Akawaio/Ingariko dialect

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
ake
Location
6.16°, -60.86°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Souza Cruz, Maria Odileiz 2005. Fonologia e gramática Ingarikó. Tesis doctoral. Amsterdam: Free University of Amsterdam. Meira, Sérgio. Wordlist.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Lauren Franklin
and y e grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
at en, a em, a location See Language page Lauren Franklin
back espalda costas body aurepë aurepɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
bad mal mal quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
belly barriga barriga body rɔta rɔta See Language page Lauren Franklin
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Lauren Franklin
big grande grande quality ɛke ɛke See Language page Lauren Franklin
black negro preto colour See Language page Lauren Franklin
blood sangre sangue body See Language page Lauren Franklin
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Lauren Franklin
bone hueso osso body ɤʔpɯ ɤʔpɯ See Language page Lauren Franklin
breast pecho, seno peito body manatɨ (SM) manatɨ (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
child niño, niña criança human mɯre mɯre See Language page Lauren Franklin
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
cold frío frio quality iʔkɔ iʔkɔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
day día dia time yïi jïi See Language page Lauren Franklin
dirty sucio sujo quality ɤri ɤri See Language page Lauren Franklin
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Lauren Franklin
dry seco seco quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
ear oreja orelha body enu enu See Language page Lauren Franklin
earth/soil tierra terra environment noŋ noŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
egg huevo ovo fauna pïmoi pɯmoi See Language page Lauren Franklin
eye ojo olho body See Language page Lauren Franklin
far lejos longe quality ɤnnɤ, suŋwa (very far) ɤn:ɤ, suŋwa (very far) See Language page Lauren Franklin
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page Lauren Franklin
father padre, papá pai kinship See Language page Lauren Franklin
feather pluma pena fauna See Language page Lauren Franklin
fire fuego fogo environment apoʔ, kamatu apoʔ, kamatu See Language page Lauren Franklin
flower flor flor environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
fruit fruta fruta flora ma:ni ma:ni See Language page Lauren Franklin
good bueno bom quality wakï wakɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body See Language page Lauren Franklin
hand mano mão body See Language page Lauren Franklin
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kɯrɤ, mɯkɤ kɯrɤ, mɯkɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
head cabeza cabeça body puʔpai puʔpai See Language page Lauren Franklin
heavy pesado pesado quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
how? como como grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
1sg yo eu grammar urɤ urɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
if si se grammar a'tai (SM) aʔtai (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Lauren Franklin
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Lauren Franklin
lake lago lago environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
leaf hoja folha environment alaŋ alaŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kamiʔ kamiʔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
leg/foot pierna perna body pisi pisi See Language page Lauren Franklin
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
liver hígado figado body See Language page Lauren Franklin
long largo comprido, longo quality awene awene See Language page Lauren Franklin
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna See Language page Lauren Franklin
man/male hombre homem human See Language page Lauren Franklin
meat/flesh carne carne fauna puŋ puŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
moon luna lua environment kapëi kapɤi See Language page Lauren Franklin
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page Lauren Franklin
mouth boca boca body mïta mɯta See Language page Lauren Franklin
name nombre nome human See Language page Lauren Franklin
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Lauren Franklin
neck cuello pescoço body pɨmɨ (SM) pɨmɨ (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
new nuevo novo quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
night noche noite time See Language page Lauren Franklin
no/not no não grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
nose nariz nariz body enna en:a See Language page Lauren Franklin
old viejo velho quality aʔmɔkɔ aʔmɔkɔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
one uno um number tiβin tiβin See Language page Lauren Franklin
other otro outro grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Lauren Franklin
person/human being persona pessoa human See Language page Lauren Franklin
rain lluvia chuva environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
red rojo vermelho colour See Language page Lauren Franklin
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Lauren Franklin
road/path camino caminho manufacture eʔma eʔma See Language page Lauren Franklin
root raíz raiz flora kara kara See Language page Lauren Franklin
rotten podrido podre quality ikɤi ikɤi See Language page Lauren Franklin
sand arena areia environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
short corto curto quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page Lauren Franklin
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Lauren Franklin
skin piel pele body See Language page Lauren Franklin
sky cielo céu environment kaʔ kaʔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
small pequeño pequeno quality aikɔ aikɔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
star estrella estrela environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora yëi jɤi See Language page Lauren Franklin
stone piedra pedra environment tɨ' (SM) tɨʔ (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
tail cola, rabo rabo body ëku ɤku See Language page Lauren Franklin
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kamɔrɔ kamɔrɔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality kasi kasi See Language page Lauren Franklin
thin delgado fino quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
2sg xx xx grammar amɤrɤ amɤrɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Lauren Franklin
three tres tres number See Language page Lauren Franklin
thunder truenos trovão environment kɔrumɛ kɔrumɛ See Language page Lauren Franklin
bite morder morder body See Language page Lauren Franklin
blow soplar soprar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
burn quemar queimar environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
climb subir subir motion See Language page Lauren Franklin
come venir vir motion See Language page Lauren Franklin
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kuipë kuipɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
count contar contar mental See Language page Lauren Franklin
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Lauren Franklin
cut/hack cortar cortar impact See Language page Lauren Franklin
die/be dead morir morrer state See Language page Lauren Franklin
dig cavar cavar impact aka aka See Language page Lauren Franklin
dream soñar sonhar mental ɛʔnepɯ:rɤ ɛʔnepɯ:rɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
drink beber, tomar beber body enƷi enƷi See Language page Lauren Franklin
eat comer comer body entaiʔkua, anï (meat) entaiʔkua, anɯ (meat) See Language page Lauren Franklin
fall caer cair motion See Language page Lauren Franklin
fear miedo medo mental See Language page Lauren Franklin
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Lauren Franklin
fly volar voar motion See Language page Lauren Franklin
grow crecer crescer state emoʔka emoʔka See Language page Lauren Franklin
hear oír ouvir mental eta, eda, era eta, eda, era See Language page Lauren Franklin
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Lauren Franklin
hit golpear, pegar bater impact apiʃi, aʔʃi apiʃi, aʔʃi See Language page Lauren Franklin
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Lauren Franklin
kill matar matar impact See Language page Lauren Franklin
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental iʔtu iʔtu See Language page Lauren Franklin
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Lauren Franklin
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion uï, akuï (deitado) uɯ, akuɯ (deitado) See Language page Lauren Franklin
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
open/uncover abrir abrir other aʔkoka aʔkoka See Language page Lauren Franklin
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Lauren Franklin
say decir dizer mental See Language page Lauren Franklin
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Lauren Franklin
see ver ver mental ene ene See Language page Lauren Franklin
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ëu, pïrëu (flechar) ɤu, pɯrɤu (flechar) See Language page Lauren Franklin
sit sentar(se) sentar state eu, ereuta eu, ereuta See Language page Lauren Franklin
sleep dormir dormir body See Language page Lauren Franklin
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Lauren Franklin
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact reʔpa reʔpa See Language page Lauren Franklin
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page Lauren Franklin
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Lauren Franklin
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page Lauren Franklin
steal robar roubar other See Language page Lauren Franklin
suck chupar chupar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
swim nadar nadar motion pënëmi pënëmi See Language page Lauren Franklin
think pensar pensar mental See Language page Lauren Franklin
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact See Language page Lauren Franklin
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact auromaN aurɔmaŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Lauren Franklin
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
walk caminar, andar andar motion sarɯ sarɯ See Language page Lauren Franklin
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Lauren Franklin
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
tongue lengua lingua body ani ani See Language page Lauren Franklin
tooth diente dente body See Language page Lauren Franklin
two dos dois number See Language page Lauren Franklin
water agua agua environment tuna tuna See Language page Lauren Franklin
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kuyaʔnɔkoŋ, ina kujaʔnɔkoŋ, ina See Language page Lauren Franklin
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page Lauren Franklin
what? que, qué que grammar ɤʔrɤ (as a question) ɤʔrɤ (as a question) See Language page Lauren Franklin
when? cuando quando grammar a'tai (SM) aʔtai (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
white blanco branco colour See Language page Lauren Franklin
who? quien, quién quem grammar anïʔ anɯʔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
wife esposa esposa kinship See Language page Lauren Franklin
wind viento vento environment aʔʃituŋ aʔʃituŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
wing ala asa body See Language page Lauren Franklin
woman/female mujer mulher human uriʃaŋ uriʃaŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
yellow amarillo amarelo colour See Language page Lauren Franklin
2pl ustedes vocês grammar amɤrɤʔnɔkoŋ amɤrɤʔnɔkoŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
foot pie body pïʔta pɯʔta See Language page Lauren Franklin
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Lauren Franklin
all todo todos other See Language page Lauren Franklin
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Lauren Franklin
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Lauren Franklin
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Lauren Franklin
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page Lauren Franklin
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Lauren Franklin
bark corteza casca environment piʔpɤ piʔpɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Lauren Franklin
heart corazón coração body See Language page Lauren Franklin
sun sol sol time yei (SM) yei (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment See Language page Lauren Franklin
green verde verde quality rɔʔra rɔʔra See Language page Lauren Franklin
hot caliente quente quality aʔneʔ aʔneʔ See Language page Lauren Franklin


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna See Language page Lauren Franklin
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Lauren Franklin
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Lauren Franklin
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Lauren Franklin
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Lauren Franklin
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread Lauren Franklin
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica See Language page Widespread Lauren Franklin
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Lauren Franklin
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Lauren Franklin
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America Lauren Franklin
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Lauren Franklin
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Lauren Franklin
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris See Language page Not native; widespread Lauren Franklin
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Lauren Franklin
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Lauren Franklin
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Lauren Franklin
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Lauren Franklin
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page Lauren Franklin
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page Lauren Franklin
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Lauren Franklin
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Lauren Franklin
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Lauren Franklin
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Lauren Franklin
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Lauren Franklin
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna See Language page Lauren Franklin
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Lauren Franklin
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread Lauren Franklin
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Lauren Franklin
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Lauren Franklin
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Lauren Franklin
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Lauren Franklin
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Lauren Franklin
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Lauren Franklin
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Lauren Franklin
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Lauren Franklin
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Lauren Franklin
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Lauren Franklin
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Lauren Franklin
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Lauren Franklin
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Lauren Franklin
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Lauren Franklin
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Lauren Franklin
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Lauren Franklin
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Lauren Franklin
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Lauren Franklin
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Lauren Franklin
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Lauren Franklin
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum See Language page plant Lauren Franklin
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna e' (SM) eʔ (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Lauren Franklin
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Lauren Franklin
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Lauren Franklin
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Lauren Franklin
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Lauren Franklin
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Lauren Franklin
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Lauren Franklin
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Lauren Franklin
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Lauren Franklin
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Lauren Franklin
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Lauren Franklin
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Lauren Franklin
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Lauren Franklin
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Lauren Franklin
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant Lauren Franklin
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Lauren Franklin
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Lauren Franklin
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Lauren Franklin
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Lauren Franklin
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Lauren Franklin
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Lauren Franklin
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Lauren Franklin
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Lauren Franklin
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Lauren Franklin
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Lauren Franklin
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis See Language page Lauren Franklin
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria masarawa masarawa See Language page Lauren Franklin
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Lauren Franklin
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Lauren Franklin
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Lauren Franklin
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Lauren Franklin
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Lauren Franklin
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Lauren Franklin
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Lauren Franklin
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page Lauren Franklin
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page Lauren Franklin
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Lauren Franklin
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Lauren Franklin
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Lauren Franklin
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Lauren Franklin
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Lauren Franklin
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Lauren Franklin
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page Lauren Franklin
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page Lauren Franklin
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Lauren Franklin
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Lauren Franklin
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Lauren Franklin
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Lauren Franklin
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Lauren Franklin
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Lauren Franklin
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Lauren Franklin
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Lauren Franklin
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Lauren Franklin
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Lauren Franklin
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Lauren Franklin
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Lauren Franklin
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Lauren Franklin
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Lauren Franklin
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Lauren Franklin
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Lauren Franklin
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page Lauren Franklin
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Lauren Franklin
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page Lauren Franklin
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus See Language page Lauren Franklin
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Lauren Franklin


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page
firewood leña lenha other See Language page
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool karo (type? Souza Cruz) karo (Souza Cruz) See Language page
wax cera cera other See Language page
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture See Language page
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page
salt sal sal food See Language page
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool See Language page
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Lauren Franklin
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Lauren Franklin
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Lauren Franklin
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Lauren Franklin
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Lauren Franklin
house other See Language page Lauren Franklin