fear

Semantic Field
mental
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
miedo
Meaning Portuguese
medo

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim tun'-gut, tun-yĕts unknown Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ty7yjah(-n), tyijah(-n) inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla -yuki- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok sheky/j-nge- unknown Jane Hill
Chemehuevi ija/vaga inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7it'imin “fear, be afraid (B78)”, inheritance Ono 1996:34 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno mlity7men “tengo miedo” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno axunushpi A 304 inheritance A 304 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tuk/qLnaki “espantar”, miko/ “tengo miedo” 0106R unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno oxonishpi, oxonyshpi unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa mshya: inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche nanakuya7ary “fearful” unique Jane Hill
Cupeño yekwin-0 [yəˈkʷin] inheritance Jane Hill
Gabrielino kwa7 yo:kroy “tengo miedo” inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa meheyaay [məxəˈjaˑi] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7ija-vaga- inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa huu; huu-t unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tyhmyk loan Jane Hill
Lake Miwok co/wa unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño na:la- unknown Jane Hill
Maidu jyhe/p, jehe/p inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave masdey= inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun ha:sin “to be afraid”, asli-n- “to be afraid (as a person alone at night) ; inheritance O 77:122 Jane Hill
Nisenan byk', by:k' unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute sya7i inheritance Thornes 03:225 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok jalymnge- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok sel:ajku- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A a/xai (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M cxa/lo 'be afraid, frighten' unknown Mason 1918:140 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) quiixim unknown Jane Hill
Serrano tiYmq loan Jane Hill
Southern Paiute ija-S, ja:-S, jy7y- (iterative); inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok helaHj-ngHe- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute ijevag'a inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal tsungkil (N); tsungk-ut (V) unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone ti7iwan inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo no:-c'e/u:-she7 unknown Jane Hill
Washo shashu unknown K298 Jane Hill
Western Mono syjee- inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu k'ilep inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami o-lo/-yo “afraid” loan into protolanguage, direction unknown CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi pax- inheritance K07:246, G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne Thana:yitH inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yuki 7u7- unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma mashadhe/k “he is afraid” H2:151 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa káaro, whio káaro, whio inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona narídʒi (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo jidᵾrõ xidɨɾõ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw ãàm ʔã̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano gu'í- gu'í- missing See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa yɨnkasɨ (IDS) jɨnkasɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï iti'yu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani dã-dõ gĩyẽ-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup ʔɔm- ~ʔɔb- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi esiʔnɨpɨ (IDS) esiʔnɨpɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu akayémũ akajɛmũ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam kiri (EM72) kiɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki bihɨi ja bihɨi xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon narikenak, narik, tesenarimasen (A1981); narik (M2000) naɾikenak, naɾik, tesenaɾimasen (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá kili (EM72) kili inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani esusu (2)(fright), kujunawa (3)(to fear something) esúsu , ku-húnawa (hunáwa 'sentir miedo' - 'be afraid') unique; inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tukano uî uî inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria cuira (Waltz) kuiɾa (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam kɨri kɨɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami kiri-aɨ kiɾi-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna kero'okajo keroʔokaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup ʔɔm ~ʔɔb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana thadlara waya- inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi -jargi- -jarki- inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba yirabanngu unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra jurkuja unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu biyaṉu unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal barrari Claire Bowern
Dhuwala barrari unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari dadla loan Arabana Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu barrari Claire Bowern
Djapu barrari unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang nguy inydji giri unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng jilba inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi yoowa inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu barrari unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji wukarra karri- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr -jarik- [madjaregan] -jarrik- [majarrekan] inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru riwa loan Claire Bowern
Karajarri gadjal unique Claire Bowern
Kija jilpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala rayin loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
Miriwung jilba inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka kinyandu unique Claire Bowern
Mudburra wilanykarra Claire Bowern
Mudburra wilankarra unique Claire Bowern
Ngamini pandanu unique Claire Bowern
Ngandi gunyjiki unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma wayagabu Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl wajja <wajja> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru -jarg- [ma-j.eregan] -jark- [ma-j.erekan] inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla rayintarri Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta ngarrurta unique Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta wirnti loan Ngumpin-Yapa Claire Bowern
Nyikina wadji waji inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul -jarg- [midierek] -jark- [midyerek] inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi nguuya-la- unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya kayalpathawina Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta thalala inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu gunydja'dhirri loan Claire Bowern
Walmajarri rayinjarri- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru thalaraji- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy darr=ngawi unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu ḻawaŋdhun unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha yabayi, yabali unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi thadna unique Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka japa unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru -jarik- [madjaregan] -jarrik- [majarrekan] inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua ká:ʒui ká:ʒui inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco cáalíri (miedoso) káalíri (miedoso) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari ka:lukeh ka:lukeh See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena akune akune See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ľ̥asita; ľ̥asia; hiľiha; ka'yunane ľ̥asita; ľ̥asia; hiľiha; kaʔjunane See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare kiate kiate See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana taɽian (be scared, have fear) taɽian (be scared, have fear) doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Waimiri-Atroari teneriki See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi maira maira inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure pi-; 'ni-piko-w pi-; 'ni-piko-w inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá mɨža; mɨža-'ki mɨža; mɨža-'ki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora iči, ičí-tʰʸe, nïʔnéβe, ápʰiičʰóče, áápimʸéi, ámɨtsʰáraʔkʰóče, nóïʔkʰóče iči, ičí-tʰʲɛ, nɯʔnέβɛ, ápʰiičʰóčɛ, áápimʲέi, ámɨtsʰáraʔkʰóčɛ, nóɯʔkʰóčɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane ígi-ʔi, ñɨ́ʔikku-ʔi ígi-ʔi, ɲɨ́ʔikku-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio jiinɨknödok dʒinɨʔnödɔk inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai zuno zuno inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana elamhak elamhak unique See Language page PLE
Tiriyó nari ke nai (s/he is afraid) nari ke nai inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Mapoyo uyemu'kuru ujemu'kuru See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai erasɨ (SM) erasɨ (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari teneriki 'afraid' teneriki 'afraid' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa jame, kore, öpönsi, piripe, piripi, sasme See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca bsiesesuca βsiesesuka See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá nee õayáa, neoayá neː õayáa, neoayá See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán dyoye (v.) dʒojɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Taushiro i'ja iʔxa See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez agnú agnú See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna na-mú (Alv44) naʔmú unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina kwaasia (vb.) kwaasia (vb.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa xtsawatxána xtsawatxána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke yituíkó ('make afraid') jituíkó ('make afraid') unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé uapá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave mo-õm-yu mo-õm-ju unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar shámamu tʃamamu See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa sapij sapix See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna ishámamu iʃamamu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses dacuëd dakuɨd unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo rakɨ-; ratɨ- rakɨ-; ratɨ- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jnutay; junutay; juntay (to be afraid) xnutaj; xu:nutaj; xu:ntaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua manchana mantʃana See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá manchai mantʃai See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua manchai mantʃai See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano manchay mantʃaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa ye'e'kua' jeɁeɁkuaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva tecue tekʷe unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano gui- gui- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana u'wí- u'wí- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna güire (also used as a verb 'to be afraid of') gwiɾe inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti 'kúi- 'kúi- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana ku'e- ku'e- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano guí- guí- See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca kĩ'ki ri'ka kĩ'ki ri'ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo u'wí- u'wí- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka ku'í ku'í See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja u'wí- u'wí- See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje βahɨdʒɨ- βahɨdʒɨ- inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona wa'hɨ jɨ-hi wa'hɨ jɨ-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya kaʔda-je kaʔda-je See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana opipatin (be afraid) opipatin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama aquɨcha (tener miedo) akɨtʃa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi -kɨyɛ -kɨyɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó esikiče esikiče inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina turoohtyóho, tuuro (to fear) tɯrooʔtʲóʔo, tɯɯro (to fear) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto hakḯru.i-de, dʒï.i-de hakɯ́ru.i-dɛ, dʒɯ.i-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto hakḯru.i-te hakɯ́ru.i-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto hakïnai-te hakɯnai-tɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito quɨ'ɨraca kɨ'ɨraka unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo p+r+nu (tener miedo) pɨɾɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
Wari yinʔ jinʔ See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo kia-šo; kia-axa kia-šo; kia-axa See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña bahi-da; moiya-ya; hekotana-ya bahi-da; moiya-ya; hekotana-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara ajjsaraña aχsara-ɲa See Language page PLE
Kwazá we- we- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima tino-ka tino-ka See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai (ha) ɨtɨ (ha) ɨtɨ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang mũmẽg, kamẽg mũmɛ̃ŋ; kãʔu; kamɛ̃ŋ See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi djü, pi dʒø, pi See Language page PLE