black

Semantic Field
colour
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
negro
Meaning Portuguese
preto

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim too'-goo-pul' 219 inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tuu” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla tul-nek inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok kulu/l:-i-7- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tupa/-ga inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7aximaj “be black” unique Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno lastHpyn “prieto” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno s-shoyin “to be black” unknown A76:280 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno piso7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno al-shoshoy unknown Harrington 1974:9 Jane Hill
Cocopa nyi:Ly, nyiLy “to be black” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche tu-, tuh-, tuhupI inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño tul- [tul] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen ala/-ki “dark, black” unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:219 Jane Hill
Gabrielino yupi: inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa nyilly [ɲɪɫʸ] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu tuhu-ki “to be black” inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa (kW)-nyiir inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk jo7vy7k inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok mulu/umulu inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño yuva/-ta~i- “to be black” inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu si/wsi\w loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Mojave luup i= unknown Jane Hill
Mutsun murCumak “blackish ones, dark ones” inheritance O77:31,84 Jane Hill
Nisenan kylym inheritance? Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tuu-, tuhu inheritance Thornes 03:215 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok kulul:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok kulu7lu- 7 is glottal stop inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A co/wuth (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M cauwat unknown Mason 1918:149 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) coopol (also “black widow spider” unknown Jane Hill
Serrano tYnA:- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute to:-G inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok tu:hi-, tuhuh-:i loan Jane Hill
Southern Ute tuu-, tuukwarY inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal tuukupyy-l inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tuppapi(tyn) inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo co/:we loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Washo a/yaw unknown J333 Jane Hill
Western Mono tumo7anigi-, tumu7anigi- “to be black” inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu culul inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ?nya_: inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami moTka inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi tcUmgutan (chy:mgatan?) xU is u/umlaut unknown K07:244, G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne *moDok'wiyi turn black inheritance N 1944 59 Jane Hill
Yuki shi7ik c is sh inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma nyi:ly H3:209 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa íitta íit̪a (=smoke) semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona sukutuməmɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo ñemico (fem.), ñemicʉ (m.), ñemino (inan.) ɲɛmiko (fem.), ɲɛmikɨ (m.), ɲɛmino (inan.) inheritance cf. Andoke - ɲe See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw çaà câ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano ñiri ñiri inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa tɨ-puru-ke tɨ-puru-ke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï wa'le unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani wẽ-ta-bõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup j'á ɟ’á inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi arikkɨtun (IDS) arikkɨtun (IDS) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu pixuna, tapayuna (piju=black, used in various native tupi languages, tapajuna used for color of skin) piʃuna, tapajuna (piju=black, used in various native tupi languages, tapajuna used for color of skin) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam ušI, ɨši (EM72) uʃi, ɨʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki nea nea inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon iikkɨrɨng, rɨi (E1980); itarikutun (M2000) iʔkɨrɨŋ, rɨɪ (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá uši (EM72) uʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tariana kadíte kadíte inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano ñisé ñisé inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria ñina (Waltz) jina (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam uši uʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami iši iʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna kameni kameni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup c'âh c'âh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana pirla unique Claire Bowern
Bardi maanka maanka inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba gurngurnu unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra ngunyja unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu gurrŋan(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal biḻak Claire Bowern
Dhuwala gurrŋan(') unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari maru inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu gurrŋan(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu biḻak unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang mul inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng thegoobeli- Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi gooroogooroo loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu gurrŋan(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji mumpung loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr mank mank inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru guruguru inheritance? Claire Bowern
Jawi meelga milka semantic shift Claire Bowern
Karajarri 4078 inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija manpe- inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa maRukatha loan Claire Bowern
Mangala galoro inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung manype inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka tjimpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra mungarramungarra Claire Bowern
Mudburra mungarra semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ngamini maRu inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi mul'mul loan Claire Bowern
Ngarluma warru inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl rerrga, koorrba <rerrga, koorrba> unknown Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi murrumurru loan Claire Bowern
Nimanburru mang mank inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla maru Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta warrukurlu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta warrukurla loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
Nyikina ruga ruka doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul maarng maarng inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi gugiriga unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta tyimpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu gurrŋan' Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu mul'mul inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kurnkurn doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru jimpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa gurunggaya; gururrnggay; guru kurungkaya; kururrngkay; kuru unique Claire Bowern
Worrorra waguma:da waguma:da doubtful loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
Wubuy duma inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu mol'mulŋu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha impa (tjimpa in Yawarrawarrka) inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi maru inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawuru ruka; kalurru ruka; kalurru doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Achagua katʃáhulai katʃáhulai inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco cúulíiri kú:lí:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari kewere-ri kewere-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena ʃereri ʃereri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero mumu-hi mumu-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare tayni tajni See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana pʰudidi-ʔu pʰudidi-ʔu Doubtful loan Carib, esp. Eñepa ti-puru-ke See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi kiyere, kiya kijere, kija inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure hamkon hamkon unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá yala'ki; itʸula (latter is also "blue, green, blue-black") jala'ki; itʸula unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Arutani sipan, soson sipan, soson See Language page John Blaha
Sape tsaiña tsaiɲa See Language page John Blaha
Bora kʰɨ́ɨ́βe-ne, kʰḯḯβé-mekʰe, páxtʰïne kʰɨ́ɨ́βɛ-nɛ, kʰɯ́ɯ́βέ-mɛkʰɛ, páxtʰɯnɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane kɨβo-no kɨβo-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio iikkɨrɨng iʔkɨrɨŋ inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai xinukutume xinukutume inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana alilinme (vb) alilinme (vb) See Language page PLE
Tiriyó sikinmano sikinmano inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare hudumato (IDS, KH) hudumato inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo kërëkë kɛrɛkɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai či-čwi-ye či-čwi-ye unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari tapyryma tapɨrɨma See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa korocha, korochi ko'ts̺ots̺a See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo fuseuki; fuseukiñe fuseuki; fuseukiñe unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca amuyhyzyn mague amuɨhɨtʂɨn maγe See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá phaimá phaimá See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Macaguan tsebí tsebí inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán sinje´on, si'an si̡ʔãn See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra kantsiarpi kantsiaɾpi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro ayo ontu´ ajo ontuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez conchi kontʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna wẽxẽ [4, 4] wẽʔẽ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina hiʨuhwaj hitʃuhwaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa btsénga btsénga See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke ñe-; uʷɒi ɲe-; uʷɒi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé burɛ-burɛ-a; kãrã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku kabi, weʔči kabi, weʔtʃi See Language page PLE
Ashuar shuwín, nashúm ʃuwin, naʃum See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa mukusa mukusa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna bukúsea bukúsɨa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses tʂɨʂɨ tʂɨʂɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo čɨkɨ čɨkɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua vadacu- wandaku unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua yana jana See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá iana iana See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua yana jana See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yana, chiwilu jana, tʃiwilu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa idikwa'a idikwaʔa unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Barasano ~ji-se ~ji-se See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana ñiirĩjẽ ɲiiɾĩxɛ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna ~ji-rise ~ji-rise inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti jĩ́ jĩ́ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana jĩ-dĩ jĩ-dĩ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Tanimuca dẽ'ĩã dẽ'ĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo jɨ̃ɨ̃- jɨ̃ɨ̃- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka yĩ'ĩ jĩʔĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja ñíňĩ́ ɲírĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje chija'che dʒixaʔdʒe inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona sˀi; sˀiheihi sˀi; sˀiheihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya neaco neakɔ See Language page Amanda N
Kokama tsuni (to be black) tsuni inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi piyũ; -ũ pijũ; -ũ inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó ero'nei̯; sone; eišõ ero'nei̯; sone; eišõ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá pitsun pitsun inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina juhtóóhfu hɯʔtóóʔɸɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto híɗï-re-de híɗɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto hítï-re-de hítɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto hitï-re-de hitɯ-rɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito mɨ'ɨnana mɨ'ɨnana unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo kak+ka kakɨka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari mišem miʃem See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo tewe; e-tewe (Girard 1971) tewe; e-tewe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña sewe-da; sewe; sewe-da-tere (G71); ceveda (G71) sewe-da; sewe; sewe-da-tere (G71); ceveda (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara ch´iara čˀiyara See Language page PLE
Kwazá be?ỹ-, hoho- be?ỹ-, hoho- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima tun-ni tun-ni See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai dat̯, tsi-dat̯ dat̯, tsi-dat̯ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang sà sə; saɨ See Language page PLE
Suyá tɨ'glɛ, tɨ'ylɛ tɨ'glɛ, tɨ'jlɛ See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi biro biro See Language page PLE