Trumai

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tpy
Location
-11.81°, -53.57°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Guirardello, Raquel. 1999. A Reference Grammar of Trumai. Houston: Rice University. Houston, TX: Rice Univ. Guirardello-Damian, Raquel. 2011. Léxico Comparativo: explorando aspectos da história trumai. In Franchetto, Bruna (ed.), Alto Xingu: uma sociedade multilíngue, 113-153. Rio de Janeiro: Museu do Indio - FUNAI. Monod-Becquelin, Aurore. 2007. Trumai. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
and y e grammar See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment somot ~ somot̯ somot ~ somot̯ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
back espalda costas body natu natu unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bad mal mal quality faxden falen; ae-tak faxden falen; ae-tak unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
belly barriga barriga body (ha) pitɬ; (ha) oxe (ha) pitɬ; (ha) oxe unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
big grande grande quality daii daii unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
black negro preto colour dat̯, tsi-dat̯ dat̯, tsi-dat̯ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
blood sangre sangue body (ha) du (ha) du unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bone hueso osso body daš daš unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body di-olem di-olem unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
child niño, niña criança human kik=noxo; di=noxo (Respectively: male child; female child) kik=noxo; di=noxo (Respectively: male child; female child) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment naneʔde naneʔde unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cold frío frio quality tsixuʔtsa, anu, toketoke tsixuʔtsa, anu, toketoke unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality piʔtsʔi(-ake) piʔtsʔi(-ake), tsʔax(correct) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
day día dia time kuiatan-e kuiatan-e unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality enɨ enɨ enɨ enɨ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dry seco seco quality uatɨta; tsʔa tak uatɨta; tsʔa tak unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
ear oreja orelha body (ha) faptɨ (ha) faptɨ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment tenexne tenexne unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna taf taf unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
eye ojo olho body xon(-ake); (ha) xon xon(-ake); (ha) xon unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
far lejos longe quality fuik-tak ('near-Neg') fuik-tak ('near-Neg') unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body tsʔa tsʔa unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship (ha)-ao (ha)-ao unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna kodetɬ šap kodetɬ šap unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment so so unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
flower flor flor environment missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment soxden len soxden len See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora deat ~ deiat deat ~ deiat unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
good bueno bom quality deta, ae, tsi-pom deta, ae, tsi-pom unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body (ha) kuš (ha) kuš unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hand mano mão body (ha) kat (ha) kat unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar hine; -n/-e hine; -n/-e unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body kut(-ake); (ha) kuta kut(-ake); (ha) kuta unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality tsidatox tsidatox unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
how? como como grammar hele-am-nuk hele-am-nuk unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar ha; hai; hai-ts ha; hai; hai-ts unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
if si se grammar See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location faxo-n faxo-n unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body (ha) fax (ha) fax unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
lake lago lago environment xu(-ake) xu(-ake) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment sida ~ siʔda sida ~ siʔda unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body teponik teponik unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body (ha) dak (ha) dak unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ameʃ (G99) ameʃ (G99) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
liver hígado figado body (iau) aʔtsi; (ha) atsi (iau) aʔtsi; (ha) atsi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality atuk; atuk iii atuk; atuk iii unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna asih asih unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
man/male hombre homem human kiki kiki unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna lat, kodetl lat, kodetl unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
moon luna lua environment atetl-pak atetl-pak unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship (ha)-atle (ha)-atle unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
mouth boca boca body (ha) xop (ha) xop unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
name nombre nome human taak(-ake) taak(-ake) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality fuik; fuik-man fuik; fuik-man unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body alan-pat, alan-pad alan-pat, alan-pad See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body (ha) hot (ha) hot unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
new nuevo novo quality xodae (pike), xodae(-ake) xodae (pike), xodae(-ake) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
night noche noite time šanixnis šanixnis unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
no/not no não grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
nose nariz nariz body (ha) laša (ha) laša unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
old viejo velho quality tɨuai (pike), tɨuai-ake tɨuai (pike), tɨuai-ake unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
one uno um number mihin mihin unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body oke oke unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human iau iau loan Waura See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment kʔawixu kʔawixu unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour tsi-omat̯ tsi-omat̯ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body kiʔta šɨ-k kiʔta šɨ-k unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture tsiuel (path) tsiuel (path) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
root raíz raiz flora oke; ɨuɨr maksi oke; ɨuɨr maksi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality xeʔne xeʔne xeʔne xeʔne unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sand arena areia environment ulat̯ ulat̯ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
short corto curto quality toxox toxox unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body (ha) miuda (ha) miuda unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental (ha) faɬtɨ (ha) faɬtɨ doubtful loan Kalapalo See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
skin piel pele body (iau) pɨt (iau) pɨt loan Kamayura See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sky cielo céu environment naneʔne ~ naʔnene naneʔne ~ naʔnene unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality kod ~ kot; pat kod ~ kot; pat unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment soxden soxden unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
star estrella estrela environment asih asih unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ɨuɨr ɨuɨr doubtful loan, direction unknown Suyá See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment itak itak loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body asix(-ake) asix(-ake) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar uan uan unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ɨrɨra, iie ɨrɨra, iie unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
thin delgado fino quality torek-ta torek-ta unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
this este/esta este grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar hi hi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
throat garganta garganta body (iau) mud (iau) mud unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
three tres tres number uštaxme uštaxme unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bite morder morder body (ha) make; tako-n (haits) (ha) make; tako-n (haits) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
blow soplar soprar body (ha) laf (ha) laf unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body (ha) an fafla (ha) an fafla unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment (ha) si (vb trans), otne (tsipupup)(vb intrans) (ha) si (vb trans), otne (tsipupup)(vb intrans) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body maptsʔapa maptsʔapa unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
come venir vir motion missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact (ha) olem (ha) olem unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental heva, (ha) uatkan heva, (ha) uatkan unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact (ha) šɨ; (haits) naha (ha) šɨ; (haits) naha unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state fakdits-e fakdits-e unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact (ha)xot̯ken; xot̯ken-e (ha)xot̯ken; xot̯ken-e unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body sone sone unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
eat comer comer body (ha) ma (ha) ma unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fall caer cair motion uapta(-n) uapta(-n) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fear miedo medo mental (ha) ɨtɨ (ha) ɨtɨ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion misu tururu misu tururu unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fly volar voar motion piuda-n piuda-n unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
grow crecer crescer state (ha) pɨt̯e (ha) pɨt̯e unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental (ha) fatsʔa (ha) fatsʔa unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion (haits)-tsifan puma (haits)-tsifan puma, (ha) ual=puma unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
kill matar matar impact (ha)-fa; (ha) ʔfa; ofa-n; (haits) disi-n (ha)-fa; (ha) ʔfa; ofa-n; (haits) disi-n unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kite, (ha) xup kite, (ha) xup unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
laugh reír rir mental (ha) tɬat (ha) tɬat unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion (ha) tsula (ha) tsula unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other (ha) analat̯-ka (ha) analat̯-ka unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ha fa (G99) ha fa (G99) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
say decir dizer mental (ha) ami (ha) ami unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact (ha) ɨen (ha) ɨen unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
see ver ver mental (ha) xuʔtsa (ha) xuʔtsa unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state ahaʔtsi ahaʔtsi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body o-otl-(e); (ha)-iotl o-otl-(e); (ha)-iotl unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body (ha) tʔuske (ha) tʔuske unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact (haits) dima-n (haits) dima-n unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ualala ualala unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
steal robar roubar other iii kis-e iii kis-e unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
suck chupar chupar body (ha) xom; (ha) xopla (ha) xom; (ha) xopla unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body mox-e mox-e unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion (ha) laf (ha) laf unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
think pensar pensar mental (ha) fax-la (ha) fax-la unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact (ha) sauken (ha) sauken unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body (ha) pepen (ha) pepen unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion (ha) kaʔšɨ-kiua; (ha) kaašɨ (ha) kaʔšɨ-kiua; (ha) kaašɨ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body (ha) ano (ha) ano unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tooth diente dente body (ha) iša (ha) iša unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
two dos dois number uuš uuš unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
water agua agua environment misu misu unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality tsi-xexere tsi-xexere unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar hele=in hele=in unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar hele=tsis hele=tsis unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
where? donde onde grammar ham ham doubtful loan Kamayura See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
white blanco branco colour tsi-tore tsi-tore unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar te te unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship (ha)-deʔtsi (ha)-deʔtsi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
wind viento vento environment sut ~ sud sut ~ sud unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
wing ala asa body etlep(-aʔke) ~ etlep(-ake) etlep(-aʔke) ~ etlep(-ake) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human di di unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tsi-aiixu tsi-aiixu unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar hi-uan hi-uan unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
foot pie body pitsʔ(-ake); i pitsʔ(-ake); i unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
all todo todos other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body (ha) ofal; loueu (ha) ofal; loueu unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body sex sex unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body xunxun xunxun See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bark corteza casca environment deifta deifta unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fingernail uña unha body (ha) fi (ha) fi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
heart corazón coração body (iau) hotʔaput (iau) hotʔaput unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sun sol sol time atetla atetla unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
green verde verde quality ure ure ue nauan šɨ-k ure ure ue nauan šɨ-k unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hot caliente quente quality soso soso unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (134)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. koioš koioš See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna uraʔi; kodetl uraʔi; kodetl See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. mot'e (G99) mot'e (G99) See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes petle; arutau petle; arutau See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ure ure; pitʔe ure ure; pitʔe See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae asulu asulu See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae arikuku arikuku See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family kutumʔi kutumʔi See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris kasoro (Pt loan) kasoro (Pt loan) See Language page Not native; widespread Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis kasoro kasoro See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. topetne topetne See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kaʔte ~ kʔate kaʔte ~ kʔate See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata uetɬ uetɬ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. patʔak patʔak See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kodešɨš kodešɨš See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria uruts; tsul uruts; tsul See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) amundiu amundiu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kuman; kumanaʔi kuman; kumanaʔi See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) kutat; kuian kutat; kuian See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ot̯et̯ ot̯et̯ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum fi fi See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ale ale See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta maisauarɨ maisauarɨ See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum mani; mani dat̯ mani; mani dat̯ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas mani mani See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) ɨʔa ɨʔa See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. uaruta uaruta See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. katlis katlis See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kuseʔ kuseʔ kuseʔ kuseʔ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis aus ao aus ao See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria tɨlɨxui tɨlɨxui See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tumu tumu tumu tumu See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera tun tun See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera meru; meiot meru; meiot See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. piioth piioth See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu mandaša=torek mandaša=torek See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris huksitukuk (G99) huksitukuk (G99) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) karuwaru (G99) karuwaru (G99) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus aianaʔi aianaʔi See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus iaianke iaianke See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material mɨʔɨraw mɨʔɨraw unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ueset̯; esak uanta ueset̯; esak uanta unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport si si unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology mut mut unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other ɨuɨr xomama ɨuɨr xomama unique may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
firewood leña lenha other tsipup tsipup doubtful loan Kamaiura jepeʔap See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology aitu; ma.hoi aitu; ma.hoi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology atua; atua.nui; hā atua; atua.nui; hā unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology iakuʔi; uruʔa iakuʔi; uruʔa unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material taxu taxu unique cf. Waura tʸehɨ̃ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool iau=šɨ=kuaš iau=šɨ=kuaš unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool porofana, hit ~ hid porofana, hit ~ hid unique hunting, warfare See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool eše; hōata; kōfene; komore eše; hōata; kōfene; komore unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool paŋe, tāhaŋa; šɨšlaxma paŋe, tāhaŋa; šɨšlaxma unique arco See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport anat anat unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool atla; atɬane; urumaš (pot w/lid) atla; atɬane; urumaš (pot w/lid) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology he; ŋa.he he; ŋa.he unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
honey miel mel food aus tsʔa 'bee grease'? aus tsʔa 'bee grease'? unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture (ha) sauken (ha) sauken unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology (iau) kanap šašxo (iau) kanap šašxo See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material damok damok unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology ahātea ahātea See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation karakarako karakarako loan - WW %kara (karakarako) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation aroxo-roxo-k, kanauiia aroxo-roxo-k, kanauiia See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation kaito 'warrior' kaito 'warrior' unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology aek aek unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool hoahoa, nai hoahoa, nai unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool ŋahiro, pina-sa ŋahiro, pina-sa See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
salt sal sal food iakɨr iakɨr loan - WW %jukira See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology faŋu faŋu unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool tupe tupe unique esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food e=lax-kaua-n e=lax-kaua-n See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kodetɬ kodetɬ unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ɨʔa ɨʔa loan Kamayura See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool ueset̯ ueset̯ unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture latne šɨšɨšɨšɨ latne šɨšɨšɨšɨ unique prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food karima karima doubtful loan Port farinha agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool urupem urupem loan Kamayura agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool hinaki; elepeke; petɬe hinaki; elepeke; petɬe See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
house other dat̯ dat̯ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE