Ashuar

Family
Jivaroan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
acu
Location
-2.83°, -77.26°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Fast, Gerhard, Ruby Warkentin de Fast and Daniel Fast. 1996. Diccionario Shiwiar-Ashuar-Castellano. Serie Lingüística Peruana No. 36. Yarinacocha, ILV.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location yakí jakĩ See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar túrua, túra (to join similar subjects), túruamtai, túramtai (to join different subjects) turua, tura See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment yukúu jũkũ: See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location {-num}, {-nam} {-num}, {-nam} See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body tuntúp, súuntai tuntup, su:ntaj See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality pasé, nápchau pasɯ, napʧau See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body tantán, wáke tantan, wakɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location nungká nuŋka See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality juun, juunt xu:n, xu:nt See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour shuwín, nashúm ʃuwin, naʃum See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body númpa numpa See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body kangkáj kaŋkaj See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body ukúnch, kunch ukunʧ, kunʧ See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body netsép nɯtsɯp See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human úchi uʧi See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment mukúnit mukunit See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality mícha, tsetsék miʧa, tsɯtsɯk See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality nekás nɨkas See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time kínta kinta See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality kúnta, pakuí, shungkát kunta, pakui, ʃuŋkat See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality mujúkash muxukaʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality mushum, mushump muʃum, muʃump See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment juyúr, mamúunkat xũjũr, mamu:nkat See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body kuwísh kuwiʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment núngka nuŋka See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna nujín nuxin See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body jii xi: See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality arák, níjuchu, téjchau arak, nixutʃu, tɨxtʃau See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body mácha maʧa See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship apár (my father) apár See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna úre urɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment ji xi See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment yangkúr jaŋkur See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment yurángkim juraŋkim See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora nére nɨrɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality péngker pɯŋkɯr See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body intásh intaʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body uwéj uwɯj See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ni (ausent) / áu (present) ni / au See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body múuk mu:k See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality kíjin, méram kixin, meram See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar itúr, itiúr itur, itiur See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar wi, wíka wi, wíka See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar {-ka}, {kia} {-ka}, {kia} See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location {-nam}, {-num}, {-nmak}, {-numak} {-nam}, {-num}, {-nmak}, {-numak} See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body ámpuj ampux See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment kúcha (Quechua loan?), mamús kutʃa, mamus See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment núka nuka See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ména mɨna See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body máku maku See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment cháarim, cháarimp tʃa:rim, tʃa:rimp See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body akáp akap See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality japiláng, sáram, esáram xapilaŋ, saram, ɨsaram See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna téma tɯma See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human áints, áishmang aints, aiʃmaŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna namáng namaŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment yántu, nantu jantu, nantu See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nukúr (my mother) nukúr See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body jángke xaŋkɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human náar (my name) na:r See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality yáamas ja:mas See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body kuntúj kuntux See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body kuntúj kuntux See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality yamáram jamaram See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time káshi kaʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar atsá, tsá atsa, tsa See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body núji nuxi See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality arút arut See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number chikíchik, kichik ʧikiʧik, kiʧik See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar kich kitʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body sungkúrmaku, najáimiau suŋkurmaku, naxaimiau See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human áints aints See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment yúmi jumi See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour kapántin kapantin See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body untsúrnumanini [shared Secoya] untsumu, manini See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture jínta, jíntía xinta, xintia See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora kangkáp kaŋkap See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality káuru kauru See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment náikim, nayákim naikim, najakim See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ére ɨrɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality sútarach sutarax See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body yakái jakai See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental sápij, shámin, shámkau sapij, ʃamin, ʃamkau See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body nuwáp nuwap See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment nayáim najaim See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality túupich, trúpich tu:piʧ, trupiʧ See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment mukúnit mukunit See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment yaa ja: See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora númi, yúmi numi, jumi See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment káya kaja See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body ujuké uxukɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar áu au See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ni (ausent) / áu (present) ni / au See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality kúta kuta See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality watsáru, púya watsanu, puja See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar ju See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar áme amɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body súwe sũwɨ̃ See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number kampátam, menáintu kampatam, mɯnaintu See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment ipiamát ipiamat See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body esáitin, sákratin, esákratin ɨsatin, sakatin, ɨsakratin See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body nasékatin (to blow the wind), umpúntin (blow a blowgun) nasɨkatin, umpuntin See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body mayátin majatin See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment áaskatin a:skatin See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body naúrtin, nawáatin naurtin, nawa:tin See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion wákatin wakatin See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion winítin (a probably loan from Spanish?) winitin See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ináratin, inárkatin, niáratin inararin, inarkatin, niaratin See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental nekápmartin nɨkapmartin See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental júutin xu:tin See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact charúktin tʃaruktin See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state jákatin xakatin See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact táutin, táuti tawtin, tawti See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental karámratin karamratin See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body amúrtin amurtin See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body yúwatin juwatin See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion kakéektin kakɨ:ktin See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental shámamu tʃamamu See Language page Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion yástin jástin See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion nanámtin nanamtim See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state nampuártin (people), tsakártin (animals) nampuartin, tsakartin See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental antúktin antuktin See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion úuktin (things), nítrumaktin (actions) ũ:ktin, nitrumaktin See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact awátratin, katsúmkatin awatratin, katsumkatin See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ampúktin ampúktin See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact máatin (kill animals), mangkartuatin (kill people) ma:tin, maŋkartuatin See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental nékat nɯkat See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental wishírtin wiʃirtin See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion tepéstin tepestin See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body pujút puxut See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other uráimu, epénchamu uraimu, ɨpɨntʃamu See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact chánatin, chínatin tʃanatin, tʃinatin See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental títin titin See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact méejatrin mɨ:xatrin See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental jíistin, wáinkatin xi:stin, wainkatin See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ipiatin, piátin ipiatin, piatin See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state ekéemsatin, pujústin ɨkɨ:msatin, puxustin See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body kanúrtin, kajíngtin kanurtin, kaxiŋtin See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body nekápratin nɨkaprati See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body usúkmitin usukmitin See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact jíinkitin xi:nkitin See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ijúrtin ixurtin See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact kuchíijai ijutin kutʃi:xai: xutin See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wajáktin waxaktin See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other kasámkatin kasamkatin See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body mukunpatin mukunpatin See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body tikishmátratin tikiʃmatratin See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion yukuáktin jukuaktin See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental inintímratin inintimratin See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact nangkimiátin naŋkimiatin See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact jingkiátin xinŋkiatin See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other téenkatin te:nkatin See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body imiúktin imiuktin See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion wekáasatin wɯka:satin See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other takákmastin takasmastin See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body awáanimratin awã:nimratin See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body inái, injái inãĩ, inxãĩ See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body nái nai See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number jímiar ximiar See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment yúmi jumi See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ii i: See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality jampúr xampur See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar warí wari See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar warútia warutia See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar tunía tunia See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour púju, sháaram puxu, ʃa:ram See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar ya ja See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship nuwári (his wife) nuwári See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment nasé nasɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body nanáp nanap See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human núwa nuwa See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour yangkú, chakuír yaŋku, ʧakuir See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar atúm atum See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body náwe nawɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar aták aták See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other ashí, mash aʃi, maʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body wánus wanus See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tsukáp tsukap See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body íja ixa See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body wuwách wũwãtʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body seártin sɨãrtin See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body terértin tɨrɨrtin See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment sáap sa:p See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body nanchík, shiwiángk nanʧik, ʃiwiŋk See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body inintí ininti See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time etsáa ɯtsa: See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment múra mura See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality samék (bright green), wingkiá (dark green) samɯk, wiŋkia See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality tsúwer tsuwɯr See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. nungkáim, jeéncham, jíncham, warásham, anchúmir, wajéng nuŋkaim, xɯ:nʧam, xinʧam, waraʃam, antʃumir, waxɯŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna chíngki tʃiŋki See Language page Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. máshu maʃu See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tsukangká, pinínch, sháingkuap (with yellow breast), keruá (small toucan) tsukaŋka, piniʧ, ʃaiŋkuap, kɯrua See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans chíwia ʧiwia See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. kúyu, aunts? kúju, aunts? See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae waa, wáawa (small tinamou) wa:, wa:wa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae jémpe, jempetsées xɯmpɯ, xɯmpɯtsɯ:s See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae charákat ʧarakat See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes púru, múwai puru, muwai See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. kawáu (yellow macaw), yampúna (red macaw), kawau, jampuna See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica tíngku (with reddish wings), tuwísh (with blue neck), wármas (with yellow forehead), shiyáapay (speaker parrot) tiŋku, tuwiʃ, warmas, ʃija:pay See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae yámpits, yápangkan, pupuí jampits, japaŋkan,pupui See Language page Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kauta kãũta See Language page Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae chiwiáng, chuwáng ʧiwiaŋ, ʧuwaŋ See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pátu (domesticated duck) (Spanish loan), íkiam pátu (wild duck), patúya patu, ikiam patu, patuja See Language page Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba táanta, pujúngaras, piámpia ta:nta, puxungaras, piampia See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae sawáke, taráshaam, tatásham sawakɯ, taraʃa:m, tataʃam See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yawaa, tangkú yãwãã, áinmin (hunter dog), jãwã:, taŋku jãwã:, ainmin See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis máing maiŋ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) wishe wishe wiʃɯ wiʃɯ See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri shushuí, tuwi (small armadillo), séma (giant armadillo), yángkunt ʃuʃui, tũwi, sɯma, jaŋkunt See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. iyus ĩjũs See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. yantána, kaníats jantana, kaniats See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus sungkírum (not especified as electric) suŋkirum See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna namák achíkchamu namak aʧikʧamu See Language page Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. kapáwi, putirích kapawi, putiriʧ See Language page Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae páni, wapésha pani, wapúk pani pani, wapɯʃa pani, wapuk pani See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. kasúur kasúur See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. kumpáu, sesém, karáimur (all 'catfish') kumpáu, sesém, karáimur (all 'catfish') See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura puwách, apái, súwi (edible types) puwátʃ, apái, súwi (edible types) See Language page Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. súunti su:nti See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata shampiú, takáras ʃampiu, takaras See Language page Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. tsentsármau tsɯntsarmau See Language page Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura chúngka, nukúch ʧuŋka, nukuʧ See Language page Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes pangkí, shukíim, puráu, yacumama paŋki, ʃuki:m, purau, jakumama See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae pangkí, yakuma pangkí (redish boa), paŋki, jakuma paŋki See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna nápi napi See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox makánch makanʧ See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria kungkuím kuŋkuim See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis apúup apu:p See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) ésem, ésemp, áchim, múkush ɯsɯm, ɯsɯmp, aʧim, musukuʃ See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. saké sakɯ See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa áchu aʧu See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana arápia, irápia, chúuku, achúuku arapia, irapia, ʧu:ku, aʧu:ku See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea shíngki ʃiŋki See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes uwíi uwi: See Language page Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua nújtuktai nuxtuktai See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) urúch uruʧ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra menté mɯntɯ See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens jimiá ximia See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea núse nusɯ See Language page plant Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus kuwísh kuwiʃ See Language page plant Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum páat pa:t See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. páantam, tampútam (banana), mantsér, winchú, páantu (plantain) páantam, tampútam (banana), mantsér, winchú, páantu (plantain) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. miik mi:k See Language page plant Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) nupã́ã nupã́ã See Language page Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays shaa ʃa: See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tsaang tsa:ŋ See Language page plant Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna númi, yúmi numi, jumi See Language page Daniel Valle
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana ipiák, shiipiak ipiak, ʃĩ:piak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. sámpi, kashuápi sampi, kaʃuapi See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana kái, kayí kai, kaji See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala tsarúyais tsarujãis See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana súwa súwa See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. kauch (Sp.), shiring (Sp.), tarar kautʃ (Sp.), ʃiriŋ (Sp.), tarar See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia shiwiá, huwía, shuyáa ʃiwia, uwia, ʃuya: See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta máma mama See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ínchi inʧi See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. kengké kɯŋkɯ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. pápa, apáchnar, wanchúp papa, apaʧnar, wanʧup See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tsápa numíri ('tutumo, esp. de calabaza') tsápa numíri ('tutumo, esp. de calabaza') See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. yúmi júmi See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. kaap kaap See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. tímu timu See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi natém natɯm See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae (no generic) (no generic) See Language page Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata yutuí jutui See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. week wɯ:k See Language page Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis wapás, yapás, chími (small bee), murúsh (black bee), masúat (bee to extract oil) wapas, japas, ʧimi, muruʃ, masuat See Language page Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria shurúk, chíchi (white cockoarch), tsárap (small cockroach) isu:ja ʃuruk, ʧiʧi, tsarap See Language page Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae misáp, yasáp misap, jayap See Language page Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera shímpiampu, wámpang (giant blue butterfly) ʃimpiampu, wampaŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera mámuk (of wood), kaya, séngka mamuk, kãyã See Language page Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora námpich, pípik nampiʧ, pipik See Language page Daniel Valle
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda kángkanchup kaŋkanʧup See Language page Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones titíng titing See Language page Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea chiáchia, marúpa nukúri (big cicada), míiruch (noisy cicada) ʧiaʧia, marupa nukuri, mi:ruʧ See Language page Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera sungkú suŋku See Language page Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera káap kã:p See Language page Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae mánchi, tingkisháp, tungkusháp, tíinchup manʧi, tiŋkiʃap, tuŋkuʃap, ti:nʧup See Language page Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. saránchim, shiránchim, puntíish (big suri), muntíish (big suri) saranʧim, ʃiranʧim, munti:ʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. tatákar, jámchi (mosquito), mánchu (zancudo) tatakar, xamtʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kámau kamau See Language page Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tsájip, muáash, píitui tsajip, mũa:ʃ, pi:tui See Language page Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita éte ɯtɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kúngku (from soil), pukuáng, wawík (from water) tsúntsu kuŋku, pukuaŋ, wawik, tsuntsu See Language page Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae tsére, pétunch tsɯrɯ, pɯtuntʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yawaa, juun yawaa, shia shia (small jaguar) jãwãa:, xu:n jãwã:, ʃĩã ʃĩã See Language page Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha chuu ʧu: See Language page Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] yakúm jakum See Language page Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella michík, mirít miʧik, mirit See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons tsére tsɯrɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus wáshi waʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae kujáncham kuxanʧam See Language page Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis uyu, iyu ujũ, ijũ See Language page Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu yangkipík, nangkipík, jaŋkipʲik, naŋkipʲik See Language page Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari páki paki See Language page Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kúru kuru See Language page Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kúshi kuʧi See Language page Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. káyuk, agutí kajuk, aguti See Language page Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ungúmi, kapiúr ungumi, kapiur See Language page Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti yungkíts juŋkits See Language page Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) káshai kaʃai See Language page Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus katíp katip See Language page Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kunám, kunámp, waiwásh kunam, kunamp, waiwaʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris pamá, pamáu pama, pamau See Language page Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus jápa xápa See Language page Daniel Valle
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawai (Sp.) kawai (Sp.) See Language page Daniel Valle


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material súku, changkín, churúsek, piták suku, ʧaŋkin, ʧurusɯk, piták See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material piták pitak See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material tepámu, tepéti, peák (wooden made) tɯpamu, tɯpɯti, pɯak See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material támpu tampu See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material kéematai kɯ:matai See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport kánu kanu See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture túntui túntui Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tampúr tampur See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology uwishín, iwishín uwiʃin, iwiʃin In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology tsuwákratin, iwishín tsuwakratin, iwiʃin Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material japímuk xapimuk See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology tárach taraʧ See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other wenúrmau, wenúti wɯnurmau, wɯnuti may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other chúpum, chápum ʧupum, ʧapum See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology pasé wakan pasé wakan See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology yus jus In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology japawea, peém, nángku xapawɯã, pɯ:m, naŋku multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuchí kuʧi See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material sáapi, kuniá, wáarta, wáarat sa:pi, kunia, wa:rta, wa:rat See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool jákam xakam especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool wáchi, nángki waʧi, naŋki hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool nángki naŋki See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool tíshimuk, balista (Spanish loan) tiʃimuk, balista arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport kawín kawin See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material puwát, purát puwat, purat See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool áuti, chínak auti, ʧinak See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tasúng tasuŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool jakách xakaʧ agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology shakáp ʃakáp See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool pue, puwáje, kántse, sekát pũɯ, pũwaxɯ, kantsɯ, sɯkat See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other míkia (beeswax) míkia (beeswax) See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food wapása yumíri ('bee liquid') wapása jumíri ('bee liquid') only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture náek, yárang naɨk, jaraŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology épesh jáktin ɯpɯʃ xaktin See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material núka najántramu nuka najantra mu See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology pusáng, músap pusaŋ, músap See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology tawásam tawasam See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology karáir (face paint) karáir (face paint) See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation pápi áujtai pápi áuhtai See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation butí, mutí (Sp.) butí, mutí (Sp.) See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation pápi (Sp.) pápi (Sp.) See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kárim ('your dream') kárim ('your dream') See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation atásh atáʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology jakáu iwiársamuri hakáu iwiársamuri See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other kashím (Sp.) kaʃím (Sp.) See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation páat 'cane (sugar or wild)' páat 'cane (sugar or wild)' See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material júwir húwir See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapát sapát See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation súntar súntar See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation míshi míʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation akã́rũ (cf. verb 'take apart, take into pieces'?) akã́rũ See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress tséngkruti tséŋkruti See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ápu (Quechua) ápu (Quechua) See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool shingki chapamamu, makan (Sp. macana) ʃingki tʃapamamu, makan (Sp. macana) See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress péetai, itíp péetai, itíp See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool ánaimu (also = 'rope for carrying') ánaimu (also = 'rope for carrying') See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food wee wee See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology anen (trad Achuar song type) anen (trad Achuar song type) See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool uum u:m currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool tséntsak tsɯntsak hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wáin, wáingku wain, waiŋku esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food juntáatin, wakemtin xunta:tin, wakɯmtim See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food nijártin (also = 'wash') nihártin (also = 'wash') See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food uumjai, karujai ũ:mjaĩ, kãruxãĩ See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kúntin kuntin Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tsápa tsapa See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool kesáti, kesátai kɯsati, kɯsatai esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool píirak pi:rak See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool nakétai nakɯtai See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture jamánch, jiamánch, yamánch xamanʧ, xiamanʧ, jamanʧ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food warín warin agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food tánta (Quechua), pang (Sp) tánta (Quechua), pang (Sp) usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food mama sáiri, mama tsáiri mama sáiri, mama tsáiri See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food mamá chántairi ('yuca press') mamá tʃántairi ('yuca press') word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool tséas tsɯas hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool tsatsátai tsatsatai agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool métek, wajásmau mɯtɯk, waxasmau can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture káya kaja if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
house other jea xɯã See Language page Daniel Valle