and

Semantic Field
grammar
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
y
Meaning Portuguese
e

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone -mai (on nouns) unknown Jane Hill
Cahuilla man inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok -l:i- unknown Jane Hill
Chemehuevi haita “and then”, unknown Press 1979 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno kim; k'e (B76:267, he says kim is “and so”) unknown Ono 1976:14 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno hywan (also “but”), ty unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno ha unknown A15, 436 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno wa unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno ki; cal (w/ nouns in B67:24 an d also w/ vb clauses) unknown Harrington 1974:8 Jane Hill
Cocopa kaka:p “and then” unknown Jane Hill
Comanche tyasy unknown Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
Cupeño me [mə] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen alalu Doc. 17a unknown Shaul 1995:223 Jane Hill
Gabrielino hama7 (also means “also”) inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa May [mai] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu joo unknown Jane Hill
Kiliwa -7n "conjunctive" unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk hamyk inheritance Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok he T is post-alveolar inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño pi7 unknown Bright 1968 Jane Hill
Maidu ka/n “and, and then”, k'an inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun yu: unknown O77:106, 307 Jane Hill
Nisenan han “and then” unknown Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute jaisi “and then” loan thornes 03:166 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok si unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A Tan, ran, an (A), “and, then” unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M TA'xo unknown Mason 1918: 153 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) xah unknown Jane Hill
Serrano ami7 “and” unknown Jane Hill
Southern Paiute =ngwy inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok ho7 (suf) unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute -wa "with" (with nouns) inheritance Givon 1979:63 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ti, tiy unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tynga unknown Jane Hill
Wappo wey unknown Thompson and Park (T&S) Jane Hill
Washo ash unknown K 301 Jane Hill
Western Mono jai/sI; jaisidija "and then" loan Jane Hill
Wintu 7ut (DS) unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai va\vyu/:(va) “and, but” unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi ama “and then” inheritance K07:,245 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne 7ama7 inheritance Blevins 2004:42 Jane Hill
Yuki hoy unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa ñhéette ɲhéet̪e unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Cubeo aru aɾu unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa -yako; yaʔnən; yaʔkən (IDS) -jako; jaʔnən; jaʔkən (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waorani ayæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Makushi moropai (IDS) moropai (IDS) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu i i loan Span/Port y/e 'and' See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam šo (EM72) ʃo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Pemon nere, kanan, -re, dare, pa (A1981); nerö (M2000) neɾe, kanan, ɾe, daɾe, pa (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá tsolo (EM72) tsolo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tariana káika, kayúka káika, kajúka unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Kotiria ã jichᵾ; ã jiro; ã joa; tuhsᵾ (all Waltz) ã jiʧʉ; ã jiɾo; ã joa; tuhsʉ (all Waltz) unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam šo ʃo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Arabana njurdu unique Claire Bowern
Bardi agal akal inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba ngana Claire Bowern
Burarra aa unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu ga inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal 2092 inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ga inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari ya inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu ga inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu ga inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang a inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng X missing Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi -ngaddaya Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu 2092 inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji [no equivalent] missing Claire Bowern
Jaru [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Jawi agal agal inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri pa inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala kampaja Claire Bowern
Miriwung X missing Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ngamini ya inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi X missing Claire Bowern
Ngarluma [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi karru unique Claire Bowern
Nimanburru agal; kal(a) akal; kal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla kampaja Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta pa inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta pa inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina mo mo unknown Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul a a inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi ŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu 2092 inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri jaa unknown Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru mathu unique Claire Bowern
Wubuy X missing Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu ga inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha ya, nga inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka ngoka unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru -yirr -yirr inheritance Claire Bowern
Yavitero -na -na See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana naʔik naʔik unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi hoka, exahe hoka, eʃahe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure ač atʃ See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Muinane bu, jáánaa, jáánéri (W97) bu, xáánaa, xáánéri See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio mörabai mö'rabaɪ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Wai Wai marha marha See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari many manɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa ech, e´tpara, e´tparat, e´tpari See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo õ õ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Taushiro u'ja uʔxa See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez sa´, atsa´ saʔ, atsaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna rɨ [5] ɾɯ See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina ajna ajna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Pumé ado See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Ashuar túrua, túra (to join similar subjects), túruamtai, túramtai (to join different subjects) turua, tura See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses ma ma See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Yagua jarye; va(interr.) xarje; va: See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa ã' ãɁ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva bahixa, lleetoho baʔixa, ʤeːtoʔo See Language page Becky Walker
Secoya cui'ne kwiʔnɛ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana tỹm tɨ̃m See Language page Daniel Valle
Ocaina uná ɯná See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito najáaja (better translated as 'also') naháaha (better translated as 'also') See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Cavineña hadʸa hadʸa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara sti sti See Language page PLE
Movima če (J62) tʃe See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker