Mangala

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
mem
Location
-19.49°, 123.84°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar -ngani inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar -la inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar jipangu inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nyurra inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nyuntu inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar paniyarti inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar -na inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location kankarni inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar yalpara unknown Claire Bowern
all todo todos other wakaj inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar kampaja Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body putu loan Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kalnguny doubtful loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental talu inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment pulkaru loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ngka inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body mawurr unknown Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality yakurr inheritance Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wanji inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body purrma inheritance CHECK Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kaniny inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality marraly unknown Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body paca inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour galoro inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body kuluyuku loan CHECK Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body turrpanarri unknown Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality tumu inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body kuji inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture marnti inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamarna inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body rangku doubtful loan onomatopoeic Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment payipungarri unknown Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body janjunarri (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human kartu semantic shift Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion karnti inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment pukarr unknown Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality piriya unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion kapanarri (?) unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kampanyarri (3) unknown Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental [missing] missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental ngaci inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact katipungarri (2) loan Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state nari semantic shift Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact lajunarri (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna wanapari inheritance Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality puruly unknown Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental pukarri-manarri (1) Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body kurna Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality tararr unknown Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment kunturr unknown Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body kuran (T), nilarba (McK) unknown Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment molnyi (T) unknown Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body wulpa janarri (1) unique Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna ngunma unique Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body mil inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body jala unknown Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion pungka inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality yulara unknown Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body ngakarl inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship ngarrjiyanu unknown Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental rayin loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna jimpirri doubtful loan Juwaliny Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment walu, wa:lu (T), warlu (C40) inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna [missing] missing Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion wutanarri (1) unknown Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment milirrngu pupu loan Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion ngurita loan Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment winywiny inheritance Claire Bowern
foot pie body kantijarr inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora mayi loan areal Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality wulyu unknown Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state baga na bulgari unknown Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ral unknown Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body kurrapa unique Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body marru unique Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental pina-ma inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality tanji doubtful loan Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion wakuyanyarri? (3) unknown Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pungarri (2) inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact kanti unknown Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other katimanarri (1) unknown Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar jarrani unique Claire Bowern
if si se grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body jaki unique Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body japjap unknown Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact puwa! inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental nila loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental yijinarri (1) unique Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment jalyjarr unknown Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jampu inheritance Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body kanjimanga inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion minyjikarri unknown Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment linku wirri nganjurring (T) unknown Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body mirliki inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality yirtany unknown Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna manjal unknown Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body ralyuralyu inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human iliado Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kuyi inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment kirrirti unique Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship jula unknown Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body rirra semantic shift Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human yini inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body mutuyangu unknown Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality manpa unknown Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body piji unknown Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
night noche noite time yurra unique Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar jumbaly (T), ngaia (T) unknown Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body milya inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality bulga loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
one uno um number wanyju unknown Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other lipurra unknown Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar wandjera doubtful loan Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human jipi, jiibi (C40) inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body jalapina unknown Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment jinmiri unknown Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour piḎpurr unknown Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body junka unknown Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture makurr loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora wanal unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality bīninj inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment mulnyi unknown Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental marrarra!, marra- unknown Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact rlacu Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental mil ka- semantic shift Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jaliny unknown Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wiranja inheritance Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality kunku loan Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body kulpirli loan Nyulnyulan? Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body warrara? unknown Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state kapa- inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body nalaja unknown Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment yirri unknown Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body lampu yarrinyarri (3) unique Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality wipiti loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body parnti-ma inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment lunturru unknown Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body janguly inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact rlaarr-pu inheritance Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact rtulypu loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state karingkaka! inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment wiriny loan Yawuru Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other nguru-manarri (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment purli unknown Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body kurna unknown Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time ngulungulu unknown Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body jirrmil inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body rapu2arri Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion jawunarri (1) loan Nyikina Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body ngulpurru inheritance Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar yalartu inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality walpura Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality yakurrmata unknown Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental pina-manarri (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar nyalartu, nyaltu inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number murrkun doubtful loan Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body piji unknown Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact yarrka-, wira- unknown Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment ilijarduju (T) unknown Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kinma- inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body jalany inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body jawa inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality niŋara doubtful loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other kurari kanarri (1) unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number nguyarra inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body kurrpuk kunarri (1) loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion wuna unknown Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment kankinyjangka unknown Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality ngurrjal unknown Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar ngantu inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nyangal-nga loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar jani unknown Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour la:li inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar ngantu inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship wangu unknown Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wangal inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body jimpirri inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human marnin unknown Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body jawala pungarri (2) unique Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour gandawara inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis partkurru partkurru loan direction unknown Jingulu underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae lilkurla lilkurla unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus mayarta mayarta loan WW WW %mayarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia yata unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba milmankatyi unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer matinyanu matinyanu unique underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp cati cati loan Pilbara WW 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna cimpiriyartu cimpiriyartu unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis munkarliny inheritance missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri pilawal pilawal loan Nyulnyulan WW %pilawal underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae munurrmurr; munumurr; munurrunurru munurrmurr; munumurr; munurrunurru unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lumiŋka lumiŋka unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii kalkarrurru kalkarrurru loan direction unknown Nyikina underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kurarak (McK) kurarak (McK) unique underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula cinapapi cinapapi unique unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) mirbolol mirbolol loan direction unknown Yawuru 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius wintiku wintiku loan into protolanguage WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis kilala kilala unique underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis kurramarrka kurramarrka loan direction unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota kumirirri kumirirri loan direction unknown 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera marlurlartu marlurlartu loan Yulparija underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) parrulu parrulu loan Nyikina underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda kanparr kanparr inheritance WW %kanparr underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae nyarrapartpart unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes nyarrapartpart nyarrapartpart unique reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus yulurriny inheritance also in Gurindji 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo kurita kurita loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris kunyarr kunyarr loan Walmajarri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae kalaŋanyca kalaŋanyca unique underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) malarti malarti unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ŋurita ŋurita unique rel to %NGURRINY? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) ngarnakarri ngarnakarri loan direction unknown Mangala derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni kwanirr kwanirr inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii caparra (T) caparra (T) loan with meaning change Nyulnyulan lizard sp underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) purru-karraŋu purru-karraŋu unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla piyarrku piyarrku loan WW %pilyaku 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp wilka wilka unique underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) calkarr calkarr unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera carrcun carrcun unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis kulyiwan kulyiwan loan Eastern Nyulnyulan underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus marntu marntu loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawarta yawarta loan WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae wirunywiruny wirunywiruny inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae tirrpincarr wirunywiruny inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae yari inheritance missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae badgaraŋo inheritance 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. cawarrkurru cawarrkurru unique unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kiwiny kiwiny inheritance rel to %KIWINY? WW %kiwiny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) mawukarra mawukarra loan Walmajarri mawu 'hum' = -karra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus kiŋkin kiŋkin unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya pantiral pantiral unique underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida kurluruku kurluruku loan direction unknown WW %kurutuk underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca dariel dariel loan with meaning change 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis ngakayalya unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus patyalparra patyalparra loan Nyikina missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species waŋutakuta unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi tarri:l tarri:l loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda larrkaru larrkaru unique cf. %LARRKARTI boab underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus liŋurra liŋurra loan Nyulnyulan WW %linykurra missing 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones nyaŋarrarrin nyaŋarrarrin unique unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna missing missing 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus cawakarraci cawakarraci unique unknown 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae wangkararra wangkararra inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species mutun mutun unique underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae paya paya unknown WW %paya underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura mini:lka mini:lka loan direction unknown missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna rlimirri rlimirri loan direction unknown 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ŋakayalya ŋakayalya inheritance unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea djindjol unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides miwa miwa loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera mungku inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) pīna pīna loan Nyikina underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina micin micin unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru maiada maiada loan CF %MAYARTA 'PELICAN'? 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) ŋamparr puŋarri (2) ŋamparr puŋarri (2) unique phrase 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis garbina garbina loan Nyulnyulan WW wattle/shield WW %karrpin underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax gunduru gunduru unique underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys cintikirriny cintikirriny loan into protolanguage WW %tyintipirri underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) pina (T) pina (T) inheritance cf. NGY pirna termite eggs underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ngamparr pungarri (2) unknown Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna lilkurla unknown Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna cimpirriyartu semantic shift Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna purrmuru inheritance CHECK Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna kunyarr unknown Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna yuka unknown Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna padguru (McK), wanjirri (C40) loan Nyikina Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kalakata (T) unknown Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna wangkararra loan into protolanguage Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology ŋūrra semantic shift Claire Bowern
armband dress wila loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool warraŋkatyi loan Nyulnyulan WW %warankatyi Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool yiwana; yiwana loan direction unknown areal Pilbara word but also found in Marrngu and Nyikina Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material tyampulu inheritance Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool parralyi inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool warraka loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material malpulu loan Nyikina Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport manytyarta loan direction unknown Kurrama with semantic shift? Also used for coolamon for carrying water Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology limi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool puntal loan direction unknown areal also kurnti, which is a loan Claire Bowern
cook food food tyayini mana unique Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food yampal loan direction unknown Western Desert in Yulparija and Warnman too. Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology kawilya loan direction unknown Walmajarri Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool gananj inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology karrpukarri-manarri (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology tyalŋka loan WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool tyimarri loan Claire Bowern
fire-saw other kurru loan direction unknown WW %kurrwa Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other tyurra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other murimuri loan direction unknown Yulparija Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool limarra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food miluŋu unique Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food ŋurrkata loan direction unknown Yulparija Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food wilka semantic shift? goanna? Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology palaŋan inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology kantiliny loan direction unknown Yulparija Claire Bowern
grog food kari semantic shift WW %kari Claire Bowern
hair belt dress nyimpan unique Claire Bowern
headband dress walpi unique Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology mapan loan direction unknown WW %maparn Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food walatya inheritance Claire Bowern
house (European) other mayarru loan WW %mayaru Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food kalakalanarri unique Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology tyipika unique Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology winil loan direction unknown Walmajarri Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuwipinti unique Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress mintyil inheritance Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology tyutyu unknown onomatopoeic Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology tirrptirrp inheritance Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool pipinyanu unique semantic shift? mother? Claire Bowern
nosepeg other nyirnka loan Western Desert ‘initiate’ (n) Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology papakuna inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tyuŋari inheritance Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology pilypurr inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food rlaŋa loan with semantic shift Warnman < dirt Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tyapi loan direction unknown WW %tyapi Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tyinal loan direction unknown WW %jinal Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool maŋul loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool walparra loan direction unknown WW %walparra Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material purrurru inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation rampala loan Nyikina Claire Bowern
tea food wantyal loan with semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics tyalŋa semantic shift? Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics kilala loan Gooniyandi Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology murruŋkurr unique Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other rlimirri loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology mawunti loan direction unknown WW %mawuntu Claire Bowern
windbreak other wuŋku loan Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation milimili loan English WW %milimili Claire Bowern
corpse food karrikan inheritance Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation pawurl loan English Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tyina putu inheritance Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics tyalŋka loan WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
earth oven food tampal inheritance Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation rlinytyu loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation minyawu loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tulkurru loan with semantic shift ‘heavy’ in Gurindji? Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress maru semantic shift ‘shade’ Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture rupu loan Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture pipinyanu unknown Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool kana inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture yapina inheritance Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture jungari inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool walbara (T) unknown Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool mulja unknown Claire Bowern
house other mayarru loan areal Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium mobile no