think

Semantic Field
mental
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
pensar
Meaning Portuguese
pensar

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone sua” “to breathe, to feel, to think, pertaining to the mind inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla -sichu/min- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok howo:/sh- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi mugua/ru, inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno aqniwilich; niwil B78 inheritance Ono 1996:14 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno saqniwiluswun “thinks of them” inheritance K1977:133 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno shumishtu loan JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno oqwoli “idear” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa Lyyu:m unknown Jane Hill
Comanche suatyty inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño wey-yax [wɨyax] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen lojma unknown Shaul 1995:228 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa iichaa [iˑˈʧaˑ] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu muguwa-ry inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7-l-t-h+7ip ha7 “ponder”; man h+7ip/yuw(p) h+7ip (believe) unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk winikaw unknown Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ta/wkupo inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño woy7a- inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu hu/we\je unknown Jane Hill
Mojave aly'ii= inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun pesyo “thinks, remembers” unknown O77:45, 294 Jane Hill
Nisenan hontak'oj inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute sunami inheritance Thornes 03:224 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok Ton:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok ton:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A a:/ke'n (A), pl a:/ke'n; unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M a:ki'nyi' unknown Mason 1918:138 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) quimoz unknown Jane Hill
Serrano camaqa:n vt unknown Jane Hill
Southern Paiute cum:ai “have in mind, think, remember” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok TynTyn-nY- unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute sumai inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal tooj-y-t loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone mukuatu inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo huhmo/ishe7 unknown Jane Hill
Washo ha/mu unknown J369 Jane Hill
Western Mono sunawi- “to think” inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu jomoj loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai thri_ unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi dim inheritance K07:247 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne *de:mide:mi “think about” inheritance N1944:153 Jane Hill
Yuki hanak, hana unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma alynyi:dhu:/ck “he thinks” H1:27; aly7e/ H4:19 “to think, prefer, believe”, aly7i or aly7e H5:102 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa wapiñeeta wapiɲeeta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona etehunə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo ãrʉcʉ; dápiayʉ ãɾɨkɨ; dápiajɨ inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw xaxʉ̃ʉ̀n  xaxɨ̃̂n unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano pepi-ɾi pepi-ri inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa -uč-inča-ma- (IDS) -utʃ-intʃa-ma- (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waorani o-ka-i-dẽ põdẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup hipãh- ~hipah- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi esenumenka (IDS) esenumenka (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu maité, manduãri maite, manduãri unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam pihi, pihkɨ (EM72) pihi, pihkɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki basayi basaji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon eeseenuumeenhkang (E1980); esenumenka (M2000) esenu'meŋkaŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá pii, piiku (EM72) pii, piiku inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani jumatabü (24)(thoughts), jamatabü(24)(thoughts), jumatabükaruta (257)(thoughts), (jamatabükaruta(257)(thoughts), künüba (3)/künüta (3) (to be thinkinng while falling down) na-humatabi-xáina (na-bamatabɨ-xáina) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana diánihta, dhimíta, dhimé diánihta, dʰimíta, dʰimé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano tɨʔó jãʔa tɨʔó jãʔa inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria thu tʰu inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam pifi, pifiku pifi, pifiku inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami puhii, puhi aayëaɨ, puhi huu, puhi kuu puhi:, puhi a:jəaɨ, puhi hu:, puhi ku: unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yuhup japãh ~japah unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana manungkarda unique Claire Bowern
Bardi -barra- ~ -warra- XXgl dream -barra- ~ -warra- inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba liga- unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra borrwiya unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu guyaŋirr(i) inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal guyaŋirr(i) Claire Bowern
Dhuwala guyaŋirr(i) inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari ngunrra unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU dimpadimpata unique Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu guyaŋa Claire Bowern
Djapu guyaŋirr(i) unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang gingi-ji inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng girr unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu guyaŋirr(i) inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji kirr ka- loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] -barribarri- [ma-barrebarren] inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru burabura nya- semantic shift Claire Bowern
Karajarri bidjal mana unknown Claire Bowern
Kija linga-linga unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala pina-manarri (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung girr unique Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra ngardjanirrama Claire Bowern
Mudburra kunguyarra karri- unique Claire Bowern
Ngamini ngurkuna loan Arabana Claire Bowern
Ngandi giyang loan Claire Bowern
Ngarluma wanyabarri unique Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta kulkarri mini- (V3) unknown Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta kurlkari mana (V3) Claire Bowern
Nyikina -barribarri- (I) -barribarri- (I) inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] -barribarri- [ma-barrebarren] inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi yuuri-(la)- Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu guyanga inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri pinapinakarri- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru ngawingawi- unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa -warri- -warri- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy yama inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu gayaŋa unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha kilka unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka pintapintakiri unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] -barribarri- [ma-barrebarren] inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua péenseri péenseri loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco ínáidacawa ínáidakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari wéʔepi wéʔepi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena puryuta purjuta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero naniwata naniwata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana diʔitʰapʰa-n diʔitʰapʰa-n inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi ahekotya, aoka ahekotya, aoka unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure hino'inok hino'inok unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ka-kãi-c̷itʸu; amakanaat-uwa ka-kãi-¢itʸu; amakanaat-uwa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora ɨ́xtsʰaméi, ɨ́xtsʰḯ-kʰïnï, ɨ́xtsʰo ɨ́xtsʰamέi, ɨ́xtsʰɯ́-kʰɯnɯ, ɨ́xtsʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane ésámáá-ʔi έsámáá-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio zenmiinggang zɛn'miŋgaŋ inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai imynyhmapõko imɨnɨhmapõko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana epohnëp epohnǝp unknown See Language page PLE
Tiriyó ekanï(pï) (suppose / believe / think) ekanɨ(pɨ) unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare tɨtahə-nəɨ (IDS) tɨtahə-nəɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo senuma senuma See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai k-es-ehtɨno-toΦo k-es-ehtɨno-toΦo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari pyty pɨtɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa ayáinata, otoaya, otobaya, sémase, vasastama, yubayátapo, yobayen átapok See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca ybunsuca, zegusqua ɨβunsuka, tʂeɨuskua See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá kĩča- (IDS) kĩča- (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán asi'ttaeñe asiʔthãɛ̡ɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra chinámaama tʃinámaama loan Panoan See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro nu´chi nuʔtʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez yajcy- jaxky- See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna na2gu4 na2rü3xi3nü3 (A58) nagu narɨʔinɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina kwaaaʉk- kwa:aʉk- loan Kokama See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa xenóxuabojana, xaxuabojána xenóxuabojana, xaxuabojána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke '-ĩ'túañé -ĩʔtúañé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé jõrẽtá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-bik + sãk] (be of the opinion of); [-i + sãk] (reflect) bik + sãk; i + sãk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar inintímratin inintimratin See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa enetaimatsa ɨnɨtaimatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna anentaímat anɨntaimat inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses tantia tantia unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo šina- ("to reflect"); haskawa- ("to be of the opinion") šina- ("to reflect"); haskawa- ("to be of the opinion") inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jutay; jachipityaja xu:taj; xatʃipitjaxa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua yuyarina jujaɾina See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá iuiai iuiai See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua yuyana jujana See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano pinsay pinsaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Sáliva ona-guwehgajaha onaguweʔgahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano tɨ́-o-ɨ̃́ã́-, ji- tɨ́-o-ɨ̃́ã́-, ji- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'tɨ̃́gó-jã- 'tɨ̃́gó-jã- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna tʉoɨ̃a-re tɨoɨ̃a-ɾe inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti 'wã́ãkũ-, tɨ'õĩjã- 'wã́ãkũ-, tɨ'õĩjã- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana wa'kũ-, tɨʔ'otu- wa'kũ-, tɨʔ'otu- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano ãrĩ́gũña-ri ãrĩ́gũña-ri See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca pu'pa ho'a ri'ka pu'pa ho'a ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo 'tɨ'gó-jã 'tɨ'gó-jã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka wã'kũ wã'kũ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja tʰɨgoéñá tʰɨgoéɲá See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje cuasamʉ kuasamʉ doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona ro'taji roʔtahi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya cuasaye kwa'sajɛ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana koro´ophan koɾoʔophan doubtful loan, direction unknown Wari' See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama ikuaka ikuaka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi -yaʔa -yaʔa unique See Language page PLE
Sirionó piba- piba- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina xomuuxohyálli xomɯɯxoʔjádʒi inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto komékï paká-de, du.énai-ɗe, merḯdaiɗï-de komέkɯ paká-dɛ, du.έnai-ɗɛ, mɛrɯ́daiɗɯ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto komékï ɸaká-de komέkɯ ɸaká-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto komέkï ɸaká-de (heart measure) komέkɯ ɸaká-dɛ (heart measure) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito saminijuuni saminihuuni unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo nishinyu niʃinju See Language page Becky Walker
Wari koromikat koromikat See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo xa-šawa-ba-ti-kwe xa-šawa-ba-ti-kwe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña inime-topo-ya; inime-ba-ya; topo-ya; peya-inime; ehene- (inime means "soul") inime-topo-ya; inime-ba-ya; topo-ya; peya-inime; ehene- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara lup´iña lupˀi-ɲa See Language page PLE
Kwazá tutunitahỹ- tutunitahỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima i-ɓaičo-βaɬ-na i-ɓaičo-βaɬ-na See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai (ha) fax-la (ha) fax-la unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ẽkrèn yɨkrɛn; ɛ̃kren See Language page PLE
Suyá See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi nĩpikühenĩ nĩpikøhenĩ See Language page PLE