲa See Language page *Tacn form is *bina. PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna boni See Language page PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes popo; leo See Language page Widespread Respectively: 'lechuza cornuda'; small red owl. A white owl is zao. *Tacn form is *popo. PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica holakʷa; pawi-pawi See Language page Widespread Also c̷alia-c̷alia. *Tacn form is *xoraka. PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae wai; wodoho See Language page Also bizizi, 'cuquisa'. *Tacn forms are *-doxo; *bićići. PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae tawata [TG loan] See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae hamani; šoatai See Language page Widespread South America *Tacn form is *śamani. PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family hohe See Language page *Tacn form is *śośe. PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris nio See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna hae See Language page *Tacn form is *śa(ʔ)e. PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. pisoso See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata banakʷa See Language page Also babalakʷa-i. *Tacn forms are *banaka; *pisoso ('iguana'). PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. babi See Language page *Tacn form is *ibabi. PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ba'kʷa See Language page Cf. 'child' 02.270. *Tacn form is *baka. PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria dati See Language page Widespread Water turtle is ena-dati. *Tacn form is *dati. PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) taze See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) wapehe See Language page secondary scrub vegetation *Tacn form is *wapeśe. PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bizo See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden *Tacn form is *bićo. PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. naha See Language page Means 'banana'. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page *Tacn form is *poroto. PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) noc̷a See Language page *Tacn form is *noc̷a. PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays zia See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains *Tacn form is *ćixe. PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum See Language page *Tacn form is *omaśa. PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna akʷi See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kʷawe-a See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. *Tacn form is *kawe. PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas halili See Language page Other varieties are lopoa halili, yellow s.p.; haona halili, purplish s.p.; halili selena, red s.p.; tala; zala, 'gualusa'. *Tacn form is *xariri. PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. hemi See Language page *Tacn form is *xemi. PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. hono See Language page secondary forest, floodplain *Tacn form is *xono. PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ac̷a; masa-masa-iɲa See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation Respectively: 'barbasco'(root); and a leaf poison. To poison (fish) is kʷia. *Tacn form is *ac̷a. PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bototo; loso See Language page Also tapi-tapi, 'cazadora grande'; zoi-zoi, 'cazadora pequeña'; makʷa, 'leaf-cutter'. Also bona; malo, 'tucandera'. Also masisi. PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata malo See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. makʷa See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis a-ize See Language page *Tacn form is *-iće. PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria boatiki; zomama See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kʷiɲa-hola-hola-i; kʷiɲa-boze See Language page PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera hababa-i; hapo-i See Language page *Tacn forms are *śababa; *śapora. PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora hoto; c̷ena See Language page The former is poisonous. Also ešo; and c̷oho, fruit worm. *Tacn form is *ec̷ena. PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda bakʷa-piɲoli See Language page Cf. 'snake' 03.850. PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ahi See Language page *Tacn form is *aśi. PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera wele-wele-i See Language page A 'tábano' is weno-weno; also danabo, a black fly; and tepesi. PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. dihi See Language page *Tacn form is *di(ʔ)i. PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita bia See Language page *Tacn form is *biŕa. PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda zemo See Language page PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae kaleši See Language page Also biwa kaleši, a black spider. PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus hike; bakʷe hike See Language page Also hike-baba 'rata terrestre'; ewaepo hike; a tree rat is bakʷehe hike. *Tacn form is *śite. PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus dokʷe-i; šaha See Language page *Tacn form is *doke-ŕi. PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kʷaba, c̷ota, ziki Cf. 'canoe'. *Tacn form is *ćiti. See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material Small black seed, perforated is ewasohohaha; small seeds, bizikewa; red and black seed, pone-pone-haha; section of scorpion tail, used for beads, ahi tika. See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material e-hai Hammock' is šawi. See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material šawi See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material e-ani-hi Refers to a seat. See 'sit' 12.130. *Tacn form is *waŕi. See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology babatolo; bakʷetolo See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology yanakona In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material bobo-i See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology haiba-i; maša The 'cushma', man's bark-cloth garment is kʷabomala. A sling over the shoulder to carry the baby is ona. *Tacn form is *ona. See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other kʷa-ti Also means 'fire' 01.810. *Tacn form is *ka-ti. See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology baba Some names of gods are: baba-zoto; baba-wotesa; baba-bizosa; baba ewo-o; baba-c̷aha doc̷i; c̷ekʷa-esi; c̷ekʷa mala. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology moi Also babadewe; dewe. *Tacn form is *moŕi. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material [kʷišilo] From Span. 'cuchillo'. See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool baha especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pia; piša hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool pic̷oe 'Bowstring' is pic̷o-ema. See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport walo-i *Tacn form is *e-taro-xi. See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material sepe See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ho-towaha; towaha Also mapai. See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology zaka See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other wiɲi *Tacn form is *wini. See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food waha *Tacn form is *waśa. See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture bado; misa The former also means 'string'. The latter is twisted bark. *Tacn form is *bado. See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology baepa See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation hilika See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tawi-ba Lit. 'sleep-see'. 04.610. See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation walipa See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology mec̷i See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation oši Means 'white cane'; 'tacuara' is moi. *Tacn form is *šita. See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material maaposa, noka See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress wac̷i-hozoi wac̷i is 'foot'. See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation misi See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation bala; pisa-pisa See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress sobelele See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology dohoi See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool soe See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool dada See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food -- Salt lick' is mehe. A seasoning, bano, is made from darkly roasted Brazil nuts, pounded in a trough. *Tacn form is *bano. See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hehe Bird singing is kʷei. See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool ewai esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food kʷade, pisa, c̷a See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool mawic̷aha (?) See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool mawic̷aha (?) See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture hahotana prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food mama Manioc flour (chivé) is mama. See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool emekʷasa See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other e-tae The front of the house is e-tae kʷac̷a, lit. 'house-mouth' 04.240. *Tacn form is *e-taŕe. See Language page PLE