correct/true

Semantic Field
quality
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
verdad, de veras
Meaning Portuguese
verdade

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone caanku “rightly, properly, well” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla chepe/v loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tyvi/samp(a) V inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7inu “de veras”, be.true inheritance Wash 2001:128,181 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno lyqshta unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7inu-Vch inheritance A79, 278 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno ts'imyji7 “verdadero” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno washych “good, true, right”, washe7e7ech “pura verdad” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa nyxany “truly” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche tokwetY “exact, proper, just right” loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
Cupeño icha:/m [Ɂitʃáam] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen efes unknown Shaul 1995:230 Jane Hill
Gabrielino CHM hi/yah-hah/-re “right” (vs wrong) unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'ehan [Ɂəˈxan̯] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu tyvi-shyvi “it is true” inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa chpiiy 49 “recto” inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk mymk loan Jane Hill
Lake Miwok 7eme/ene unique Jane Hill
Luiseño 7a-Su:n (lit. “its-heart”) inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu hapa/ “of course, precisely” unknown Jane Hill
Mojave 7ahot= “good, correct”, chava'oor= “right, correct”, kuva'or= “right, correct” Jane Hill
Mutsun aamane “indeed, truly; “it is the truth” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
Nisenan mydyk “true”; inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute toki loan direction unknown Thornes 03:128 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok ny:ma:tu- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok welwel inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A (k)esnA/h “true” unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M tse'e 'truly' unknown Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) miizj “correctly” unknown Jane Hill
Serrano mym-q (vi) loan Jane Hill
Southern Paiute togi “just, right” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok cytyH- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute tog'oi7itY loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ty/wwy “rightly” loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tokwi” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Wappo mehnit'a unknown Jane Hill
Washo i/:shib unknown J269 Jane Hill
Western Mono tybizitusU “it's true” unknown Jane Hill
Wintu caluma inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai vlwi_ “right, correct, proper”, lwi/ “correct” inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi me\'tc (me:7ch) inheritance K07:272 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne mizhna' “indeed, surely” unknown K 1963, N 1944 Jane Hill
Baniwa háapee háapee inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona aere (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo nurino (identical with right) nuɾino unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw xuúp xǔp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano diaye (identical with the lexical entry of right) diaje inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa t-ah-se ehke (IDS) t-ah-se ehke (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waorani dõ ĩte unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup dɔʔkěy dɔʔkěj unique See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi yairɨ (IDS) yairɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu até (from eté= verdadeiro) atɛ (from ɛtɛ= verdadeiro) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Maihiki iti ja ĩti xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon dairen (A1981); suraipan (M2000) daiɾen (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Tariana hápea hápea inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano waro waro unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria potocã (Waltz) potokã (Waltz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomami peheti peheti unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna kewákaje kewákahe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup hub' hub' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Gajirrabeng yijeng inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji yijarni loan Claire Bowern
Kija yijiya- inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung yijibbe inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri mapun loan Nyikina Claire Bowern
Achagua jáawa jáawa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco báisíiri iyú 'truly' báisíiri ijú 'truly' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana miʃu miʃu unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi alitere alitere unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Waurá kamalažɨ; c̷ama; awɨžɨ (the first two are listed under "true", the latter under "correct/right") kamalažɨ; ¢ama; awɨžɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora ímí, tʰeʔtḯxïkʰo, tsʰaímiyé ímí, tʰɛʔtɯ́xɯkʰo, tsʰaímijέ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane tḯkkóβo-bo, míyáá-no tɯ́kkóβo-bo, míjáá-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai nymyry nɨmɨrɨ unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana mïhen mɨhen unknown See Language page PLE
Tiriyó aerë aerǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Wai Wai t-akɨh-so / yaaro t-akɨh-so / yaaro unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari djapyma djapɨma See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa ayinopnecha, jetáhera, jetájeraya, muej, namoraska, ochore, ochuru, senar, setáseranye, sénar, sévar, yai, yaye, yayempe, yayino, yayonopo, yupuke, yupunkanap See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca ocasa okasa See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá hippá nṹmʉ, kĩrápe hippá nṹmʉ, kĩrápe See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán ñoa´me ɲoaʔmɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Páez paz paz See Language page Daniel Valle
Urarina esi ɲae esi ɲae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa tɕabá tɕabá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke ʌhʌta (truthfully) ʌhʌta (truthfully) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé tʰamõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave oi-bɨ-tep oi-bɨ-tep unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar nekás nɨkas See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa nekas nɨkas See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna dekás dɨkas inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses abimbo abimbo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo haʔano, haβiha (the former is listed under "correct, right", the latter under "true") haʔano, haβiha (the former is listed under "correct, right", the latter under "true") unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua sitenu sı̃tenu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua shutipa ʃutipa See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá sutipa sutipa See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua sirtu (Spanish loan) siɾtu See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano cheqan tʃeqan See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa ɨ'co'peɨ'nE, co'peɨ'nE' (K76) ɨʔtsoʔpeɨʔnæ, coʔpeɨʔnæʔ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva õõcha õːʧa unique See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano ríóho ríóho See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'ká-ríape, -ríta 'ká-ríape, -ríta See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna rioho rioho inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Waikhana ke'oro ke'oro See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano di'ájé diʔájé See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca ri'ta ri'ta unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo ríape ríape See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka diabã'kɨ diabãʔkɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja ã́'jṹ, ã́'jṹ-ro ã́ʔjṹ, ã́ʔjṹ-ro See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje joremachʉ'oku xoremadʒʉʔoku unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona te'e ruiñe teʔe ruiɲe unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya cosoma'ñe kɔsɔmaʔñɛ See Language page Amanda N
Kokama atsimin atsimin unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ɛʔɛ ɛʔɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó boc̷epi boc̷epi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ɑjetewɑt, ajete ɑjetewɑt, ajete inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina jaanchonó hããčõó unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto ha.ḯ.kïgobe ha.ɯ́.kɯ̃gobɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto ñu.éra ɲu.έra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto mare marɛ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito júura húura unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ityawraha itjawɾaha See Language page Becky Walker
Wari šoʔ ʃoʔ See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo eʔe hohinee (Girard 1971) eʔe hohinee See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña yoneri; poša amadʸa; kwaca-wana (G71); neri (G71) yoneri; poša amadʸa; kwaca-wana (G71); neri (G71) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara cheqa čiḳa See Language page PLE
Kwazá watxi, watxiwatxi-, jananãi- watxi, watxiwatxi-, jananãi- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima čon-lo tʃon-lo See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai piʔtsʔi(-ake) piʔtsʔi(-ake), tsʔax(correct) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang mỹr, vẽnh-vĩ ki krow See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi kinẽẽ kinẽẽ See Language page PLE