Iquito

Family
Zaparoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
iqu
Location
-3.31°, -73.97°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Michael, Lev, Christine Beier, y Karina Sullon Acosta (eds.) 2006. Diccionario Bilingue Iquito - Castellano y Castellano - Iquito. http://www.cabeceras.org/ildp06_product.html


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location isácuma, iícumaji isákuma, iíkumahi unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
and y e grammar najáaja (better translated as 'also') naháaha (better translated as 'also') See Language page Cynthia Hansen
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment puquíti pukíti unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
at en, a em, a location jina hina See Language page Cynthia Hansen
back espalda costas body n'ɨjina n'ɨhina unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bad mal mal quality sɨ'ɨsana sɨ'ɨsana unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
belly barriga barriga body tanáca tanáka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
below abajo, debajo abaixo location caríira karíira doubtful loan, direction unknown Urarina kaɽene See Language page Cynthia Hansen
big grande grande quality umáana; ani-/aniita- show evidence of meaning big diachronically; ihuítani (never occurs without a noun) umáana; ani- unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
black negro preto colour mɨ'ɨnana mɨ'ɨnana unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
blood sangre sangue body májaaca máhaaka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bone hueso osso body níiqui níiki inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
breast pecho, seno peito body sipɨ'ɨja sipɨ'ɨha unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
child niño, niña criança human maáya maája unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
cloud nube nuvem environment missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
cold frío frio quality sɨm'ɨtina sɨm'ɨtina unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality júura húura unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
day día dia time yahu'ɨɨni jaw'ɨɨni unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dirty sucio sujo quality iyɨ'ɨtina, sucuarána ijɨ'ɨtina, sukuarána unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dry seco seco quality jahuána hawána unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tiquína tikína See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dust polvo poeira environment puquitína (dusty) pukitína (dusty) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
ear oreja orelha body túucu túuku inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
earth/soil tierra terra environment níiya níija unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
egg huevo ovo fauna naáqui naáki inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
eye ojo olho body namíja namíha inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
far lejos longe quality síipa síipa unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fat/grease grasa gordura body huíira wíira loan Quechua See Language page Cynthia Hansen
father padre, papá pai kinship caqu'ɨja (originally vocative, reanalyzed as referential term); -áquɨ (archaic form, not commonly used, always possessed) kak'ɨha (originally vocative, reanalyzed as referential term); -ákɨ (archaic form, not commonly used, always possessed) unknown; doubtful loan West Tukanoan See Language page Cynthia Hansen
feather pluma pena fauna cajási (same as hair and fur) kahási (same as hair and fur) semantic shift hair See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fire fuego fogo environment missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
flower flor flor environment íniisi íniisi unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment anajáca (smoke, mist, cloud) anaháka (smoke, mist, cloud) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fruit fruta fruta flora íniija íniiha unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
good bueno bom quality suhuáani suwáani unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body cajási (same as feather and fur) kahási (same as feather and fur) doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hand mano mão body curíca; ahuánaca (this form is more archaic and used mostly in numeral expressions) kuríka; awánaka (this form is more archaic and used mostly in numeral expressions) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nu-, nuu (stand-alone pronominal form), anúu, anúuja nu-, nuu (stand-alone pronominal form), anúu, anúuha inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
head cabeza cabeça body ánaca ánaka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
heavy pesado pesado quality iinána iinána inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
how? como como grammar jɨ'ɨtarata hɨ'ɨtarata unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
1sg yo eu grammar qui-, cu- (before verbs beginning with /a/, quíija (stand-alone pronominal form) ki-, ku- (before verbs beginning with /a/, kíiha (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
if si se grammar See Language page Cynthia Hansen
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location jinacúma hinakúma unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
intestines intestinos intestinos body tanája (used for internal abdominal organs - intestines, stomach, and kidneys) tanáha (used for internal abdominal organs - intestines, stomach, and kidneys) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
lake lago lago environment taquína takína inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
leaf hoja folha environment íimɨ, naámɨ íimɨ, naámɨ inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jámɨquiji hámɨkihi unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
leg/foot pierna perna body áaja áaha unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment nɨsínɨɨna nɨsínɨɨna unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
liver hígado figado body cúhuaaja (also used for heart) kúwaaha (also used for heart) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
long largo comprido, longo quality saána saána inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna sicuanája sikuanáha inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
man/male hombre homem human icuáni ikuáni unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
meat/flesh carne carne fauna nasíija nasíiha unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
moon luna lua environment cásiiri kásiiri inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship niatíja (originally vocative, reanalyzed as referential term); -áni (archaic form, not commonly used, always possessed) niatíha (originally vocative, reanalyzed as referential term); -áni (archaic form, not commonly used, always possessed) unique; inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
mouth boca boca body itípuma itípuma inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
name nombre nome human ɨyaaca ɨjaaka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
near/close cerca de perto quality missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ríquija (also means neck or collar) ríkiha (also used for collar and nape of neck) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
neck cuello pescoço body ríquija (also used for collar and nape of neck) ríkiha (also used for collar and nape of neck) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
new nuevo novo quality saámina saámina unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
night noche noite time nin'ɨɨni; niínaqui ( dark + loc) nin'ɨɨni; niínaki (dark + LOC) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
no/not no não grammar caa kaa unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
nose nariz nariz body najíca nahíka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
old viejo velho quality cumácu (also used as a noun for 'old person') kumáku (also used as a noun for 'old person') unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
one uno um number núquiica núkiika inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
other otro outro grammar taána taána inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body anásana (painful), ihuarɨɨni (to be sick, die) anásana (painful), iwarɨɨni (to be sick, die) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
person/human being persona pessoa human caáya kaája inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
rain lluvia chuva environment aási aási unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
red rojo vermelho colour ácusana ákusana unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
right/right hand derecha direita location/body suhuáquiji suwákihi unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
road/path camino caminho manufacture amáquɨ (path made by clearing plants); niícu- amákɨ (path made by clearing plants); niíku- unique; inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
root raíz raiz flora ánija ániha unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
rotten podrido podre quality mucuúja (used for meat); puquícu (for things other than meat, like logs) mukuúha (used for meat); pukíku (for things other than meat, like logs) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sand arena areia environment cacúti (also means beach) kakúti (also means beach) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality cucuána kukuána unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
short corto curto quality taquinuríca takinuríka unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
shoulder hombro ombro body arícuma aríkuma unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental taraqu'ɨtina tarak'ɨtina unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
skin piel pele body ísɨquɨ (also means bark, shell of an animal or fruit) ísɨkɨ (also means bark, shell of an animal or fruit) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sky cielo céu environment níiya caricúcu (MC: earth ɨ ceiling) níija karikúku (earth + ceiling) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
small pequeño pequeno quality sɨsanuríca (MC: badɨdiminutive) sɨsanuríka (bad + diminutive) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
smoke humo fumaça environment anajáca (same as cloud) anaháka (same as cloud) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
star estrella estrela environment sahuíja (same as stone) sawíha (same as stone) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora náana náana unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
stone piedra pedra environment sahuíja (same as star) sawíha (same as star) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
tail cola, rabo rabo body aniáasi (thin and long), íhuaasi (flat) aniáasi (thin and long), íwaasi (flat) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
that ese/esa esse grammar quiína (addressee proximal) kiína (addressee proximal) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar na-, nahuaáca (stand-alone pronominal form) na-, nawaáka (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
thin delgado fino quality tuquinuríca tukinuríka unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
this este/esta este grammar iína (speaker proximal) iína (speaker proximal) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
2sg xx xx grammar quia-, quiáaja (stand-alone pronominal form) kia-, kiáaha (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
throat garganta garganta body itícari itíkari unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
three tres tres number sɨɨsaramajɨtáami (inanimate), sɨɨsaramajɨtáapɨ (animate) (MC: bad-having a same-sex siblingɨ?ɨanimacy) sɨɨsaramahɨtáami (inanimate), sɨɨsaramahɨtáapɨ (animate) (Mk: bad + having a same-sex sibling + ?animacy) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
thunder truenos trovão environment missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bite morder morder body sɨɨni sɨɨni inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
blow soplar soprar body nuuni, aquirajɨɨni (used for the wind) nuuni, akirahɨɨni (used for the wind) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
burn quemar queimar environment itɨɨni (intransitive), ituuni (transitive) itɨɨni (intransitive), ituuni (transitive) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body asajuutaani, saquɨɨni (used specifically for chewing manioc), itipiini (also used specifically for chewing manioc) asawutaani, sakɨɨni, itipiini (last two used specifically for chewing manioc) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
climb subir subir motion maacaani maakaani inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
come venir vir motion aniini aniini inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
cook cocinar cozinhar impact capiini kapiini unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
cry llorar chorar mental sahuɨɨni sawɨɨni unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
cut/hack cortar cortar impact sajiini sahiini unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
die/be dead morir morrer state ihuarɨɨni (also means to get sick); jiitaani iwarɨɨni (also means to get sick); hiitaani unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dig cavar cavar impact muraani muraani unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dream soñar sonhar mental maquɨɨni (same as sleep) makɨɨni (same as sleep) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
drink beber, tomar beber body rariini rariini inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
eat comer comer body asaani asaani inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fall caer cair motion itɨɨni itɨɨni inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fear miedo medo mental quɨ'ɨraca kɨ'ɨraka unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
flow fluir fluir motion sisiini sisiini unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fly volar voar motion ɨɨni ɨɨni unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
grow crecer crescer state cumɨɨni, riquiini (specifically for plants) kumɨɨni, rikiini (specifically for plants) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hear oír ouvir mental tujiini; tuhuaasiini (Nanay variant) tuhiini; tuwaasiini (Nanay variant) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hide esconder esconder motion nahuatajuuni nawatawuni unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hit golpear, pegar bater impact amuuni (also means to kill), amaniquɨɨni (hit with a stick) amuuni (also means to kill), amanikɨɨni (hit with a stick) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
kill matar matar impact amuuni amuuni inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental nacusiini nakusiini doubtful loan, direction unknown Ticuna See Language page Cynthia Hansen
laugh reír rir mental sataani sataani inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ihuɨɨni iwɨɨni unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ihuiini iwiini unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
scratch rascar rasgar impact arisiini arisiini inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
see ver ver mental niquiini nikiini inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact rimusiini rimusiini unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sit sentar(se) sentar state ajirɨɨni ahirɨɨni unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sleep dormir dormir body maquɨɨni makɨɨni inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body apiraani (used for things that smell, not the action of smelling/sniffing) apiraani (used for things that smell, not the action of smelling/sniffing) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
spit escupir cuspir body aruuquiini aruukiini inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact nɨɨcaani (split in half) nɨɨkaani (split in half) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact minitaani minitaani unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ijiraani ihiraani unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state tacuuni takuuni unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
steal robar roubar other nuhuaani nuwaani inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
suck chupar chupar body sipɨɨni sipɨɨni inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
swell hincharse inchar body puruuni puruuni unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
swim nadar nadar motion musiini musiini unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
think pensar pensar mental saminijuuni saminihuuni unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
vomit vomitar vomitar body iquiniini ikiniini inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
walk caminar, andar andar motion ihuaani (ir); amɨyaaquiini (montear, caminar en el monte con el fin de cazar o buscar algo útil; viajar largas distancias) iwaani (ir); amɨjaakiini (montear, caminar en el monte con el fin de cazar o buscar algo útil; viajar largas distancias) inheritance? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
work trabajar trabalhar other tarahuaajuuni (from Spanish 'trabajar') tarawaahuni (from Spanish 'trabahar') loan Spanish See Language page Cynthia Hansen
yawn bostezar bocejar body ananɨɨni ananɨɨni inheritance? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
tongue lengua lingua body nɨ'ɨti nɨ'ɨti unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
tooth diente dente body iíca iíka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
two dos dois number cuúmi (inanimate), cuúpɨ (animate) kuúmi (inanimate), kuúpɨ (animate) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
water agua agua environment aáca aáka unknown cf. similar forms Tukanoan, Quechua, Ticuna See Language page Cynthia Hansen
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar p'ɨ- (incl), p'ɨɨja (incl, stand-alone pronominal form), cana-, canáaja (stand-alone pronominal form) p'ɨ- (incl), p'ɨɨha (incl, stand-alone pronominal form), kana-, kanáaha (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
wet mojado molhado quality picána pikána unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
what? que, qué que grammar saáca saáka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
when? cuando quando grammar jɨ'ɨticari hɨ'ɨtikari inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
where? donde onde grammar tɨ'ɨti tɨ'ɨti inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
white blanco branco colour musútina musútina inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
who? quien, quién quem grammar cánɨɨca kánɨɨka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
wife esposa esposa kinship majáana; huiíja (vocative) maháana; wiíha (vocative) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
wind viento vento environment aquíraja akíraha unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
wing ala asa body námacu námaku unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
woman/female mujer mulher human mɨɨsáji mɨɨsáhi unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
yellow amarillo amarelo colour nɨyána (used for blue, green, and yellow) nɨjána (used for blue, green, and yellow) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
2pl ustedes vocês grammar quina-, quináaja (stand-alone pronominal form) kina-, kináaha (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
foot pie body titíca; iínuhua (archaic form, used for people only) titíka; iínuwa (archaic form, used for people only) unique; inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar imɨráani imɨráani unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
all todo todos other pɨy'ɨɨni pɨj'ɨɨni unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tiríja, curíja (also means wrist) tiríha, kuríha (also means wrist) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
armpit axila, sobaco axila body nɨcaríira nɨkaríira inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body íiqui íiki doubtful loan Arawak? see also hoti iki See Language page Cynthia Hansen
lung pulmón pulmão body sasája sasáha inheritance? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sweat sudar suor, suar body ipanɨɨni ipanɨɨni inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body íhuana (itchy) íwana (itchy) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bark corteza casca environment ís+qu+ (also means skin, shell of an animal or fruit) ísɨkɨ (also means skin, shell of an animal or fruit) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fingernail uña unha body áhuacu áwaku inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
heart corazón coração body acánataaja; cúhuaaja (also used for liver); curasuú (from Sp.) akánataaha; kúwaaha (also used for liver); kurasuú (from Sp.) unique; unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sun sol sol time nunamíja (Possible MC: 3sg poss + eye) nunamíha (Possible MC: 3sg poss + eye) unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment aniníiqui aniníiki unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
green verde verde quality n+yána (used for blue, green, and yellow); maquína (used for items that are not ripe/green) nɨjána (used for blue, green, and yellow); makína (used for items that are not ripe/green) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hot caliente quente quality ípanana ípanana inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. jaáti haáti inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna siriíja (general term) siriíha (general term) unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. íiri (Nothocrax urumutum); piyúuri (Mitu salvini) íiri (Nothocrax urumutum); pijúuri (Mitu salvini) unknown See Language page Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. nípaaqui (Ramphastos cuvieri); siáaru (Ramphastos culminatus) nípaaki (Ramphastos cuvieri); siáaru (Ramphastos culminatus) doubtful loan, direction unknown Cocama piakui See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans maása (Psophia leucoptera) maása (Psophia leucoptera) doubtful loan Arawak, e.g. Kabiyari máatʃaɾi See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Cjnthia Hansen
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. paríicu (Penelope jacquacu) paríiku (Penelope hackacu) inheritance See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Cjnthia Hansen
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae pisája (Tinamus guttatus); ráana (Tinamus major); sacácuji (Crypturellus undulatus); sɨr'ɨmaaja (Crypturellus soui); sɨ'ɨca (Crypturellis cinereus); náqui im'ɨɨni siriíja (MC: compound Lit: 'perdiz de sacharruna'. Crypturellus variegatus) pisáha (Tinamus guttatus); ráana (Tinamus major); sakákuhi (Crypturellus undulatus); sɨr'ɨmaaha (Crypturellus soui); sɨ'ɨka (Crypturellis cinereus); náki im'ɨɨni siriíha (MC: compound Lit: 'perdiz de sacharruna'. Crypturellus variegatus) unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae mɨ'ɨja mɨ'ɨha unique See Language page Widespread Cjnthia Hansen
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae cataraá (Ceryle torquata) (from Spanish catalan) kataraá (Ceryle torkata) (from Spanish catalan) unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes curucucúuni (Otus choliba); iyúucu (Pulsatrix melanota); taquína (Pulsatrix perspicillata) kurukukúuni (Otus choliba); ijúuku (Pulsatrix melanota); takína (Pulsatrix perspicillata) loan - WW %murukutu / kurukutu See Language page Widespread Cjnthia Hansen
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. anápa (Ara ararauna and Ara chloroptera); íyɨɨja (Diopsittaca nobilis); nɨsicásaaja (Ara severa y Ara manilata, MC: Lit: 'come-aguaje') anápa (Ara ararauna and Ara chloroptera); íjɨɨha (Diopsittaca nobilis); nɨsikásaaha (Ara severa j Ara manilata, MC: Lit: 'come-aguahe') loan - WW %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ájiiti (Amazona ochrocephala); curíquɨɨja (Pionus menstruus); ímaaticuaaja (Pionopsitta barrabandi); íyɨɨja (Diopsittaca nobilis); nɨrɨs'ɨhuɨɨja (Pionites leucogaster); quirísɨɨja (Amazona farinosa); sɨr'ɨquɨɨja (Brotogeris cyanoptera) áhiiti (Amazona ochrocephala); kuríkɨɨha (Pionus menstruus); ímaatikuaaha (Pionopsitta barrabandi); íjɨɨha (Diopsittaca nobilis); nɨrɨs'ɨwɨɨha (Pionites leucogaster); kirísɨɨha (Amazona farinosa); sɨr'ɨkɨɨha (Brotogeris cyanoptera) unique; loan - WW %kuli See Language page Widespread Cjnthia Hansen
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae cusácuuja (Columba subvinacea); isihuaája (término para de varios aves de tipo paloma; la paloma de purma de color cenizo; la paloma coliblanco; y la paloma frentigris; Leptotila verreauxi and Leptotila rufaxilla); mɨ'ɨyaja (Columbina talpacoti) kusákuuha (Columba subvinacea); isiwaáha (término para de varios aves de tipo paloma; la paloma de purma de color cenizo; la paloma coliblanco; j la paloma frentigris; Leptotila verreauxi and Leptotila rufaxilla); mɨ'ɨjaha (Columbina talpacoti) unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae nɨɨsína nɨɨsína unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae capítiaa (Sarcoramphus papa); nɨɨtámu (Cathartes melambrotus); nɨɨtámu acusa cariyáana (Cathartes aura); pasuúja (Coragyps atratus) kapítiaa (Sarcoramphus papa); nɨɨtámu (Cathartes melambrotus); nɨɨtámu akusa karijáana (Cathartes aura); pasuúha (Coragyps atratus) unique See Language page Widespread South America Cjnthia Hansen
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family páatu (MC: From Spanish pato); aaca páatu (Cairina moschata; MC: compound: water ɨ duck); pújari (Oxyura dominica) páatu (MC: From Spanish pato); aaka páatu (Cairina moschata; MC: compound: water + duck); púhari (Oxjura dominica) loan Spanish See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba musútina cáarsa (MC: borrowing/calque from Spanish garza blanca) musútina káarsa (MC: borrowing/calque from Spanish garza blanca?) loan Spanish See Language page Widespread South America Cjnthia Hansen
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae panási (general term); músati (Campylorhampus sp.); panasi ihuítani (Dryocopus lineatus, MC: woodpecker ɨ big); panási musútina (Celeus flavus, MC: woodpecker ɨ white); pasiíja (Dendrocincla spp.); páasi ípuusi (Dendrocolaptidae, MC: compound, Lit: 'tripa panási (general term); músati (Campylorhampus sp.); panasi iwítani (Drjocopus lineatus, MC: woodpecker + big); panási musútina (Celeus flavus, MC: woodpecker + white); pasiíha (Dendrocincla spp.); páasi ípuusi (Dendrocolaptidae, MC: compound, Lit: 'tripa loan, direction unknown Candoshi pĩwaaʃi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris mɨyaára mɨjaára unique See Language page Not native; widespread Cjnthia Hansen
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis aaríhua aaríwa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) siruúsi (Myrmecophaga tridactyla); aríija (Cyclopes didactylus) siruúsi (Myrmecophaga tridactyla); aríiha (Cyclopes didactylus) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Cjnthia Hansen
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ísuuja (general term; Dasypus novemcinctus and Dasypus kappleri); aasámaaja (Priodontes maximus) ísuuha (general term; Dasypus novemcinctus and Dasypus kappleri); aasámaaha (Priodontes maximus) unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. cáaji (Choloepus didactylus); aaca jinaána cáaji (Bradypus tridactylus) (MC: Compound Lit: 'pelejo del agua') káahi (Choloepus didactylus); aaka hinaána káahi (Bradypus tridactylus) (MC: Compound Lit: 'peleho del agua') See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. missing See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Cjnthia Hansen
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pápaaja pápaaha unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. aramásiicu (especie de curhuara, la especie más grande de palometa) aramásiiku (especie de curwara, la especie más grande de palometa) See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae nɨyári (general term) nɨjári (general term) unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. páasi (general term) páasi (general term) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. rɨcáani (general term for cunchis) rɨkáani (general term for cunchis) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura macuaáti (general term) makuaáti (general term) See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Cjnthia Hansen
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata anacuáasa (término para una clase de lagartijas de tamaño mediano. Kentropyx spp.); curɨtɨ'ɨja (Ameiva ameiva); ísɨ (varias especies de lagartijas pequeñas que son muy comunes en las casas. Gonatodes spp.) anakuáasa (término para una clase de lagartihas de tamaño mediano. Kentropjx spp.); kurɨtɨ'ɨha (Ameiva ameiva); ísɨ (varias especies de lagartihas pekeñas ke son muj comunes en las casas. Gonatodes spp.) unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. mɨyaára saápi (tigre raya) saápi (especie de raya mas común de la zona) mɨjaára saápi (tigre raja), saápi (especie de raja mas común de la zona) inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura máquɨɨja mákɨɨha doubtful loan Wari' makɨʔ See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes iyácuni (Eunectes murinus murinus) ijácuni (Eunectes murinus murinus) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae ijacuúja (Boa constrictor constrictor; MC: Lit: 'tigrillo de la altura'); jaáyɨ (mantona, boa de altura, especie de boa que vive en huecoe en la tierra de las lomas) ihakuúha (Boa constrictor constrictor; MC: Lit: 'tigrillo de la altura'); haájɨ (mantona, boa de altura, especie de boa ke vive en huecoe en la tierra de las lomas) unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna cúni kúni loan, direction unknown Yagua kondij See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox iruuna ijírataaca (Bothrops brazili); sajína (Bothrops atrox) iruuna ihírataaka (Bothrops brazili); sahína (Bothrops atrox) See Language page Widespread South America Cjnthia Hansen
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria naquicuúja (Chelonoidis denticulata) (MC: náqui - forest; cuúja - Leopardus wiedii) nakikuúha (Chelonoidis denticulata) (MC: náki - forest; kuúha - Leopardus wiedii) unknown See Language page Widespread Cjnthia Hansen
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis aána aána loan - WW See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Cjnthia Hansen
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) jimɨ'ɨti (especie de hongo comestible que crece pegado a palos podridos) himɨ'ɨti (especie de hongo comestible que crece pegado a palos podridos) unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Cjnthia Hansen
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Cjnthia Hansen
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. musaámɨ musaámɨ loan, direction unknown Yagua musadasij See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Cjnthia Hansen
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa nɨsicáti nɨsikáti inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Cjnthia Hansen
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana ijáhuɨɨmɨ (Lepidocaryum tenue) iháwɨɨmɨ (Lepidocarjum tenue) See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Cjnthia Hansen
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea ahuasíca (Iriartea deltoidea) awasíka (Iriartea deltoidea) unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Cjnthia Hansen
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes amariyaája; sicúti (pihuayo blanco) amarijaáha; sikúti (piwajo blanco) inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua ipɨ'ɨti ipɨ'ɨti See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Cjnthia Hansen
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Cjnthia Hansen
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) s'ɨhuɨ (primary); aramáasi; jaracutuú (from Sp. algodón) s'ɨwɨ (primary); aramáasi; harakutuú (from Sp. algodón) inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Cjnthia Hansen
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra mísiaa mísiaa See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Cjnthia Hansen
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens nap'ɨki; macusáari (stretched long); sihuirinaája (small and round) nap'ɨki; makusáari (stretched long); siwirinaáha (small and round) inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Cjnthia Hansen
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea mujinána (meto huayo, maní huayo, especie de árbol con frutos parecidos al maní) muhinána (meto wajo, maní wajo, especie de árbol con frutos parecidos al maní) See Language page plant Cjnthia Hansen
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus mináti mináti doubtful loan - WW %mawino See Language page plant Cjnthia Hansen
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum miyajáana (isana de caña brava; el uso principal es en hacer harpón) mijaháana (isana de caña brava; el uso principal es en hacer harpón) See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Cjnthia Hansen
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. samúkwaati (generic); caáji námati (MC: compound, Lit: 'brazo de pelejo') samúkwaati (generic); kaáhi námati (MC: compound, Lit: 'brazo de peleho') unknown See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Cjnthia Hansen
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Cjnthia Hansen
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) iyásiica ijásiika inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays siíquiraja (general term); cajíyaaqui (variedad de maíz que tiene granos de varios colores); cáraaqui (mazorcas de maíz chico con granos grandes y choclos que crecen después de las primeras plantas); sacáruuqui (mazorca de maíz) siíkiraha (general term); kahíjaaki (variedad de maíz ke tiene granos de varios colores); káraaki (mazorcas de maíz chico con granos grandes j choclos ke crecen después de las primeras plantas); sakáruuki (mazorca de maíz) doubtful loan into protolanguage - old WW %šiki See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Cjnthia Hansen
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tahuáacu (MC: borrowing from Sp. tabaco) tawáaku (MC: borrowing from Sp. tabaco) loan Spanish See Language page plant Cjnthia Hansen
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna náana náana inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana carásiica karásiika unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Cjnthia Hansen
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Cjnthia Hansen
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana imúuna imúuna See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Cjnthia Hansen
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala tuúcu tuúku See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Cjnthia Hansen
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] sajií (Bertholletia excelsa) sahií (Bertholletia excelsa) See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Cjnthia Hansen
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum miíti miíti unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Cjnthia Hansen
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Cjnthia Hansen
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Cjnthia Hansen
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. siríinca (Hevea brasiliensis) (MC: From Spanish shiringa); cáusi (Castilla ulei) (MC: From Spanish caucho) siríinka (Hevea brasiliensis) (MC: From Spanish shiringa); káusi (Castilla ulei) (MC: From Spanish caucho) See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Cjnthia Hansen
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui saáti saáti See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Cjnthia Hansen
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia sahuíti sawíti doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan ʃiwija See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Cjnthia Hansen
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Cjnthia Hansen
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta asúraaja (Manihot esculenta) asúraaha (Manihot esculenta) unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Cjnthia Hansen
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Cjnthia Hansen
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas catíja katíha doubtful loan Arawak: Kampan *koriti See Language page plant Cjnthia Hansen
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. catíja katíha See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Cjnthia Hansen
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. casiiníica (has white fruit); iquijáani (general term for huitina) kasiiníika (has white fruit); ikiháani (general term for huitina) See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) samácu (Crescentia cujete); matarɨnaája (Lagenaria siceraria) samáku (Crescentia cuhete); matarɨnaáha (Lagenaria siceraria) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Cjnthia Hansen
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. sapáaya (MC: from Sp. zapallo); see also bottle-gourd sapáaja (MC: from Sp. zapallo); see also bottle-gourd loan Quechua (via Spanish?) See Language page plant Cjnthia Hansen
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. núriyɨ núrijɨ See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Cjnthia Hansen
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. nuúruu nuúruu unknown cf. Kakua-Nukak? See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Cjnthia Hansen
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi ácuta ákuta doubtful loan, direction unknown Urarina akaʉ See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Cjnthia Hansen
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola isúuna (medicinal plant that has a hallucinogenic effect, Brugmansia sp.), amuuni iíraana (chacruna species, used in the preparation of ayahuasca, causes visions), áqu+siiti (chacruna species, used in the preparation of ayahuasca, causes visions), ar+t+'+ isúuna (medicinal plant that has a hallucinogenic effect, Brugmansia sp.), amuuni; iíraana; ákɨsiiti; arɨtɨ'ɨtari; asap'ɨɨti; mɨɨsahiíraana; sapatíki (all chacruna species, used in the preparation of ayahuasca, causes visions) See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata musanícuaa (Paraponera clavata) musanícuaa (Paraponera clavata) inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. cacúuja; caniyúuja kakúuha; kanijúuha unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ihuaána (for various honey bees) iwaána (for various honey bees) inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria ísuuja ísuuha unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae namiíti (Pyrophorus spp.); tiquíhuari namiíti (Pjrophorus spp.); tikíwari unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera paqu'ɨti pak'ɨti unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera siitíini ('polilla') siitíini ('polilla') See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora sapaáni sapaáni unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones tácusi (general term for scorpions and spiders) tákusi (general term for scorpions and spiders) unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea capɨsiíti (sp.) kapɨsiíti (sp.) unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera sɨnaqu'ɨraaja (sp., blue body) sɨnak'ɨraaha (sp., blue body) unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae sɨríqui sɨríki loan (into protolg?) - WW %tʃiriku: Quechua, Aymara, Zaparoan, Kokama, Matses? See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. cumaquíja kumakíha inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae sicuanája paniáana (Lit: 'buscador de piojo') sikuanáha paniáana (Lit: 'buscador de piojo') See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. anaási anaási unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ijíquija ihíkiha unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea sim'ɨnaja sim'ɨnaha inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita asap'ɨnaaca asap'ɨnaaka inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda asihuáriica (gen.); ajuúcu (sp.) asiwáriika (gen.); ahuúku (sp.) unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae tácusi (general term for scorpions and spiders) tákusi (general term for scorpions and spiders) unknown cf. Aymara kusikusi See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca iquíicu ikíiku unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. acáayɨ (Trichechus inunguis) akáajɨ (Trichecws inunguis) See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha sírucu síruku unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] iip'ɨɨ (Alouatta seniculus) iip'ɨɨ (Alouatta seniculus) unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella mɨɨnɨ'ɨ mɨɨnɨ'ɨ unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons jacáana hakáana doubtful loan cf. Aguaruna hagkuam See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus ɨ'ɨti ɨ'ɨti unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae múrina (Didelphis marsupialis) múrina (Didelphis marsupialis) unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis canási kanási See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis múcuanasi múkuanasi unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu caási kaási inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari anitáaqui anitáaki unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae sicúja (Coendou prehensilis) sikúha (Coendou prehensilis) unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua cámɨ kámɨ loan, direction unknown Yagua xamij See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. muúti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa) muúti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa) loan, direction unknown Yagua mutu See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris capíhuari kapíwari loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti arasaáqui arasaáki See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) tímaaca tímaaka unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus isácu isáku loan Aymara atʃaku; cf. Quechua ukutʃa See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae jimɨ'ɨti iriyáacu (Sciurus spadiceus and Sciurus igniventris) (MC: Compound Lit: 'acarreador de callampa') himɨ'ɨti irijáaku (Sciurus spadiceus and Sciurus igniventris) (MC: Compound Lit: 'acarreador de callampa') unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris pɨs'ɨquɨ pɨs'ɨkɨ unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus siquiáaja sikiáaha unique See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Cjnthia Hansen


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material táasa táasa loan, direction unknown in Quechua and Panoan See Language page Cynthia Hansen
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material muyuúri mujuúri See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material taraásiija taraásiiha unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bed cama cama culture-material maqu'+naaja (from maqu++ni - sleep) mak'ɨnaaha (from makɨɨni - sleep) inheritance/calque See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material in'++si in'ɨɨsi unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ajír+na (verb ajir++ni means to sit); páticu (tipo de banca, asiento plano y bajo hecho sin clavar de una sola pedazo de madera, que tiene patas cortas) ahírɨna (verb ahirɨɨni means to sit); pátiku (tipo de banca) unique; loan Tupi-Guarani (prob. Kokama) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
canoe canoa canoa transport iímina iímina unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Cynthia Hansen
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology siimána siimána inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Cynthia Hansen
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology paanáana (healer; unlike siimána, doesn't cause harm) paanáana (healer; unlike siimána, doesn't cause harm) Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Cynthia Hansen
broom escoba vassoura culture-material nanúusi (also for plant used to create brooms) nanúusi (also for plant used to create brooms) doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Yagua nintjã See Language page Cynthia Hansen
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology sinaáqu+ sinaákɨ unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
firewood leña lenha other járaqui háraki unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Cynthia Hansen
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology nahu+yíni (spirit of dead person); sihuaára (demonio de la selva) nawɨjíni (spirit of dead person); siwaára (demonio de la selva) inheritance? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology cumáani (also 'father's brother'); p'ɨ-caquíha (lit. our father 'God') kumáani (also 'father's brother'); p'ɨ-kakíha (lit. our father 'God') semantic shift In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Cynthia Hansen
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology puráaja puráaha doubtful loan, direction unknown Bora pʰéériʔjo multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Cynthia Hansen
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology n++tiíri nɨɨtiíri See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics ájana; quimáqu+ áhana; kimákɨ See Language page Cynthia Hansen
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Cynthia Hansen
knife cuchillo faca culture-material paniíhu+ paniíwɨ unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
machete machete facão culture-material sáhuiri (MC: From Spanish sable) sáwiri (MC: From Spanish sable) loan - WW %sipara/sapere See Language page Cynthia Hansen
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool caáji kaáhi inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Cynthia Hansen
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool jírisi (flecha; entre los iquitos es un tipo de lanza hecho de isana, parecida al harpón, pero con punta más pequeño; no se utiliza con arco); saápi táaja (raya chupa, flecha para pescar hecha de un clavo, con lenguetes parecido a la espina de una raya. M hírisi unknown hunting, warfare See Language page Cynthia Hansen
spear lanza lança subsistence tool juhuáana (lanza hecha de la madera de la palmera pihuayo, antiguamente usado para cazar y en las peleas); jírisi (flecha; entre los iquitos es un tipo de lanza hecho de isana, parecida al harpón, pero con punta más pequeño; no se utiliza con arco); arapuú huwáana unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bow arco arco subsistence tool rim+'+taja rimɨ'ɨtaha unknown arco See Language page Cynthia Hansen
paddle/oar remo remo transport aritáhu+ aritáwɨ unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
plate plato prato culture-material paráatu (MC: from Spanish plato); tam'+riija (clay) paráatu (MC: from Spanish plato); tam'ɨriiha (clay) loan; unique Spanish See Language page Cynthia Hansen
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool cúsi kúsi doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua karõsi; Kokama jukutʃi See Language page Cynthia Hansen
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material purícu (leaf container) puríku (leaf container unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool riyacáca, quɨriíja rijakáka, kɨriíha unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
honey miel mel food míira (general term); surucu áaca (MC: bee species (arambasa) + water); ihuaana áaca (MC: bee species (colmena) + water); ramíisi áaca (MC: bee species (ramichi) + water) míira unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material jinítaasi (piedra negra que chispea cuando se lo choca a ras, que antiguamente servía para prender fuegos); ituhuanajáati (piedra que produce chispas, MC: ituuni - to burn sthg); iinámi sahuíja (piedra de candela, un tipo de piedra negra y dura que da chi hinítaasi See Language page Cynthia Hansen
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture iiyɨ'ɨ, in'++qui iijɨ'ɨ, in'ɨɨki inheritance; unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Cynthia Hansen
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material itaári itaári unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Cynthia Hansen
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology paráana (feather headress that used to be worn by the chief); simiícu (adorno de cabeza; tipo de adorno o corona con que los hombres iquitos se vistieron antiguamente; era hecho de la corteza de tahuarí, /sacúuna/, cortada en una banda que se puse alreded paráana (feather headress that used to be worn by the chief); simiíku (adorno de cabeza) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology najútaja (paint or tint, also used for pencil) nahútaha (paint or tint, also used for pencil) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Cynthia Hansen
school escuela escola acculturation isacuhuíira (Sp) isakuwíira (Sp) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bottle botella garrafa acculturation huutíiya wutíija (Sp) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
paper papel papel acculturation simiím+ simiímɨ 'book, paper' unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology maqu'++nita mak'ɨɨnita (vb.) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cacáraaja kakáraaha loan - WW %karaka See Language page Cynthia Hansen
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Cynthia Hansen
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other casíimpu kasíimpu (Sp) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Cynthia Hansen
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material justaá hustaá loan Span fustan See Language page Cynthia Hansen
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sápatu sápatu (Sp) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Cynthia Hansen
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
cat gato gato acculturation míisi míisi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Cynthia Hansen
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation rimúsiija (from vb. 'shoot') rimúsiija (from vb. 'shoot') unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hat sombero chapéu dress m+yáacu mɨjáaku unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology áapu áapu loan - WW %apu See Language page Cynthia Hansen
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Cynthia Hansen
salt sal sal food isája isáha (Sp) loan Spanish or possibly Arawak, cf. čewe forms See Language page Cynthia Hansen
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology arihuáani ariwáani unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool nimúuna nimúuna inheritance currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Cynthia Hansen
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool nahuán++na (from the leaf stem of the Maximiliana venatorum palm species) nawánɨɨna (from the leaf stem of the Maximiliana venatorum palm species) hunting and warfare See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool apíraati; acáay+ íhuaasi (un abanico de forma redonda, hecha de hoja de chambira. MC: Compound, Lit: 'cola de vaca marina'); sámuu íhuaasi (tipo de abanico que se teje la hoja de shapaja, y que tiena la forma de la cola de paiche. MC: Compound, Lit: 'cola apíraati; akáajɨ íwaasi (lit. 'manatee tail'); sámuu íwaasi (lit. 'paiche tail') inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food siyuuni (general term); iruuni (pescar en la noche con anzuelo para especies como el zúngaro o huasco, que son especies nocturnas); majanihu+taani (anzuelear con barandilla, botando el anzuelo muchas veces al agua sin parar la canoa; se diferencia de /maj sijuuni inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food amanijuuni (mañachear, hacer mañacheo, pescar con barbasco; poner una cantidad pequeña de barbasco en una quebrada chica con el fin de recoger especies pequeñas de peces); siruuni (pescar con barbasco, machucando la raíz de este planta paramatar o hacer i amanihuuni; siruuni unknown; inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
hunt cazar caçar food amuuni (kill); am+yaaquiini (caminar en el monte con el fin de cazar o buscar algo útil) amuuni (kill); amɨjaakiini (hunt/gather) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Cynthia Hansen
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ipaáca (container made from a gourd, has a small opening in the top); samácu (Crescentia cujete); matarɨnaája (Lagenaria siceraria) ipaáka; samáku/ samakuánaaha unknown; inheritance? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool jinítaari hinítaari unknown esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Cynthia Hansen
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool masícuuca masíkuuka inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool suhuánaja; ajírataaja; ajátaari (moledor tradicional usado para moler la masa de masato en una batán; hecho de un bloque de madera cuadrada con dos agarradores en las puntas superiores); amuútaaja (tipo de mazo que se usa para triturar comida o barbasco) suwánaha; ahírataaha unique; inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool suhuánaja; ajírataaja; ajátaari (moledor tradicional usado para moler la masa de masato en una batán; hecho de un bloque de madera cuadrada con dos agarradores en las puntas superiores); amuútaaja (tipo de mazo que se usa para triturar comida o barbasco) suwánaha; ahírataaha See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture itíniija itíniiha unknown prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Cynthia Hansen
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food huaríina (From Spanish fariña) waríina (From Spanish fariña) loan Spanish agriculture See Language page Cynthia Hansen
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Cynthia Hansen
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Cynthia Hansen
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Cynthia Hansen
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tipiití (used for making fariña) tipiití (used for making fariña) loan Tupi-Guarani word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Cynthia Hansen
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Cynthia Hansen
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ramúcuaa ramúcuaa doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW? cf. Yagua ramũ; also Boran namita, Nadahup nam, Ninam noma hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool im'++ri (general term, also un cernidor grande y plano hecho de 2 cuatro palitos amarrados en 1 un cuadro tejido de fibras de sinamilla amarado con tamishi); másiiti (cernidor, tejido de sinamillo; el tamáno y su rala del tejido se hacen según el uso, p.e im'ɨɨri unknown agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool íruuja (empate, una presa que se usa para pescar con anzuelo; este término se refiere tanto al empate de carne o insecto como al empate hecha de masilla de yuca) íruuha can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Cynthia Hansen
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool tasíqu+ (tapaje, tipo de trampa para peces; se hace con /tasiína/ en la forma de una canasta con una boca de forma de un tubo cuyo diametro disminuye; su forma permite que los peces entren pero no salgan; se pone esta trampa en caños o pequeñas quebradas tasíkɨ See Language page Cynthia Hansen
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Cynthia Hansen
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Cynthia Hansen
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Cynthia Hansen
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Cynthia Hansen
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Cynthia Hansen
house other iíta; iyiquíira (more general for anywhere that one lives); mɨyíti (rustic hut set up for long hunting trips, Sp. tambo) iíta; ijikíira (more general for anjwhere that one lives); mɨjíti (rustic hut set up for long hunting trips, Sp. tambo) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen