digging stick

Semantic Field
subsistence tool
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla naxat cane, stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) Merriam has koo-nahCH-ah 48:341 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño walilya'ash digging stick unique the obvious interpretation of Merriam's form from wal-in 'to dig'; I think real word was naxat, but no evidence… derived, other complex wali 'dig' Merriam 48:503 Jane Hill
Luiseño no-nah-hah nonax'a (probably no-nax'a my-digging.stick) digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) other complex Merriam 49:23 Jane Hill
Gabrielino ah-nahCH digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
Serrano wān'kinihwa't digging tool, something to dig with unique Stubbs 2011:667 (only Takic, and problematic) is the root of this formation derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk missing missing Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ūlūynīl digging stick loan Sierra Miwok CHM has nahhatil 49:267, K. Hill also has 'digging stick', p. 133 derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim nah-haht-tseel digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) also ah'-se derived, other complex Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu missing missing Jane Hill
Chemehuevi missing missing Jane Hill
Southern Paiute missing missing Jane Hill
Southern Ute pyrychi space, shovel, root-digger, digging fork. Traditionally a sharp stick used to dig out roots for food inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 other complex Charney Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone poton, potottsi cane, staff, digging stuck, club, crutches, stick used as tool inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone poton digging stick inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
Comanche missing missing Jane Hill
Western Mono pOdo digging stick, cane inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute podo digging stick inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok sype- digging stick inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok also in Mins sype- 'digging stick'; maybe from "wood" (sy…_) simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7olu7:a digging, something to dig with, digging stick inheritance *?Vra- 'dig' Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103; also sype- other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Lake Miwok héllam digging stick unique simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu she-wim' digging stick inheritance Proto-Maiduan m is suffix; see Nisenan other complex has -im suffix Merriam 41:275 Jane Hill
Nisenan syw digging stick inheritance Proto-Maiduan see Maidu derived sy, su 'point, poke, insert' Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani to-lo'-we digging stick unknown also ah'-tsĕ, of mountain mahogany simplex Merriam 44:529 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi tcapoi digging stick loan Southern Sierra Miwok ah'-se (Porterville) Merriam 44:445; note SSM sype- 'digging stick' simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami che'-tel-kin digging stick inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Yawdanchi she'-tet Merriam 44:187 derived productive -kin, -ken Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Washo díšu digging stick unknown simplex WHJ p. 503 WHJ Jane Hill
Wintu sen č'us digging stick inheritance *sen Proto-Wintun Shpeherd 2006:167 phrase Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki 7ëms digging stick inheritance *7ëms Proto-North Yukian also 7on pąl(m)ul' lit. stick for digging S&S p. 64 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo hác'e digging stick, crowbar unknown simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun oo'-mah-ren digging stick unknown Mason 1916:434 sutia 'poker or digging stick' derived Merriam 39:101 Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A haypké7 digging stick unknown xuasul Pinart 76 simplex turner 1987 Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7ic-k'umu7 walking stick, digging stick unknown kush-kōk Merriam 37:519 derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno burtch digging stick unknown simplex Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7ušpajï7ïš digging stick unknown Henshaw spa derived paj 'dig' Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa o-hwaht digging stick unknown might be cognate with Mojave usak (x=s is OK, and labialization could come from the /u/) ; also tup-pus simplex Merriam 38:215 Jane Hill
Cocopa şmál nYmawpú:n digging hoe unique phrase grass/weed. To.hoe Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave uusak digging stick unknown looks like CHM's 'fish spear'; he has ă-whel' 'digging stick'; might be cognate with IA o-hwat (CHM's form), (x=s is OK, and labialization could come from the /u/) pierce-k Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai 77ì:pòqpôqa digging stick unique compound 77i: 'wood' pòqpóq 'slender' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) missing missing Jane Hill
Ninam tiə Unknown Alternate: paktʰa Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Yir-Yoront kathn digging stick, yamstick inheritance *kacin pPaman Barry Alpher
Dhay’yi bakiki' unique Claire Bowern
Burarra banaka inheritance Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu bätju(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu bätju(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Gumatj bätju(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal bätju(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma binkubuntharri warnda unique Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul -bugarr- [mabugaran] CHECK - verb not noun and wrong gloss! Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu dhoṉa inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhangu dhoṉa(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga djakka unique Claire Bowern
Mangala gananj inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri gananj semantic shift Claire Bowern
Yawuru ganany loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
Djinang garni loan Claire Bowern
Nyikina kanany loan Marrngu WW %kanany1 Claire Bowern
Warrwa milgin inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl milgin inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi milkin doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi muŋurr unique Bardi ‘jealous (preverb)’ Claire Bowern
Yulparija wana inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta warnu semantic shift Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kana inheritance WW %kana1 Patrick McConvell
Mudburra kapili loan Jingulu Ji. Kapila Ji. Kapila Patrick McConvell
Jaru kapila unknown also kiyari Patrick McConvell
Gurindji kiyarri unique Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi kananyi loan Gajirrabeng or very old pre-Pny or very old pre-Pny Patrick McConvell
Bunuba kananyi loan Gajirrabeng WW %kana1 Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng kaniny inheritance WW %kanany1 Patrick McConvell
Djapu wapitya(7) unique Claire Bowern
Kija kanany loan Jaru WW %kanany1 Patrick McConvell
Miriwung kurratykang derived kurraty 'dig' SUFFIX derived Patrick McConvell
Wardaman milirri unknown WW %milirri Patrick McConvell
Jaminjung tyurna inheritance Patrick McConvell
Jingulu kapila unknown Patrick McConvell
Bankalachi Toloim nah-haht-teel' 189 inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone poton “cruch, cane, walking stick, digging stick” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla naxat ? inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi porO “crook” inheritance JPH: John Peabody Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List, Ditto copy in possession of Jane H. Hill Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno ic-k'umu7 “walking stick, digging stick unknown A 197 Jane Hill
Cocopa Smal nymawpu:/n “digging hoe” unique Jane Hill
Comanche ty7ehkooi7” cane, shepherd's crook unknown Jane Hill
Gabrielino ah-nahCH /7a-nax/ (also “spear for fish”) inheritance CHM/MC245 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu poro-ci (? cane?) inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa nay=chruuw unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk nakat inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok he/llam unique Jane Hill
Maidu sy/k “dig plants with digging stick” inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave uusa-k loan Jane Hill
Mutsun humren “woman's digging stick of wood with fire-hardened tip” inheritance NW (JPH) Jane Hill
Nisenan syw inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute podo inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok sype- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hapoj unknown Jane Hill
Serrano -hunaqan "ceremonial staff" inheritance R&E2000:62 Jane Hill
Southern Paiute poro- “cane, staff”; inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok sype- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute pyrychI “digging fork” inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal uuluujniil (written uuluuyniil) loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone poton inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo ha/c'e unknown Jane Hill
Washo di/shu 171 unknown J171 Jane Hill
Western Mono po/do “cane, digging stick” inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu sen c'u:s inheritance SH05 Jane Hill
Yavapai ??i\:po\qpo/\qa /\ is circumflex unique Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami che/-til-kin (ch'i ... JHH) unknown CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi tcapoi unknown K07:244 Jane Hill
Yuki 7on pa,l(m)ul' unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma xamalye/L H3:208 unknown Jane Hill
Carijona tikuetɨ (stick) (SM) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Dâw --  -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Ninam tiə, paktha (EM72) tiə, paktʰa missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
Arabana wana inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi milgin XXngl given as 'walking stick' milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba gananyi loan Claire Bowern
Burarra banaka unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu dhoṉa(') unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhuwala waliya unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari wana inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang 771 unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng ganiny inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi gananyi loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu waliya unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji kiyarri inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr milkin milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru gana inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi moongorr XXngl in Bardi as the preverb for 'jealous' mungorr unique Claire Bowern
Karajarri kanany loan Claire Bowern
Kija kanany inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: withawitha unique Claire Bowern
Mangala kana inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung ganiny inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra kabili Claire Bowern
Mudburra kabili loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini wana inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi 400 inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma binkubuntharri warnda unique Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl milgin <milgin> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi 125 unique Claire Bowern
Nimanburru XXngl milkin milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta wanu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta warnu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina milgin milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul milgin milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi gaṇga unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya 363 loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta kukuru unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu ba:tju' inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kana inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru kukuru unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa milgin milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy arnany loan Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu 1542 missing Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha 130 loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka 14 missing Claire Bowern
Yawuru ganany kanany inheritance Claire Bowern
Mapoyo yëhE (stick- same as wood and tree) jɛhə (stick- same as wood and tree) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Urarina kuj ɲaera kuj ɲaeɽa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Puinave iuk ɟuk See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Kwazá nwãrãxu nwãrãxu See Language page Joyce McCormick