gun

Semantic Field
acculturation
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
arma, escopeta
Meaning Portuguese
espingarda, fusil

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla čukinapi-š bow, gun semantic shift uncertain as to meaning here but the hul is the ordinary bow derived, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño patilya7ash gun unique derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño patkilash gun unique on pati like Cu derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino missing missing Jane Hill
Serrano pārčqt gun unique on pat- like Cu, Lu derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk missing missing Jane Hill
Tübatulabal āli-t gun, bow semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim missing missing Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7edy-(ci) bow, rifle semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi 7atsY Y is voiceless schwa bow (gun, bow in Press 1979) semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tympWijU iron-arrow, gun unknown same in S. Ute compound Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute tYpwiyu gun, rifle unknown same in S. Paiute simplex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone etyn, aityn gun, bow semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone aiti, aitikko bow and arrow, gun semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche tawo7i7 gun (any type), pistol, rifle unique simplex R Jane Hill
Western Mono Edy bow, gun, weapon semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute nabonngosa rifle semantic shift and I'll bet adu (without pongosa 'arrow') compound pongosa 'arrow' Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok kupe:ta- gun loan Spanish WW %escopeta simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok kope:Ta- gun, air rifle loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok kope:ta- gun (shotgun or rifle) loan Spanish WW %escopeta simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok kóono bow, gun semantic shift *kó:no Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970:40 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu missing missing Jane Hill
Nisenan kope:ta gun loan Spanish WW %escopeta simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo ba7lóhat, balóhot bow,gun semantic shift derived bE- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu k'ulu:l bow, gun, rifle, pistol semantic shift derivied Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki lu7waT (Elmendorf form) bow. Gun semantic shift *li7wëht Proto-North Yukian derived Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo lúk'a bow, gun (in Sawyer) semantic shift somewhat resemblant to Yuki forms, but only in CV simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun missing missing Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A utconek nokek gun loan Pinart phrase Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7ax bow, gun semantic shift *aqa Proto-Central Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno missing missing Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 7epal arrow, gun semantic shift Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa 7i:cim gun, rifle, bow semantic shift Proto-Yuman simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave 7utis bow, gun semantic shift simplex Murno et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai kqWáθ, qqWâth rifle unknown perhaps from cracking sound, see second form on p. 410 derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa h+tim rifle, bow semantic shift Proto-Yuman JHH derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) eenm haacni firearm, gun, rifle (lit. metal bow) semantic shift phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua tɨa-naʔ tɨa-naʔ calque from 'fire' tɨa comes from tɨ 'fire.wood' Simplex gun-cl.stick/tree.like See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu muka (C11) muka (C11) WW %mukawa Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani tẽjabõ (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï ʰwãlã unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami kopeta (little used terms: amarõkõma, arakusa, hiihi, hõmomamɨ, mokawa, tãhimi hi, yoroa) kopeta (little used terms: amarõkõma, arakusa, hiihi, hõmomamɨ, mokawa, tãhimi hi, yoroa) loan; loan - WW Spanish escopeta; %mukawa; arcabuz (via Carib) Compare Makiritare kapuuctʃa; Alternates: amarõkõma, arakusa, hiihi, hõmomamɨ, mokawa, tãhimi hi, yoroa (little used terms) Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam kopeta missing Spanish Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam ẽspikata ẽspikata loan Spanish escopeta Has undergone metathesis. Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria wamoa wamoa unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo õpojiñʉ õpohiñʉ unique Derived thunder + Classifier -ɲɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano peka-wɨ peka-wɨ calque from 'fire' from wood/fire; possible calque - common complex form among Vaupes languages See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano peagʉ peagʉ calque from 'fire' from wood/fire; possible calque - common complex form among Vaupes languages Derived wood/fire-? See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki jasu ja, yadi jasu ja xasu xã, jadi xãsu xã unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup teghɔ̃=teg teghɔ̃=teg calque from 'fire' Derived fire (wood-burn)=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw xaàw’ xâw’ loan - WW %mokawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani yamaxüto jamaxɨto semantic shift from 'lightning/thunder' See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan brúja doubtful loan Spanish 'witch'? Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Pemon rakte-pueti, juarima, dochima, ivereima (A1981); iiteemung (E1980) rakte-pueti, juarima, dochima, ivereima (A1981); itemuŋ (E1981) unique Alternate: rakte-pueti, juarima, dochima, ivereima (rifle) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio aragabusa aragabusa loan Spanish 'arcabuz' Spanish source; attested Akawaio, Eñepa, Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi arakkapusaʔ arakkapusaʔ loan Spanish 'escopeta' Attested Akawaio, Eñepa, Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa ko-'kon (percussion gun), kapucha (firearm) (MM); kapuuča (IDS) kɔ-'kɔn (percussion gun), kapuça (firearm) (MM); kapuuctʃa (IDS) firearm unique; loan Spanish 'escopeta' Attested Akawaio, Eñepa, Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna hijá hijá shotgun unique Local Similar term 'fire-stick' found in many of the regions languages Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana sĩ́pi sĩ́pi shotgun unique Portuguese Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana mukʰau mukʰau loan - WW %mokawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa mókawa mókawa shotgun loan - WW %mokawa See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro ókóniigi-hú ókóniigi-hú calque from 'fire' Languages in region tend to have 'fire-stick' for 'gun' Derived ókóniigi = “fire, candle” -hú= “long and flat, horizontal” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
Warrwa -(a)n(a) missing Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu dyilityilikaŋ doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Jawi jilamon loan Kriol Claire Bowern
Yawuru jileman loan Kriol Claire Bowern
Nimanburru jileman loan Kriol Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul jirlaman loan Kriol WW %jinal Claire Bowern
Dhangu ma:rriyaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
Gumatj ma:rryaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ma:rryaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
Djinang marriyaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
Burarra marriyaŋ loan Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu marryaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
Dhay’yi marryaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga purp:a semantic shift Claire Bowern
Yulparija tarlparlmarta unknown Claire Bowern
Mangala tulkurru loan with semantic shift ‘heavy’ in Gurindji? Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta tyilaman loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
Ngarluma tyilaman loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
Karajarri tyilaman loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
Bardi tyileman loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
Nyikina tyilimana, turlkurru loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
Gurindji turlkkatyi inheritance bang + SUFF complex Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi karanyi loan cf. Bun karanya earth-oven? Patrick McConvell
Djapu ma:rryaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
Jingulu makirti loan English musket, via other lgs WW %makiti Patrick McConvell
Wardaman wungarru unknown rifle Patrick McConvell
Achagua éenu 'lightning bolt; gun' éenu 'lightning bolt; gun' semantic shift thunder/lightning' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco énu 'thunder, gun' énu 'thunder, gun' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero mu'kawa mu'kawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi korenase (kóre = arrow) korenatse (kóre = arrow) unique from 'arrow' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Waurá u'ku u'ku doubtful loan - WW %mokawa See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora añúju (añu 'shoot'), hójtsɨ́vapáájɨ (hojtsɨva 'spear', hojtsɨɨ́ 'hand') añɯxɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane áñɨ́jɨ (from 'shoot') (W97) áñɨ́jɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai arakapusa arakapusa loan Spanish 'arcabuz' See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana alakapuha alakapuha loan Spanish 'arcabuz' See Language page PLE
Carijona koheto (from Span escopeta; M2000) loan Spanish 'escopeta' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Makiritare waitʃa waitʃa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai uhre 'weapon' uhre 'weapon' semantic shift from 'weapon' See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa chupeta ʃupeta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Northern Emberá põũ'ã (IDS) põũ'ã (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán potaé'ngo (from 'shoot, scatter') potaéʔngo (from 'shoot, scatter') phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra kirapa, kirápari kirapa, kirápari unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro ane'ta anɨʔta (also blowgun) See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez [skupeta] [skupeta] See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna mukáua (Alv44) mukáwa loan - WW %mokawa See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina itɕafwa itʃafwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke dúidi dúidi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Puinave tãt tãt unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar akã́rũ (cf. verb 'take apart, take into pieces'?) akã́rũ See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa akaru, iskupit akaru, iskupit See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna aka'hu aka'hu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses bada, chompian, shaui bada, tʃompian, ʃaui unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo tooti tooti doubtful loan cf. Suya tute, Sanapana tooati See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua dunu dunu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua illapa, ritrucarga (Sp.) iʎapa, ritrucarga (Sp.) See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá karabina karabina See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua illapa iʎapa See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa ur'we'ah urɁweɁah unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva puhduhba puʔduʔba unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Carapana peeruca peeruka See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna jeaga xeaga calque from 'fire' See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Tanimuca pe'ka pe'ka calque from 'fire' See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tuyuka pecawʉ pekawʉ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Koreguaje jaovʉ xaovʉ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona toawɨ toawɨ calque? from 'fire' See Language page Kelsey Neely
Karitiana opogmypãn ('flecha de brasileiro') opogmɨpãn ('flecha de brasileiro') unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama puna puna semantic shift from 'blowgun' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi mɔka mɔka WW %mukawa See Language page PLE
Sirionó [ama]; eruu; uu (P85) [ama]; eruu; uu loan; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina caráávina; dsahííhcona karááβina; dsaʔííʔkona loan; unknown Spanish carabina See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto cobeta (Sp.) kobeta (Sp.) (B83) loan Spanish escopeta See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá atakusa atakusa loan Span arcabuz, via Carib See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito rimúsiija (from vb. 'shoot') rimúsiija (from vb. 'shoot') unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo imakanaha imakanaha See Language page Becky Walker
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-kekwa-xi; e-ko-wixi (Girard 1971) poti-kwe ba-kwe tekwa-kwe tekwa-kwe axo-ta-kwe akwi tsaa e-kekwa-xi; e-ko-wixi (Girard 1971) poti-kwe ba-kwe tekwa-kwe tekwa-kwe axo-ta-kwe akwi tsaa See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña huecrime (C&L89) wekrime unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara illapa (P04) illapa (P04) See Language page PLE
Movima eskopeta eskopeta See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang no puŋ; no tɛy (IDS) no puŋ; no tɛy See Language page PLE
Suyá tute tute See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi tewä (weapon, gun) tewǝ (weapon, gun) See Language page PLE