Central Sierra Miwok

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
csm
Location
38.08°, -120.26°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location li/l:e-m:y7 inheritance Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar 7icha/7 inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other shu/k:e-, sho/k:e- inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar -l:i- unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ka/T:ala:la:- inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ka:/pusu- inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment jy/m:i- (hot ashes) inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body ke/:wy- inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7ysh:y- loan Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body loto/- inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 7a:la- inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7yT:y-T:i- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
bite morder morder body jy/l:a- inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour kulu/l:-i-7- inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body ki/ch:awy- inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body pushe:/l- inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body sike:/- inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body ky/ch:ychy- inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body mu:/su- inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body he/n-si- inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment wy:/k- inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body chi/w:a- inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human 7es:e- inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion chy:m-, chi:m- inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7o:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality Tyn:a- unknown Jane Hill
come venir vir motion 7y/n:y- inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact chy:/s-, shy:/s- unknown Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental no/ch:u- inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact Te:/p- inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time hi7e:ma- inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state cha/m-shy- inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact 7ol:u- inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna hung:u- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality ku/l:uTu- inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7ukchu- inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7u/sh:u- inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality hew:e- inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment Tuk:e- inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body To:koshu- inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment wal:i- inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7y/w:y- inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna hong:u- inheritance? Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body shy/nty- unknown Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kyna:T- inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion pola:/-ng- unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality ko:to-, kot:o inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body sy/m:ity- inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship 7ypy:/- inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental sheky/j-nge- unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna shala:/- inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment wyke:/- inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna 7e:/wy- inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion waka:/l- inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment missing Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion shyle:/t- inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment hynge/- inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body ha/T:e:- inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality kuchi:/- inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state 7ype/l-nge- inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body jushe- (head) inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body tish:y- inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar 7is:ak-, his:ak- inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body han:a- inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental Tele:/j- inheritance? Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality lew:i- inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion 7oko:/j- inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact To/k-la inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other lotu/:-k:u- inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ka:n inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location wa:ni- unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body puTkaly- “gut”?? inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact jy/n:a- inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hy/j7y-k:y- inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment pol:uku- inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental hyja:/k- inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment ta:ta- inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body cha/j:a-n inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body ho:chonu- inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ma/7:il:-y- (V), ma7i:/l- (EC) inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wile:p- inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body hi7a:/-mu- (N) unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body kyl:a- inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality to/t:oto- inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ket:y- inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body po/shkaly- inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human nang:a- inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7och:uku- inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment kome/- inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 7yta/:- inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7aw:o:- inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human 7oja:she:- inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality haje:/- inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body no:no- unknown Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality missing Jane Hill
night noche noite time kawy:/l- inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar 7e/w:yty- “No” inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body nito/- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality hoj:a-mu- inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number keng:e- inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other po:haj-y-, poh:aj-y:- unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar lu:Ti- inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body halu/j-nge- inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human miw:y- inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact lo/pLa- unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment nyk:a- (to rain) inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour jolol:-i- unknown Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture muk:u- inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora missing Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment missing Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ka/ch:y- inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing Jane Hill
see ver ver mental shyj-nge- inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact Ty/w-ki- inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality missing Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body mej:ely- inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state To/7:-uc:u- inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body To/l:echa- inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment wy:/che- inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body Tyj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality Tu/:ni- unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment hak:isa- inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body huka:/-j- inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body ju:/pesy-, ju/pse- inheritance? Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact Ta/l-wa- (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact pi/ch-wa- inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact hy/l:a- inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ha/ch:-ych:y- inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment ho/sh:ok:o:na- inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other wyla:/ng- inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora chiki/l:a- inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment shawa:/- inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body ko/j-pa- inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body cha:/p- inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body lop:o- (N) inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion my:/ng- inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body shu:ki- inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar no- inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7i:-ko- inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality lew:i- inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality se:si- inheritance Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental howo:/sh- inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ne- inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi:ni- inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number tolo:/koshu- inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body my/7:yTa- (EC) loan Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ha:/j- unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment Time:/l- inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact sy:/ch- inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body ne/p:ity- inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body kyt:y- “teeth” inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wi:/la- (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7oTi:/- inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body ho:/ne- inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion wy:/n- inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment ki/k:y- inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ma:sh inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 7oTi:\-m inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality missing Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar ti/n:y- inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar mi-ta\-n inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar mi/n:i- inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour kele/l:-i- inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar mana/:- inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship 7o/sh:a- inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment hena:\- inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body sala:/- inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human 7o/sh:a- inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other ta/whan-7e-, ta/whan:-e loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour TaTaT:-i- inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar miko\7 inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. hás:yny- abalone loan Costanoan Also in Miss; Mutsun haşʸşʸan (perhaps Utian?) WW %kys other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae Tisí:najy- ant inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Miss, Mip other complex -aj-y thematic and nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana há:lušu- antelope inheritance Eastern Miwokan hal form in all Mis, Mip underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus tĕ-we-gah; tĕ'-we-gŭ badger inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Merriam's Tuolumne and Mins underived Merriam 57:449 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata ly/ng:y:ti- pigeon inheritance *lyng:y:ti- Sierra Miwokan only Callaghan 1997:60 underived I suspect derivation frly lyng- “to flirt, caress”, but dictionary doesn't suggest it Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp Tipí:sis:i- bat inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor 7éč:ešy- beaver unique other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp as'-se-nah'-te Elater beetle unique other complex -ti Merriam 57:465 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus ling'-ah big round tule (S. lacustris) inheritance *lin ... Eastern Miwokan underived Merriam 57:473 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis hís:iky- skunk (broad stripe) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus húng:u- wolf inheritance *hu:n Miwokan Note Ceb xu:n “wolf” (allaghan 1971:30); Pwintu *hul (Callaghan 2001:25 other complex -u nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis wangì:- mountain sheep unique Sierra Miwokan only In Miss underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna čička- bird inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss underived perhaps reduplicated etymologically Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger homo'-kel-loo big black ant inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mins phrase homo element widespread; meaning unknown Merriam 57:465 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus 7yšy:-maTi-, hyšy:mati- bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 phrase bad-creature Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus 7épla:li- jackrabbit inheritance *7epla:-li- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 2001:325 other complex -:liH (Broadbent p. 120) Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? múč:ama:šy- grouse inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tol:om:a- lynx inheritance *tol:om:a Miwokan “Pco to:roma “wildcat” is probably a loan from Miwok” (Callaghan 1997:33) WW %talom underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera hól:ok:iTiwa- butterfly inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mins; holo part shared with Mip phrase meaning of elements unknown Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus mól:oku- condor inheritance Miwokan This form is also Proto-Wintun; Whistler (1977) thought it was of Miwokan origin. Word is in Mip and Misn, etc. WW %moloko underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? Tajiš-mu- bluejay loan *Tajich Sierra Miwokan only unknown Callaghan 1997:58; Note Proto-General Yokuts *T'ayT'ay WW %chaj derived -mu- agentive Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? palát:ata- woodpecker, red breasted (Lewis?) NO JHH loan into protolanguage *palaT:a-? Miwokan unknown Note Pyokuts *pHala:tah; “There are peculiiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” (Callaghan 1997:61); see Troike ms for this very widespread form WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. pisú:- chipmunk; Tahoe chipmunk inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota šalíp:ip”i- swallow inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana 7óp7iple- mudhen unique underived must be etymologically complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii Tós:ewe- rabbit (Merriam confirms cottontail) loan Takic Note Cup. tisixat, Kit. tɨhokt, Ser. tiiyrhaqt??? Also In Miss as per Merriam); *tosa “white” in PUA other complex -we 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. tah-tah'-kol-lă cottonwood inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Miss, Mip reduplicated Merriam 57:467 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7ašé:li-; kátwa- coyote inheritance *7a$e:-li- Sierra Miwokan only “Pmis *7a$e:-li- “coyote” is probably a loanword from Pyn *ho:shu- < *hu:si- 'coyote' or some similar word” (Callaghan 2001:325) other complex -:li an unproductive suffix with animal names Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ká:kulu- crow unique Note Mil kaakali, Callaghan Bodega Dic 33 thinks Mil might be loan from Costanoan underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii mó:nuja- jimsonweed loan Takic Also in Miss; probably from intermediate but unknown source, ultimately Takic WW %moji ~ %moni underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus 7ywy/:ja- deer, deer meat inheritance *7ywy-ja- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 other complex -jaH Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana sák:y- digger pine inheritance *sa:k, *sak:y- Utian Callaghan 1997:18 underived here /y/ is not nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris čukú:- dog, pet inheritance *chuku- Sierra Miwokan only Callaghan 2001:325; In all Mis WW %suku underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura húl:uw:i- dove inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae háTha:Ta- duck inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus an'-ti'-roo'-mah elder inheritance *7anTaj- Miwokan Callaghan 1971; Callaghan 1997;19 other complex -ma Merriam 57:467 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus hák:a:ja- elk inheritance *hak:a:ja- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997;59 may be cog w/ Pyokutsan *sohkoy ??” WW %sok other complex -jaH Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna 7é:wy- fish (small) (usual cognate is “minnow” so this is right) unique Note Yukian-Wappo *həw other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera koo'-gă-zah' flea inheritance *ky:ky$ Miwokan Callaghan 1971 other complex -:a Merriam 57:465 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. Tíw:ajy- flicker inheritance *Tiw(:)a- Utian Callaghan 1986:62 other complex -aj thematic suffix, -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera homó:košu- fly unique First element homo: shared with Mip, Mins phrase meaning of elements unknown Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon júw:ely- red fox inheritance *juw:el Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna waTăksa7ji- frog inheritance *waTa:k Miwokan Callaghan 2001:326; note Pwintu *wataq *; but onomatopoeic “susceptible to borrowing” WW %wakat other complex -sa7-ji is suffix complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos wíp:aja:ky- eagle inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. kí:lili- gooseberry inheritance *kil:i- “horn, antler” Utian Bodega Dic; Mib has a cognate verb meaning “be hard, sharp” so Pmi may have included “thorn”. Note Misn kle'-de-de' “wild rose”, presumably from the same root. Utian:Callaghan 1997:33 reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ló:paT:i gopher snake inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Mins underived must be etymologically complex 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) čít:aky- (green, and green tree) green grass/tree inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss; from Pmie “green” other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera kó:čo- Grasshopper inheritance *ko:To- ? Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. Tičá:šy- California ground squirrel inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss as per Merriam other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. mé:we- squirrel inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus šúk:umì- big owl unique Also in Merriam's Tuolomne 57:453 underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis hopá7-mu- grizzly bear loan unknown WW %paha other complex -mu Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae 7et:ek:iliwa- horned toad inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Mins, Mip underived must be etymologically complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawá:ju- horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae líč:ič:i- hummingbird inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis and Nisenan reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. hú:Tija- tobacco unique other complex -ja Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp too-moo-no-no junco unique reduplicated Merriam 57:457 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica wi'-yow-wel Juniper unique underived must be etymologically complex Merriam 57:465 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera két:y- louse inheritance *keT:- Miwokan Callaghan 1971:24 other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos háTha:Ta- mallard (Merriam confirms) inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. 7ej:e- manzanita inheritance Miwokan In Mil, Mip, all Mis JHH underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera 7yjy:kyšy- mosquito inheritance *7yjy:ky$ Eastern Miwokan source? other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera wahlah-poo-den-nah sphynx moth inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Miss phrase meaning of elements unknown Merriam 57:465 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor hí:liča- mountain lion inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kúj:ak:a- mountain quail inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. so-paw'-noi-yu mussels (fresh water, big kind, good) unique Cognate in Miss compound Merriam 57:463 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata lúk:u- shell beads inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? čóp:ata- crested bluejay unique Note Mins copuk:aTi- underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys sy/w:yty- gopher inheritance *sykw:ot Utian Callaghan 1986:57 other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum nŭ'-kŭ-soo poison oak inheritance *nykys Utian Callaghan 1986:57 other complex -y nominalizer Merriam 57:471 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. wák:a:lì rattlesnake inheritance Miwokan Bodega Dic other complex -:li an unproductive suffix with animal names Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp missing missing missing 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus 7onglili:wy- redwing blackbird unique other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis súj:u- chicken hawk inheritance *suj:u- Miwokan Callaghanphonloy2222 underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus 7új7uju- roadrunner inheritance *uj:uj:u- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:60; note also Pyokuts *oj7uy from 7u:j7uj WW %uji reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica hukú7me- sage inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Misn huk:u:me- “wild tea” (CHM's Pycnanthemum), tea for health; probably not the right word underived must be etymologically complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss kó:somu- salmon inheritance Miwokan Must go with Pmiw *kas:i, *ka:si (Callaghan 1997:42) other complex -mu or -u Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? šák:aTi- lizard inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis and Mip underived 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna cheech'-kah-te small bird unique Sierra Miwokan only From Merriam's “Tuolumne” list so same source as in Miss base; obviously chichka with diminutive other complex -ti diminutive Merriam 57:461 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna píč:ak:a- lizard inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna lah'-wah-te snake (any) inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Miss underived must be etymologically complex Merriam 57:463 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco tét:ete- sparrow hawk inheritance *te:ete- Eastern Miwokan I think this is probably the wrong hawk,same word is “Cooper's Hawk” in CHM's Misn and Mip. Recon is Callaghan 1962:104 reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae 7Ačá:ja:ji- spider unique Similar in Mins other complex -ji Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis ty/nkywe- skunk inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Mip other complex -we; I think there is "critter" cognate for the other part Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae 7ól:o7ša:ji- toad inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss other complex ša-ji; 7ol:o7 is root (Broadbent p. 104) Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) lah-mah a tree inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss other complex -ma Merriam 57:475 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura čy/:šywitna-; hú:šuwija- y/ is acute accent on /y/ buzzard inheritance *chy:-$y- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 2001:32, may be same as Pmis *hu:$u- compound Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines 7awán:aTa- turtle inheritance *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:60 WW %awan other complex -Ta an unproductive suffix (Broadbent p. 114) Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia sá:sa- live oak (Q. agrifolia) inheritance *sa:Ta Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata wíl:išy- oak (Quercus lobata) inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mins other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica hék:e:ke- valley quail inheritance Utian In all Mis; Perhaps Utian, see Mutsun heksen reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis lo'-wah-too Western canada goose inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis other complex -u nominalizer Merriam 57:459 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica pe-pe'-lah wild grapevine unique Possibly a Takic or Tub loan of the *pi “berry” word reduplicated Merriam 57:475 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sakál:y- willow loan Mono? Gabrielino Jhh other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. pús:i:na-, púT:e:se- rat unique Sierra Miwokan only This looks like the Miss “mouse” word, probably wrong form other complex -Hna Broadbent 123 Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper 7uč:umu- worm inheritance Sierra Miwokan only See Miss 7uc:um- “fly” other complex -mu or -u Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. mélngaly- yellowjacket inheritance Miwokan Pmiw meenani (Bodega Dic) underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia loo-too'-loo-te yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique From Merriam's “Tuolumne” list so same source as in Miss base reduplicated -ti diminutive Merriam 57:457 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Tisi/:najy- inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna chi/chka- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna homo/:koshu- inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna chuku:/- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna cit:aky- inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna 7ywy:ja- inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna lo:paT:i- inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna 7acha:/ja:ji- inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (116)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food nyp:a- acorn mush inheritance *nyp:a- Proto-Sierra Miwok simplex Callaghan 1971 Jane Hill
ball game food čikí:-l- to play shinny unique other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress missing missing Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pájpu- arrow inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok see Mip 'hunt'; see pajuk in SSM, looks like the %pa arrow words simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other haky/n:a- arrow straightener unique other complex has suffix -:a Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material 7alu:ma- basket inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material himà- mush basket unique simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material kačú:če- cap loan Spanish simplex kačú(č)- V 'to put on a cap Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material lúk:u- shell beads inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok Note Mie luk:u- 'piece of abalone shell'; hów:out- 'disk beads' simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool šól:oku- bow (for shooting) unique maybe same as Mins sol:ok:u 'hazel tree, Corylus californica, is this used for bows? simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool láš:a- carrying net, rabbit net inheritance *laš: Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:105 other complex suffix -:a Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology hajá:po- chief inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmiw hójpuş 'chief' (Callaghan 1970:24), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool Tak-ja- to club inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok see Misn other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress péh:una- breechclout unique simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
cook food food čy/:s, šy/:s- to cook unique simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
corpse food missing missing Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology kalá:-ng- to dance inheritance *kala(?) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:50 other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tín:y-T:i- supernatural being, "a great something" unique tin:y Pmis 'something' other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7ukču- to dream, dream about inheritance *7ektu Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:48 simplex Freeland & Broadbent Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology Tym:a- drum inheritance *Tum:a- Proto-Eastern Miwok Callaghan 1971:19 simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
earring other kíw:a- earrings unique simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other šy/š:y- wood inheritance *şyş:-y- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:31; maybe Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:59 simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food kosú:m- to fish unique hyné:ma- to go fishing simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food 7ylé- acorn bread inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology lúl:a- flute inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok but very widespread form; probably onomatopoeia simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other ha:na-, pát:y- gambling bones inheritance Proto-Miwok PMi *hela!! ha:na-; 'handgame bone'; pat:y is 'handgame' in Mins simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology lé:ši-ško-, šu:le-ško- ghost inheritance *şu:les- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:19 other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics mó:nuja- jimsonweed loan Salinan? Takic or Chumash, probably through some intermediate language, this is an areal form WW %moji ~ %moni simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology husík-pe shaman inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok Pmis *husik 'to doctor'; also túj:uku- 'poison doctor', 7ál:ini 'dreamer shaman' other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other 7ú:ču- house inheritance *uč:u Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 2001:321 simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food lém-ngi- to hunt unique also hót-šu-, wyn-ty- other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ku:či- knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool 7y/m:e- mortar inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok Mins 7ym:e 'portable mortar' simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
necklace other hy/:ly- necklace inheritance Proto-Miwok note Pmiw helék:I 'neck' simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool čy/l:a:- awl inheritance *Cy1la1s (1 subscript) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1962:102 simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool kawá:či- pestle inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok Mins kawa:ci- 'stone mortar about 6 inches long' simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
pinole food túj:u- mush of seeds inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other káw:ači- CHECK pipe inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok also lyky/č:a- simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
pitch food šá:kine- pitch inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok Mins sak:ine 'pitchy pinewood' simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool šutá:šy- quiver (for arrows) inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok cognate with Miss huta: simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology šokóš:a- cocoon rattle inheritance *şokoş:a- Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1971:18 WW %soko simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food missing missing Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool čá:majy- acorn or seed basket (with long handle) inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH, see Miss simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology 7yká:py- clothes, garments unique perhaps related to Mins 7ykpa 'to adorn'?? simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material na:wasy- skirt loan Spanish WW %enaguas simplex Freedland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool šíl:e- trap inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok see Mip simplex Freedland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology my:li- song inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok simplex Freedland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool wimá:- spear unique also hylá-, hyl:ylá- simplex Freedland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
stirring stick food šawá:-ja- mush stirrer unique other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kúš:ily- string unique simplex Freedland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other čapy/:j:a- sweathouse inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH other complex suffix -:a Freedland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics hú:tija- tobacco unique simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material hét:aly- winnowing basket inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok see Mins simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress mómko- moccasin inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok see Miss momko WW %moko simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material hikí- cradle basket inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing Jane Hill
clapper acculturation TakáT:a- clapper (split-stick rattle inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok same as Mins; maybe metathesis re Miss?? other complex suffix -:a, surely Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kush:ily- unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kush:ily- unknown Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7ym:e- inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture pik:a- inheritance Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture pa/T:a- loan Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool sho/l:uku- “bow” unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool pa/jpu- “arrow” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
house other 7umu:cha- inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG medium seasonal no