Washo

Family
Hokan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
was
Location
38.82°, -119.64°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location i/wi7 unknown Jacobsen 1964 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ya/:sa7 unknown J? Jane Hill
all todo todos other mi/7le7 unknown J503 Jane Hill
and y e grammar ash unknown K 301 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body c'i/:bel mo/Lk'o unknown J426 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body c'imelmo unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment t'sa/pu(7) unknown J1958:200 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -a, -ya unknown J 168 Jane Hill
back espalda costas body a/shg unknown J 305 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7nu/k'ubi unknown J 117 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body dic'igu/:gush “my stomach” 233; unknown J233 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location i/lm unknown J339 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality i/:yel unknown J373 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body gi/:t'i7 unknown J460 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour a/yaw unknown J333 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body a/shang unknown J411 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body sEbE- unknown J267 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body pa/c'il loan J509 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body i:bi7 287; unknown J287 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body dishu/: unknown J168 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body k'e/she E- “to breathe” 263 unknown J263 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment do/poshi unknown J239 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body mU i/:k'yl Vt “to chew” unknown J? Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human nga/wngang unknown J? Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion p'a/:t'i unknown J510 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment dawma/hym unknown J111 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality diwy/hli unknown J172 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion i/ye unknown J362 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact i/:bik' “to be cooked, ripe” 270; unknown J270 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality i/:shib unknown J269 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental mushE i/7ish unknown J549 Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental i/7ib “to cry” 268; unknown J268 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact -a:k'im unknown J1958:199 Jane Hill
day día dia time 7e/:be unknown J79:568 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state ju/li E- Pi unknown J520 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact i/deg unknown J379 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna tuli/:shi7 unknown J87 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality yéʔc'eš unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental sush unknown K297 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body i/me7 unknown J274 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality i/huk' unknown J288 Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ya7mo/lt'ali unknown J109 Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment magálsaʔ unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body p'i/sew unknown J326 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment ngo/wa unknown J239 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body e/mlu unknown J263 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna zígen yá:gɨl unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body diwi/:gi unknown J84 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body mi/k'u unknown J87 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion dipi/ti7i unknown J237 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality t'éweʔ wagóhadi unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body t'i/:dym unknown J250 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship digo/y7 unknown J118 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental shashu unknown K298 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna i:sh unknown J1958:200 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment di/7yu unknown J62 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna 7a/t'abi7 unknown J596 Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion bEjU-Pi unknown J514, 519 Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment dawp'áp'ɨl unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion yE, yu- Pi unknown J319 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment wámaladɨp' unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
foot pie body ma/yab unknown J373 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora demuc'úc'uʔ ʔí:bik'i unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality gish.lel unknown J655 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state Mo/ngili unknown J249 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body a/jush unknown J286 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body a/:du unknown J411 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar Suffixed glottal stop unknown J ? Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body i/heb “head” 268; unknown J268 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental da/mal unknown J273 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality i/shysh unknown J295 Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion a/shdym unknown J328 Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact a/:m unknown J332 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other 7lu a/7pa unknown J549 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hu/nga unknown J174 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar Le/ unknown J87, 402, K 268 Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -a/:sha unknown J329 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body g.a/ya7 unknown J424 Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact atg unknown J377 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental làšašé:si unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment da/7aw unknown J60 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental a/saw unknown J286 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment dayáyʔ unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body dic'elelel unknown J235 Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body a/hl unknown J355 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion kMe a/7sham unknown J115, 573 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment dewp'ilélek, déʔpilelek unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body k'e/she unknown J263 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body d-ilek unknown K310 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality gó:gaʔiʔ unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna c'i/:bel loan direction unknown J86 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body dap'a/:p'ysh unknown J84 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human t'e:liwhu unknown J62 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ʔá:daš unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment dí:be p'íʔiš unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship gitla/:7 unknown J99 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body h/anga unknown J301 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human di/ye “to name” loan J1979:567 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body i/:bu unknown J 411 Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality -le/lew unknown J502 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body d-i:bu unknown K310 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality téslut'iʔ unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
night noche noite time da-pauwit unknown K311 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar -e/:s unknown J? Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body shu/yeb unknown J419 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality -e:Lu unknown J1958:202 Jane Hill
one uno um number la/k'a7 unknown J169 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other beyéc'ɨk sáʔa unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body -a/ha unknown J1958:203 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human t'a/nu unknown J187 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact e/tb unknown J497 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment daha/7ash “rain” unknown J? Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour a/shung unknown J327 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture yéweš unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora i:/dew unknown J1958:203,J455 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality 7i/peshi loan J248 Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment c'imya/nga unknown J87 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental i/d unknown J309 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact 7EbE i/c'ush unknown J532 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental Ii/:gi unknown J286 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality yek'i/lgi unknown J109 Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ba/li7 loan J337 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality i/shkush loan direction unknown J341 Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body mo/ya unknown J291 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental k'ilšášaš unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state k'ulE- Pi unknown J289 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body i:sh unknown J1958:200 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment t'éweʔgiliweʔ unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body e/lshym unknown J286 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality behe\tsing unknown K311 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment dawya/c'im 112 unknown J112 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body pa/lal unknown J457 Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body dibemú:k'ida unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact gu/suyi unknown J240 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact 7EbE- unknown J267 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact gewpu/puyi unknown J111 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state jali7 unknown J177 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment ma7losang unknown K311 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other deme/mshewi7 unknown J? Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ma7ag unknown J290 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment de7ek unknown J170 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body -a/la7 unknown J1958:204 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body 7it-gum-dU-a/7ash Ma/ngal unknown J430 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body i/teb unknown J288 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion k'ujE- unknown J1958:204 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body a/pyl unknown J341 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ha:di7 “that one” 227; 371 unknown J227,371 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar gi/.w unknown J443 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality da7lo/ngzing 108 unknown J108 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality 7lu/pdebi unknown J174 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental ha/mu unknown J369 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar wi/:di7 unknown J230, 371 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar leum unknown K268 Jane Hill
three tres tres number he/lme7 unknown J87 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body to7o unknown J301 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact shu7m unknown J276 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment dewhi/wi unknown J79, 487 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact 7lU- unknown J490 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body gitMa/:dut unknown J99 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body i/yeg unknown J269 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other p'íʔlugay unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
two dos dois number he/sge7 unknown J103 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body se/sm unknown J314 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion i/ye unknown J313 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment i/me7 unknown J556 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar le\ci unknown K268 Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar le\cici unknown K268 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality mU a/sd unknown J541 Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hu/nga 588 unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar gute/:shngahe/:sh “when?” unknown J? Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar kung-a unknown K269 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour da:l-po\poi unknown K312 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar gu/:dinga unknown J168 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship dimla/:ya7 unknown J86 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment degi/7im unknown J249 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body alng unknown J1958:198 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human da7mo/7mo7 unknown J102 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other didó:daʔášaʔi unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour a/c'im unknown J327 Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mi/: unknown J? Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. madáp abalone shell unique underived WPD 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae 7á:ni ant loan Northern Paiute underived Merriam 55:313; WPD 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana 7áyɨs antelope unique underived Merriam 55:299; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus hol'-lah badger loan Maidu Maidu hóhla, from Penutian “dig” verb underived Merriam 55:297 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus gă'-wet-ah-mah'-hah bald eagle unique phrase morphology unknown Merriam 55:231 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata 7aŋahó: Pigeon unique underived WPD 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp bá:gumt'álŋiɁ Bat unique phrase must be phrase, morphology unknown; note that t'álŋiɁ also appears in “eagle” Merriam 55:297; Washo Project Dict. (WPD) 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor c'imhélhel beavers unique reduplicated c'im is prefix WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp too-pe'-pe nom-ing (small) beetle unique phrase Merriam 55:313 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus c'ó7ya7 big round tule unique underived Merriam 55:321; WPD 2 1 base eaten raw 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tup'íp'iwi7 big skunk unique derived tu- nominalizer on ip'íp'iw plural of “fart” Jacobsen 1964:493 Merriam 55:297; WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus tulí:ši7 big wolf “not here” unique underived tu-is a nominalizer but Jacobsen in his discussion does not mention this word Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis 7ó:gal bighorn unique underived Merriam 55:299; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna sí:su, sisú:su bird unique underived Merriam 55:309; WPD 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger yagɨlt'áyhɨŋé7 black ant (big) unique phrase Merriam 55:313; WPD 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus mɨX:de black bear, brown bear unique underived Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus pélew black-tail jack rabbit unique underived Merriam 55:299; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus shŭ-wet'-tuk' Blackberry unique phrase elements unknown Merriam 55:317 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? c'úpum Blue grouse, its booming sound unique underived Merriam 55:303; Jacobsen 1964:87 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus dumšé:gɨl bobcat unique phrase elements unknown Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera pa7ló7lo butterfly unique reduplicated Merriam 55:313; WPD 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? medukc'áyc'ay California jay; blue jay (WPD) loan unknown c'áyc'ay is the areal form for this bird; cannot be of Washo origin; note Washo doesn't have usual “woodpecker” word WW %chaj phrase, reduplicated medu? WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? dic'em woodpecker unique underived WPD 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. 7úc'uli7 Chipmunk (Eutamias) unique underived Merriam 55:299; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pa7dómc'iluk cliff swallow, barn swallow unique phrase meaning of elements unknown Merriam 55:305; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana madá:t'ak coot, mud hen unique underived Merriam 55:309; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii c'áli7 cottontail rabbit unique underived Merriam 55:299; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. t'áša7 Cottonwood unique underived Merriam 55:315; WPD 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans géwe Coyote unique underived Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos 7á:7a crow unique areal, but in this case source is impossible to determine because sound-imitation repeatedly comes up reduplicated Merriam 55:303; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii po-yel-le? Datura unique underived Merriam 55:323 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus memdé:wi mule deer unique underived must be etymologically complex Merriam 55:299; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris súku7 dog loan Maidu Note Nisenan sukku; Compare Sierra Miwokan *chuku, Wintun *sukku. Maidu only has recorded /sy/ “pet”, but probably has this too WW %suku underived Merriam 55:231; WPD 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum e-se'-ke; it'-se-ge Indian hemp unique underived Merriam 55:321 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura 7uŋahó: Dove unique underived I think change in vowels is probably sound symbolic, not actual morphology Merriam 55:303; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae dílek duck (mallard) unique underived Merriam 55:307; WPD 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus bá:du7 elderberry unique underived WPD 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna 7át'abi7 fish (any) unique underived Merriam 55:311; WPD 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera gɨX:gɨši7 flea loan Northern Sierra Miwok Mins ky:kys-y-; Pmie *ky:ky$ reduplicated Merriam 55:313; WPD 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. gušú:t'i7 Flicker (matches one of CHM's words) unique underived Merriam 55:303; WPD 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera pú:t'e7 fly (in WPD “mosquito”, but appears in “fly swatter”) unique underived Merriam 55:313; WPD 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon wátziha fox sp. loan gray fox loan Northern Sierra Miwok Mins wac:ih:a- is in turn a loan from Numic ; S557a NUA *wanci7a “fox”. underived Merriam 55:297 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna gó:t'a7 frog unique underived Merriam 55:311; WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos pat'álŋi7 golden eagle unique phrase -t'álŋiɁ also appears in “bat”; meaning of pa- unknown Merriam 55:231; WPD 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. séwɨt yá:gɨl gooseberry unique phrase WPD 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer 7awahó:p'i gopher or bull snake unique phrase elements unknown Merriam 55:311; WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) mó7c'im grass, hay unique underived WPD 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera pa7gó:t'omhu grasshopper unique phrase elements unknown Merriam 55:313; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. bá:sat gray ground squirrel (red squirrel in WPD) unique underived Merriam 55:299; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. pawáwli7 gray tree squirredl, S. fossor unique underived I'm suspicious about -li7 but Jacobsen doesn't discuss Merriam 55:299; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus dímum Great horned owl unique underived might have d- on verb Merriam 55:301; WPD 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis t'ába grizzly bear loan unknown WW %paha underived Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae tah'-ge de-soo'-sĕ horned toad unique phrase Merriam 55:311 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ka-wi-u horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Merriam 55:231 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae memlew hummingbird unique underived Jacobsen 1964:478 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. báŋkuš wild tobacco (dried and smoked) loan Maidu Maiduan *pan other complex what is -kush? Could this be a phrase? A compound? Merriam 55:323; WPD 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp shoo”-wash “pine Mt bird” dezítzidi7 “snowbird” (WP) Junco unique underived Merriam 55:305 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica p'á7l Juniper unique underived Merriam 55:313; WPD 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera c'í:bel head lice unique underived Merriam 55:313; WPD 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos te'-lek; tam-mo-guă; tam-mo-hoi Mallard unique underived Merriam 55:307 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. k'awá7ya7 manzanita sp. unique underived Merriam 55:315; WPD 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa mah-maHm'-ke milkweed, broad leaf unique reduplicated 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera da7muk'áyk'ay mosquito unique reduplicated Merriam 55:313; WPD 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera dah'-hah pă-lo'-lo sphynx moth (lit. “worm butterffly” unique phrase Merriam 55:313 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor hilí:za Mountain lion loan Northern Sierra Miwok Mins hi:li:ca-; this is Pmie underived Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus mádomáti7 Mountain quail loan Northern Sierra Miwok -mati7 looks like the Sierra Miwok "creature" word, may be a loan; I am coding loan sources throughout as Mins, might be Proto-Mis but impossible to tell since Washo is isolate phrase I'm guessing -mati7 is Miwok “creature word so mado- must mean something Merriam 55:303; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? c'ášiw Pinyon jay (Cyanocephalus); pine-nut bird WPD unique underived Merriam 55:303; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla t'á:gɨm Pinyon or nut pine unique underived Merriam 55:313; WPD 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum šu7wé:k clam unique underived WPD 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys tal-lem Pocket gopher unique underived Merriam 55:299 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. má:k'i7 rattlesnake unique underived Merriam 55:311; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp 7á:ni red ant “fuzzy and stings” loan Northern Paiute Northern Paiute anebe (/anɨbɨ/, PUA *anɨN underived Merriam 55:313; WPD 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus c'ótgi7 Red-shouldered blackbird(Merriam's included word for “red” loan unknown WW %chak underived Merriam 55:303; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis má7wi7 red-tailed hawk unique underived Merriam 55:231; WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis tā-lah Ruddy duck unique underived Merriam 55:307 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica taHng-al-e'-sik; mă-moo'-se sage herb unique phrase elements unknown Merriam 55:319 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? píteli7 scaly lizard loan Northern Sierra Miwok Pmiw *pet:el:l (Callaghan 1971), WW %petel underived Merriam 55:311; WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna se-so ba-han-nung/ba-haz'-zing sí:su behéziŋ small bird (literal) (see WPD) unique phrase Merriam 55:309 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna pā-tel small brown lizard (same word?) loan Northern Sierra Miwok Pmiw *pet:el:l, WW %petel underived Merriam 55:311 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna má:k'i7 snake (any) unique underived Merriam 55:311; WPD 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco dat-too'-too-de; dă-troo-troo-de sparrow hawk (M. has this as “his call” with red-tail???) unique reduplicated 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae c'ɨX:kɨ spider (big) unique underived Merriam 55:313; WPD 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis pat-soo-mel-le yah-koo little spotted skunk unique phrase Merriam 55:297 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae now'-wah gaw'-tah toad (“ground frog”) unique phrase Merriam 55:311 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) dewdí7iš tree unique derived d- nominalizer from “to stand” Jacobsen 1964:487 Merriam 55:323; WPD 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura hú:šim turkey buzzard loan Maidu Note Pmis hu:$u- and Pmie *chy:$y-;PW *hu:s, PM *hy:s, *hu:s Callaghan 2001:326; an areal word also in Yukian WW %hus underived the -im mat be a etymological suffix Merriam 55:301; WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines gawánda7li7 turtle (CHM), desert turtle (WPD loan Northern Sierra Miwok Mins 7awan:aTa-; Pmie *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- WW %awan other complex has a suffix -li7 on the loan, and a prefix g- Merriam 55:311; WPD 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata malŋá:c'i Black oak acorn unique derived --a:c'i diminutive Merriam 55:315; WPD 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica t'é:t'ɨl Valley quail unique underived Merriam 55:303; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis gówgow Canadian goose unique reduplicated WPD 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos c'ɨXkc'ɨkhu In WPD, X is a little square. I believe this is stress over barred i, gone wrong somehow White pelican (X is for the little square in the WPD entry) unique reduplicated Merriam 55:307; WPD 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) wah'-shoo wild oats unique underived Merriam 55:321 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica p'ec'úmele7 Wild rose unique phrase elements unknown Merriam 55:317; WPD 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) madukwáwLu wild sunflower unique derived -wLu, a rare suffix (Jacobsen 1964:479) Merriam 55:323; WPD 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. hímu Salix nigra, hindsiana, geyeriana unique underived Merriam 55:315; WPD 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. páša wood rat unique underived WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) mátuš caterpillar unique underived WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper gé:šu7 angleworm, earthworm loan Northern Sierra Miwok Mins ke:su-, ke:sy-; Pmie *ke:$u- WW %kes underived WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. gɨX:c'i gɨ́:c'i yellow jacket *WPD has a little square after barred i -- I put an “X”. unique underived Merriam 55:313; WPD 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia se-soo-dal-sats-e c'ác'im “green, yellow” yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique phrase Merriam 55:305 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna a:ni loan J? Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna si/:su unknown J59, 290 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna hy/:k'a unknown J166 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna su/ku7 loan direction unknown J174 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna móʔc'im unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna memde/:wi 86; unknown J86 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ma/7ki7 unknown J69 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna c'y/:kiy loan J86 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food bE7lUáyab ba7lóyab (?) Indian Football missing derived bE- nominalizer prefix WHJ (Jacobson, William Horton. 1964. A Grammar of the Washo Language. UC Berkeley Ph.D. Dissertation) Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology dewYúli 7itnáwaya in ghost country, the land of the dead unknown dewyúli 7itdé7 dead people's country phrase Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
feather headband dress missing missing Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool mešgíc'et arrow unknown derived ic'ed 'to prick, sting', but Jacobson(p. 485) says meshg- is not productive Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool bat'á:du bait unknown derived nmlzr -hu Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation škúl school loan English WW %school simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material degítyeday7 basket sp. unknown degit- appears in another basket word, so chosen; also debelé:lmi7 'basket sp.' appears also with '3 willow basket' derived it- nominalizer Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material t'u:gis basket sp. (sounds small to me) unknown derived t- nominalizer Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material mák'aw bead unknown unknown WW %waku simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology sawásaŋ red ochre unknown where is /sa/ 'red'??? derived sasaŋ 'red'; saw- is only in this word Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool ba7lóhat, balóhot bow, gun unknown has the /pa/ element derived BE- nmlzr Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport t'á7nïp canoe loan Miwokan WW %nuh derived t- nominalizer Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool dí:geš net unknown simplex Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation k'éteb bottle unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation bí:ba paper loan English WW %paper simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology detúmu leader unknown may mean to lead a line derived d- nmlzr (?) Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food dulé:k'ïl to cook unknown unknown almost certainly complex but I find no plausible formatives Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
corpse food t'ánuyuŋil dead person, people unknown derived t'anu- 'person', ungil 'defunctive' Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology 7ló:š to dance unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology detugíti7, detugítiwk God unknown derived d- nmlzr Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool díšu digging stick unknown simplex WHJ p. 503 WHJ Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology gumsu7ú7uš to dream unknown other complex kM- 'impersonal reflexive' WHJ 544 Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology dewgebúgbug drum unknown also 7itwágaboŋboŋ derived, reduplicated Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation zí:gen chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
earring other 7itma7yáp earring unknown derived 7it- instrument Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology dewYú7li7 devil unknown derived d- prefix, and somehow from yuli 'die' Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool bedíli7 fire-drill, match unknown derived bE- prefix WHJ Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other má7ak/g wood unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food p'ï7lï7 fish with hook and line unknown simplex this doesn't seem to have any of the instrumental prefixes discussed in WHJ Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool gaMó7ok hook (used in fishing contexts in dictionary) unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
acorn bread food wá:laš bread unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
wheat food wí:t wheat loan English WW %wheat simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology 7itgópik whistle, flute unknown derived 7it- instrument Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology dewYúli spirit of the dead, ghost, skeleton unknown derived d- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology t'ánu t'íšiwha doctor, curer, healer unknown phrase t'anu 'person'; looks like šiwh- is "cure" Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other dáŋal house unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food t'á:Yaŋ to hunt unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology t'é7wé7we7 girl's puberty dance unknown note Maidu t'e- 'action with foot' derived t- nmlzr, -ewe 'resultative Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tá7wi7 knife unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
mat culture-material mó:ba7 mat unknown simplex WHJ Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool 7la:m bedrock mortar unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
necklace other to7omódop necklace unknown unknown Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool mí:bi7 awl unknown derived from i:bi7 'bone' with unproductive m- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool bíc'ik pestle, stone pestle unknown derived b- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other páyp pipe loan English WW %pipe simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
pitch food šalá7 pitch loan Northern Paiute simplex Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool c'iŋá:m container, glass, cup, jar, cooking utensil, pot unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool 7itbác'uk quiver unknown derived 7it- instrument Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology sámsa7 shaman's rattle unknown also 7itwegesísit 'rattle' (wagat'át'at 'to rattle') simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology 7itgúmp'a7lušošoŋha rouge (for making one's cheeks red) unknown derived 7it-kM-...šošoŋ 'brownish red', sasaŋ 'red' Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
salt sal sal food 7uŋábi, 7aŋabi salt loan Northern Paiute simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology 7itwá7 clothes unknown derived 7it- instrument Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material dámu7 skirt, dress unknown derived d- nmlzr Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool 7itMálit trap unknown Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology díšim song unknown derived šéšm 'to sing' Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool 7itMépu7 fish spear unknown also, bayák'aw derived 7it- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
stirring stick food 7itmú:gel stirring stick unknown derived mú:gel 'to stir' Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture 7išdïlíŋ string unknown unknown looks non-canonical but I can't find elements Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material 7itgumc'igú7uš bag, something you carry unknown also šï7wa 'burlap sack' wjh 172, tošap 'sack' wjh 247 derived 7it-kM-… Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
string of shell money other bila:da7 money loan Spanish WW %plata simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation bámc'i sugar unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
sweathouse other 7itgumdó7oš Máŋal sweat house unknown derived Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology mušé:gewašá7le tell a story unknown compound muše:gew 'story, bear'; šá7 'tell' Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics báŋkuš tobacco, cigar, cigarette loan Maidu simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology díp'ek white paint unknown derived d- nmlzr Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material mudá:l winnowing basket unknown also t'ugé:bïl 'winnowing tray' simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress mok'o shoe loan Northern Paiute mokgo whj 100 WW %moko simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
medicine narcotics mú:c'ug medicine unknown mu:c'uk whj 233 simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material b'ikus cradle basket, baby basket unknown bík'us whj 86 derived bE- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation zúlšiš soldier loan English WW %soldier simplex WJH Jane Hill
corn food kó:n corn loan English WW %corn simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
beans food bíniši beans loan English WW %beans simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ba7lóhat, balóhot bow,gun semantic shift derived bE- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress 7ohóš hat (probably basketry cap) unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material dáŋal gumʔuʔwá:dap unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture bec'ílsiʔ unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture git7la/:m unknown J115 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool di/shu 171 unknown J171 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture t'uge/:byl loan J87 Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture bi/c'ik unknown J184 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7um-ba7lo/hat unknown J415 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool meshgi/c'et unknown J494 Jane Hill
house other a/ngal loan J261 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG dense sedentary no