alligator, black caiman

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
babilla; cachirre
Meaning Portuguese
jacaré

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Akawaio Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. agaree (E1977) agare (E1977) loan (into protolg?) Venezuelan subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, maybe Waimiri-Atroari) Tupi-Guarani *yakaré reconstructed for Proto-Tupi-Guarani (Schleicher 1998) WW %jakare See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kátshiri kátshiɻi, kájhiɺi (FS) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ariwe aribei'mɯ ('cayman', H&R) cayman' inheritance Possible cognate Yukpa aréje See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hi'á-bɨ hi'á-bɨ inheritance East Tukanoan Attested in only a few languages, but throughout ET family tree uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Dâw Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. xeét xět inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. diaquẽ dia'ké̃ unique water-?' Shared Desano-Siriano; may contain dia 'river' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Eñepa Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. onwe (MM) onwe (MM) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. mɨakléh, makléh mɨakléh, makléh inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. au ʰlẽ au ʰlẽ doubtful loan Carib: e.g. Pemon onwe uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Waorani Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. nõma doubtful loan, direction unknown Witoto naɯma uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Hup Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hǎt hǎt inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted mostly men roasted, boiled, smoked 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Pattie Epps
Kakua Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. wʉ̃w4 ~wɨ̀w inheritance compare Puinave wou underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. makíp makíp inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. akaré akaré loan (into protolg?) N Amazonian subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, maybe Waimiri-Atroari) Tupi-Guarani *yakaré reconstructed for Proto-Tupi-Guarani (Schleicher 1998) WW %jakare See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. yakaré (generic term) diridiri (giant alligator, from arawak) jakaré (generic term), diridiri (giant alligator, from arawak) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: diridiri (giant alligator, from arawak) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. arasi, weri, aras wari (gom) aɾasi, weɾi, aɾas waɾi (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
Nukak Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ʧakun2de1 (H&R); wuw (Politis) loan - WW; inheritance TG %jakare uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi
Maihiki Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ñucabɨ ago jũka-bɨ, ɲukabɨ ago inheritance uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Pemon Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. akaree (E1977) akare (E1977) loan (into protolg?) Venezuelan subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, maybe Waimiri-Atroari) Tupi-Guarani *yakaré reconstructed for Proto-Tupi-Guarani (Schleicher 1998) WW %jakare See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. pegíinú pegíinú unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B.
Sanumá Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. iwathama iwathama unknown cf. Carib 'iguana' iwana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
Sikuani Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. makibü (2)(Sp: caimán; generic, Crocodilus), maxüneje (3)(Crocodylus intermedius), maxünejepetsaebianü (2) maxɨnehe inheritance also maxüneje (3)(Crocodylus intermedius), maxünejepetsaebianü (2) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Tariana Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. káːs[iɾi] (dp91); katʃíra, káatʃiri (HR) káːs[iɾi] (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also katʃíra, káatʃiri (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B.
Tukano Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨsó ɨsó inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. so so inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Wapishana Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kʰanawaˀda; atʰurɨ kʰanawaˀda; atʰurɨ unique second form is from 'canoe' May be inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B.
Yanomami Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. iwa iwa (general term) unknown cf. Carib 'iguana' iwana generic underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
Yukuna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kajyú (big caiman), yujremi, lánawaru kahjú (big caiman), juhɾemi, lánawaɾu inheritance Also lánawaɾu; kahjú (big caiman) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Achagua Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. katʃúiɻi (hr01); tʃamána (HR92) katʃúiɻi (hr01) inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. katsúiri (hr01), cachuíri; tʃamàna (HR92) katsúiɾi (hɾ01), katʃuíɾi See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ka:tʃu[ri] (dp91), kátʃhuri ka:tʃu[ɾi] (dp91), kátʃhuɾi See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. duwiri; kadʰúili (hr01) duwiri; kadʰúili (hr01) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kai'manu kai'manu See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., PLE
Mandawaka Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kadíːri kadíːɾi See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B.
Paresi Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. iyakare, kanomenare ijakare, kanomenare loan - WW TG %jakare See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kahire kahire inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Anissa Capuccino
Waurá Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ya'ka (generic alligator) ja'ka (generic alligator) loan - WW TG %jakare See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. niʔpa, meʔtópa (H&R92) niʔpa, meʔtópa (H&R92) inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. níhiba, meedúba (W97) níʔiba, meedúba See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kururuimo, zakare kururuimo, zakare unique, loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. aliwe aliwe inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
Tiriyó Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ariwe ariwe inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Becky Walker
Mapoyo Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. arue (caiman) arue (caiman) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. watwa watwa unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. iake jakɛ See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ariye aréje ('cayman', H&R) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Phon only in source Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. koré koré, kʰoré ('cayman', H&R) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cuiva Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. maxʉne (rk83) maxɨ´ne See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Cofán Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. vatova See Language page Throughout Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. shanita ʃanita unknown cf. Jivaroan/Candoshi 'iguana' See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Taushiro Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hunta hunta See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Páez Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. chipa tʃipa See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Tikuna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. coya koja unique but cf. Tinigua 'iguana' See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. dʒakari (Tupi loan?), enïa tʃakaɽi, enʉa loan - WW TG %jakare See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. tumi (small babilla caiman) tumi unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. yãkãkã; ari See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hamna; wou hamna; wou doubtful loan/inheritance? loan/inheritance Kakua-Nukak See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. aliwí [Carib loan] See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
Ashuar Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. yantána, kaníats jantana, kaniats See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Huambisa Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. uun yantana (yantana=lagarto) u:n jantana See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Aguaruna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. semágkau sɨmángkau unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Matses Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. cachita katʃita loan Arawak See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kapɨ-; kapɨ-tɨ (generic alligator) kapɨ-; kapɨ-tɨ (generic alligator) inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick
Yagua Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. nurtu nurtu unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. lagartu (Spanish loan) lagaɾtu See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. runa micuj lagartu ɾuna mikux lagaɾtu See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Piaroa Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ku'wE', wãporah (K76) kuʔwæʔ, wãporah unknown See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. callui kaʤui loan Arawak See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Becky Walker
Barasano Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hea gɨsó hea gɨsó See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Carapana Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ʉso ɨsɔ, ʉso (FS) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Makuna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. gʉso, jea gʉso (constituent jea means 'fire/firewood'), ria gʉso gɨso, xɛa gɨso, ria gɨso inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Yuruti Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨ́so ɨ́so See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Waikhana Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨ'so ɨ'so See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Siriano Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. diá-'ké̃ã diá-'ké̃ã See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kahu dya'ia ['caiman-jaguar'], kahu (Strom92) kahu ʎa'ia ('caiman-jaguar'). kahu (Strom92) loan Yucuna kahju See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨ́ho ɨ́ho See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨ'so ɨʔso, ɨ'só See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨhó (Caiman) ɨhó (Caiman) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. okoroche okʰoroʤe unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Siona Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. bë'ë bɨʔɨ inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. puë'ë pɨʔ'ɨ See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Karitiana Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. osy, saara osɨ, saaɾa unknown See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Kokama Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. jakari jakari inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. yakalɛ (G89) jakalɛ (G89) inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
Sirionó Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɲi̯kʸare; ɲi̯kʸarete (P85) ɲi̯kʸare; ɲi̯kʸarete inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. jakare jakare inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. jonhóónm̈a honhóónm̵a unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. té.ema, tɯkɯ́naɯma (H&R92) té.ema, tɯkɯ́naɯma (H&R92) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. θé.ema, θɯkɯ́naɯma (H&R92) θé.ema, θɯkɯ́naɯma (H&R92) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. naɯma, θɯkɯnaɯma (H&R92) naɯma, θɯkɯnaɯma (H&R92) doubtful loan, direction unknown Waorani nõma See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Wari Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hop (Sousa2009) hop (Sousa2009) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. šai (generic alligator) šai See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick
Cavineña Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. matoha matoha See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kaymana kajmana See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
Trumai Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. topetne topetne See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hãpã (IDS) hãpã (IDS) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
Suyá Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. miči miči See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. uhiri uhiri See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE