cold

Semantic Field
quality
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
frío
Meaning Portuguese
frio

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim ŭt-se-ŭt' “cold weather” (teeth closed) 209 inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone yicyi” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla yuyma inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok Tyn:a- unknown Jane Hill
Chemehuevi sy-ja/7i (V), inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno koqton; oxto “person to be cold” inheritance Klar 1977:76 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno aq(7)t'a “es frio” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno toxom' inheritance Klar 1977:76 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno qto, kto “feel cold” inheritance Klar 1977:76 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno toqom “feel cold” inheritance Klar 1977:76 Jane Hill
Cocopa xsu:r “to be” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche ytsy7ity inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño yuy [yuy˳] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen Sutuk(i) unknown T&S 1981:121 Jane Hill
Gabrielino $ovo7 inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa hechuur [xəˈtʃuˑ˅r] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu shitu7i-dy inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7xcha7k inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk shyvyt inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ti/pmuTi t is interdental inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño 7i/itaat inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
Maidu du/pe-ti unknown Jane Hill
Mojave hachuur, inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun tursingka “I am getting cold” inheritance O77:53 Jane Hill
Nisenan b2k'2s (object) unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute ydzytsy “cold” inheritance Thornes 03:43 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok TuT:uTu- unknown Jane Hill
Plains Miwok tisti- (of a person, add -ku- or -k:u inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A Tatil (A only); unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) caapl unknown Jane Hill
Serrano ycy inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute -pyra- (with cy-S "to be cold" cy-p:yra- "to be cold"; cy-G inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok hityHp- (thing, weather) inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute spyrai, sypr7a, sYpyvY inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal yytsyy7jyt “be cold” inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone yitsy7in inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo cHacH cH is on same line (that is, not c hachek) loan Jane Hill
Washo diwy/hli unknown J172 Jane Hill
Western Mono y/zy/7y/- “to be cold”; inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu k'ol unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai mu_ni unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami T'emi7 (cold weather) unknown JPH Gamble Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi dOtc “be cold” x inheritance K07:247 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne hosow inheritance Golla 1964 61; Jane Hill
Yuki Ta:m-, Tam- (of person or weather) inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma xacu/r “to be cold” H4:20 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa hápe hápe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona kətʃi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo jʉjʉco (f.), jʉjʉcʉ (m.), jʉjʉrõ (inan.) xɨxɨko (f.), xɨxɨkɨ (m.), xɨxɨɾõ (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw ba’ baʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano yʉsari jɨsari inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa t-ɨʔnatə-ke t-ɨʔnatə-ke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï kio'li unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani yogi unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup tút, m'ǽ [water] tút, ~b'ǽ [water] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi komiʔ (IDS) komiʔ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu uçanga usaŋga unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam wati; watutu, nsai (EM72), sãi (EM72) wati; watutu, nsai, sãi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki sɨsɨjɨ (to be cold) sɨsɨxɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon komi, koko (A1981); komiikkeenak (E1980); komik (M2000) komi, koko (A1981); kɔmiʔkenak (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro hi?píí?, taa hiʔpííʔ, taa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá ɨsɨ holele ɨsɨ holele unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tariana hapé-peɾi hapé-peɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano yʉsʉá (hr) jɨsɨá (hr) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria yʉsʉri sãana (Waltz) jʉsʉɾi sãana (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam sãi, sãhi, wahati (to feel cold) (EM72) sãi, sãhi, wahati (to feel cold) (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami si ahi, siãhi (EM72) si ahi, siãhi (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna ipe'ení ipeʔení inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup tǔt tǔt unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana madli inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi inkurr inkurr unknown Claire Bowern
Bunuba ngirrilya unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra -mujarracharra unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu 1969 unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal 1969 Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ŋulwitj unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari kundukundu unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU madli inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu guyiŋarr Claire Bowern
Djapu guyiŋarr unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang miṉ unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng warnka inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi maadi unique Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu 1969 unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji makurru loan Claire Bowern
Jaru gilygily semantic shift Claire Bowern
Jawi ingurr~bindya ingurr~binja unknown Claire Bowern
Karajarri jarrjarr unknown Claire Bowern
Kija warnka- inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: mantha inheritance? Claire Bowern
Mangala piriya unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung wanka inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka malt[h]i inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra makurru Claire Bowern
Mudburra makurru loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini malti inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi ma-martun inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma muthu Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl binja, beenja <binja, beenja> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi pundra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Nimanburru bindj binj inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla pirriya Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta warrijirri unknown Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta warri unknown Claire Bowern
Nyikina gamininy XXngl = Yaw. cold weather kamininy unknown Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul bindj binj inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi bundinyella loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Pirriya yirliya unique Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta mali inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu ŋulwitj Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu 821 loan Claire Bowern
Walmajarri makurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru malhi, mali inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy mawuraada inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu 1969 Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha malthi, pundra, kundrukundru inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi malti inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka malti inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru jarljar; garraly jarljar; karraly unknown Claire Bowern
Achagua kasaliniri kasaliniri inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco casalíníiri kasalíní:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari peʔe peʔe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena awini awini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ka'winini ka'winini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare tiwéhẽ tiwéhẽ See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana wadidi-ʔu wadidi-ʔu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Mandawaka iheː-ri iheː-ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi tiha tiha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure tokonokon tokonokon inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ka-tɨka; amɨna ka-tɨka; amɨna inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Arutani roma, kima ɾoma, kima See Language page John Blaha
Sape unkoya unkoya See Language page John Blaha
Bora tsʰ ïḯ kʰo, táɨ́ʔkʰoó tsʰ ɯɯ́ kʰo, táɨ́ʔkʰoó inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane sɨɨku sɨɨku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio komiikkeenak kɔmiʔkenak inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect iʔkɔ iʔkɔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai kõxikene kõxikene inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana ahalamatse, tïme ahalamatse, tɨme doubtful loan, direction unknown mac̷i: Panoan, Wayampi, prob. Wayana, Enlhet See Language page PLE
Tiriyó tɨno:me tɨno:me inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare kəmme (IDS); kömme (KH) kəmme inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo i'nëtëke i'nɛtɛke See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai t-wot-me t-wot-me inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari tykomia tɨkomja See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa koye kodʒepe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo keűti keűti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca zquyensuca tʂkuɨensuka See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá kũrása kũrása See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Macaguan akén, pi-akáineje akén, pi-akáinehe inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán cha´ndio tʃaʔndio See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra kachĩzá katʃĩʂá loan Arawak *kačɨnka See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro ju´unhene xuʔunhene See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez finze finze See Language page Daniel Valle
Urarina helaḍzo-to-a helatʃo-to-a unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa ʃék-bana ʃék-bana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke -nosi'ko (to be cold) -nosiʔko (to be cold) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé chjüchjá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku antsu, mihu antsu, mihu See Language page PLE
Ashuar mícha, tsetsék miʧa, tsɯtsɯk See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa tsetsek tsɨtsɨk See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna bichámchatu bitʃámtʃatu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses dauebud, iquen dauebud, iken unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo mac̷i mac̷i loan, direction unknown mac̷i: Panoan, Wayampi, prob. Wayana, Enlhet See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua canuvu- kanuwũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua chiri tʃiɾi See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá chiri tʃiri See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua chiri tʃiɾi See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano chiri tʃiɾi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa diyawa'a dijawaʔa unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Barasano ɨsa- ɨsa- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana yʉsʉarije, yisiarije jɨsɨaɾixɛ,jisiaɾixɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna ɨsa- ɨsa- inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti jɨ́sɨa- jɨ́sɨa- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana jɨ'sɨ'aje jɨ'sɨ'aje See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano yʉsá-ri jɨsá-ri See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca hi'hia (fem.) hi'hia (fem.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo hóo hóo See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka yɨsɨ'a jɨsɨʔa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja džɨ́hɨ́á dʒɨ́hɨ́á See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje sʉsʉche sʉsʉdʒe inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona sɨsɨ sɨsɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya së'sëji sɨʔsɨhi See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana keõ´n keõʔn unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama tsɨre (to be cold) tsɨɾe doubtful loan Quechua tʃiri See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi luwã; -l-ɔʔɨ luwã; -l-ɔʔɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó serui (P85); wina-da serui (P85); wina-da inheritance loan into Shipibo-Conibo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá iroˀɨ-tsang (K12) iroˀɨ-tsang (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina dyótu dʲótɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto ročí-re-de rotʃí-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto roθí-re-de roθí-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto roθi-re-de roθi-rɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito sɨm'ɨtina sɨm'ɨtina unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo shinyaka ʃinjaka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari šio; kapinʔ ʃio; kapinʔ See Language page PLE Respectively: 'cold object'; 'cold person'.
Ese Ejja/Huarayo kia-we, kea-boe (Girard 1971) kia-we, kea-boe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña ba-da-ke; bane-; ba-da (G71) ba-da-ke; bane-; ba-da (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara thaya tʰaya; alala See Language page PLE
Kwazá kaikuja, awy kaikuja, awy See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima hilo-ka hilo-ka See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai tsixuʔtsa, anu, toketoke tsixuʔtsa, anu, toketoke unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kusa kusa See Language page PLE
Suyá krɨt krɨt See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi djidjirü dʒidʒirø See Language page PLE