Dhuwal

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
duj
Location
-12.62°, 135.53°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ŋanapurr(u) inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ŋilimurr(u) semantic shift Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nhe inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar walal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ŋayi inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location garrwar inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar 2255 inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other warrpam' Claire Bowern
and y e grammar 2092 inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ḏulkun Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body wakuy Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental gora Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment ḻirrgi(') Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body muta Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality yätj Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body walŋa Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body wuwa' Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality ḏumurr(u) Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body 824 inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour biḻak Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body gulaŋ Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bopun Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality dhumuk Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body 4964 Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture gaḻiwaḻi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ŋamini Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment nhära inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human waku Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment maŋan Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality 1969 Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion buna Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 2054 Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental bothurru loan Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental 925 inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact mit Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state 1802 Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact ŋangi'yun Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna wärraŋ Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental bukaway Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body 1875 missing Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality baṉḏany(') inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment ganu Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body buthuru loan Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment munatha(') Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body rluka_x001E_ Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna mapu(') inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body mi:l Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body dhurri(') Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion galkirri_x001E_ Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality barrku Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body djukurr(') Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship djawuḻpa Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental barrari Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna [missing] missing Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment gurtha inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna ŋarirri' inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment 2859 Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion guthiŋaḻi' unknown Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
foot pie body baŋgina unknown Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora gäku inheritance Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality manymak Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state [missing] missing Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body marwat inheritance Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body ŋarambiya(') Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body rliya Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental ŋäma Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality ŋonuŋ Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion djuḻuḻ'yun Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wut Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other gatha_x001E_ inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar nhämirr inheritance Claire Bowern
if si se grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 2015 inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body biyapiya inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ḏamurruŋ' inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact rakunygum Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 2263 inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment 2027 missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental [missing] missing Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body yaŋara(') Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment maykarraṉ(') loan Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body ŋalthiri loan Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality 2986 Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna miṉiny'karr Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body burrwutj Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human ḏarramu Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ŋanak Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment wirrmu Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nga:rndi Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body dhurrwara Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human yäku Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body dhungurrk Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality galki inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body mayaŋ(') Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality 1756 inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time gämuk Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar yaka Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body 2839 inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality ŋäthiliŋ Claire Bowern
one uno um number wanggañ7 inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other ḻapmaram Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human 2978 Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body mäpaṉ Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment waḻuka Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour miku(') Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture dhukarr inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora [missing] missing Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality boḻuku Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental wanga_x001E_ Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wirrk Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental nhäma Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality raywal Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality dhumbuḻ' Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body rlambarr Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body ŋambaŋambatj Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state nhina_x001E_ inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body galŋa Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment djiwarr(') Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body yakurr inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality nyumukuṉiny Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body nhuma_x001E_ Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment ŋawulul(') Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body ŋäl inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact barrtjun Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state birr Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment baṯtjurr Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment guṉḏa Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time walu Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body worr' Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion rinydjupunum(a) Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body yangara Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar ngunhi ~ ngunha inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality barka Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental guyaŋirr(i) Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar dhuwal Claire Bowern
three tres tres number ḻurrkun' Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body gurak inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ḏup Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment wolma Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact garrwi'yun Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body matha Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body ŋalka Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other bil Claire Bowern
two dos dois number märrma' inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment gutjark loan Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality djurruk Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nhä inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nhätha Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wanhaŋumi Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour watharr inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar yol inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship galay inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wäŋi inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body binbarr Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human [missing] missing Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other dhotju Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body dhäpu-waŋa Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour buthalak inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ḏetj ḏety inheritance underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis missing weṯi(') inheritance 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae gälkal ga:lkal inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus gäḻumay(') ga:ḻumay(') inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora guṉŋarri guṉŋarri unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia missing 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer balin balin inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae bewiyik bewiyik inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing ru:gu inheritance missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri gunga meli unknown 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae gathiŋaḻi(') gathiŋaḻi(') inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species guŋaluŋ(') dhamiḻiny inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii garrukal(') garrukal(') inheritance inheritance inheritance inheritance inheritance inheritance inheritance inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda ḏaŋgultji(') ḏaŋgultyi(') inheritance Central Yolngu simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) boḏuk boḏuk unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis wayathul' wayathul' unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing yukuwa(7) inheritance missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera ḏapal(') ḏapal(') inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda djaṯam dyaṯam inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus dhambaḏiny dhambaḏiny loan into protolanguage 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo wärraŋ wa:rraŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris waṯu waṯu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae muthali(') dakitaki inheritance reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta mewirri(') mewirri(') inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wurrpaṉ maḻwiya inheritance simplex 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna guya burirrity inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera wurruḻuḻ(') guthiŋaḻi' unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) winyiwinyi winyiwinyi unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing ŋa:w(7) inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni djärrwiṯ dya:rrgiṯ inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) garkman garkman inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla missing 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) miyapunu miyapunu inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing ? missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp dyanda dyanda inheritance underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) mulmu lawarr unknown cf ḻawarranha Yan-nhangu type of stingray simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera ḏety inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis djurwirr(') dyurwirr(') loan WW %tyurwirr 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina ŋämuk dhayi inheritance simplex 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus djuku dyuku inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yarraman' dya:rraŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae wirriwirri wirriwirri inheritance might be loan into proto-language reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic woṉ buwat doubtful loan simplex Narrower [unidentified beetle] 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus gardakarda inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae weṯi(') weṯi(') inheritance 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda meṉḏuŋ meṉḏuŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata gurrumaṯtji gurrumaṯtyi inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera gaṉamu gaṉamu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus barkuma(') barkuma(') inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius djambuwalngani djambuwalngani unknown “djambuwal” “tornado”? derived 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia deit deit unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing dyuŋambi unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis gun.ga gunga inheritance simplex 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya raŋan barrukala(') inheritance 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gurudut gurudut loan direction unknown WW %kurutuk 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi ŋaṯili ŋaṯili inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus ba:ru ba:ru inheritance simplex 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones buthuŋu buthuŋu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna ŋaraka ḻudhuḻudhu semantic shift reduplicated 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus djirrmaŋa(') dyirrmaŋa(') inheritance 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae gärr' ga:rr' inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae maranydjalk ba:rrinyinŋa unique 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna gonydju gonydyu inheritance 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita baḏikan baḏikan inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea yikawuḏi yikawuḏi unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides rdawurtawu ḏawuṯawu inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera mudhandi gunaŋa(') inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) munyukuluŋu munyukuluŋu unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing mirnrdilŋ inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wäk wa:k inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) gäyu buymanman unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma ḏatam ḏatam inheritance simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis dhurrtji(') dhurrtyi(') unique 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax ḏamala ḏamala inheritance 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys djirrpiyirrpi dyirrpiyirrpi inheritance reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) guyita ga:muruŋ inheritance simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna gäyu Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna ŋäṯi(') Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna dhamin Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna gathiŋaḻi(') Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 1757 Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna mulmu Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna weṯi(') Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mundukuḻ(') Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna garrwiḏi Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology dhawal missing Claire Bowern
armband dress barka semantic shift Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ḏakul(') inheritance Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material bathi inheritance Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool yipaŋ unique Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool gaḻiwaḻi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material dhaniya(') inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport mityiyaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology mim'pu inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology biḻma inheritance Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
cook food food ḻirrthan inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food da:mba' loan English Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology girityirr(i) REDO - noun not verb Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool bätju(') inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology bukaway inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology yiḏaki inheritance Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool rduttyi(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
fire-saw other ḏuttyi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other dhurrmuruḻ' inheritance Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other missing Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool yiṉḏiṯi unique Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food ra:kum(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool raki(') inheritance Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food met loan English Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ŋa:ṉuk unique Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool man'ku inheritance Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology munatha(') semantic shift Claire Bowern
grog food ŋa:nityi loan Makassar Claire Bowern
hair belt dress missing Claire Bowern
headband dress missing Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology marrŋgity inheritance Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food dyana' semantic shift Claire Bowern
house (European) other bala' loan Makassar WW %bala Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food ŋupan inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material mandyawak doubtful loan Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport buyku unique Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport gadhubaḻa unique Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology buthalak inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology miku(') inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food dye'la inheritance Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other buṉbu inheritance Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool gara inheritance Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool makurr inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool maŋal unique Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material marrputyu inheritance Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation dyoka' loan English WW sugar Claire Bowern
tea food dhilip loan English WW tea Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics ŋarali' semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other gonydyu inheritance Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology gaparn inheritance Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation goḻ loan English Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool ganybu inheritance Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation buthuḻu(') loan English WW bottle Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation baypa loan English WW paper Claire Bowern
corpse food missing Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation dyikin loan English WW chicken Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology rdimbuka(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology mardhakal semantic shift Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material batigut loan with semantic shift English WW petticoat Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress dhapathuŋ(') loan Makassar WW %dhapathung Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics miḏityin' loan English WW medicine Claire Bowern
earth oven food dha:rriŋ unique Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation ḏapman loan with semantic shift Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation butyikit loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ma:rryaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress dyoŋgu(') inheritance Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wuthirri Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool [missing] missing Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool gaḻpu Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ḻuŋgu Claire Bowern
house other wäŋa unknown Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense mobile yes