digging stick

Semantic Field
subsistence tool
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese


Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source
Cahuilla naxat cane, stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) Merriam has koo-nahCH-ah 48:341 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979
Cupeño walilya'ash digging stick unique the obvious interpretation of Merriam's form from wal-in 'to dig'; I think real word was naxat, but no evidence… derived, other complex wali 'dig' Merriam 48:503
Luiseño no-nah-hah nonax'a (probably no-nax'a my-digging.stick) digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) other complex Merriam 49:23
Gabrielino ah-nahCH digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) other complex Merriam 49:103
Serrano wān'kinihwa't digging tool, something to dig with unique Stubbs 2011:667 (only Takic, and problematic) is the root of this formation derived, other complex K. Hill Dict.
Kitanemuk missing missing
Tübatulabal ūlūynīl digging stick loan Sierra Miwok CHM has nahhatil 49:267, K. Hill also has 'digging stick', p. 133 derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng
Bankalachi Toloim nah-haht-tseel digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) also ah'-se derived, other complex Merriam 49:189
Kawaiisu missing missing
Chemehuevi missing missing
Southern Paiute missing missing
Southern Ute pyrychi space, shovel, root-digger, digging fork. Traditionally a sharp stick used to dig out roots for food inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 other complex Charney
Tümpisa Shoshone poton, potottsi cane, staff, digging stuck, club, crutches, stick used as tool inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Dayley 1989
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone poton digging stick inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Miller 1972
Comanche missing missing
Western Mono pOdo digging stick, cane inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993
Northern Paiute podo digging stick inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Yerington 1987
Southern Sierra Miwok sype- digging stick inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok also in Mins sype- 'digging stick'; maybe from "wood" (sy…_) simplex Broadbent 1964
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing
Northern Sierra Miwok 7olu7:a digging, something to dig with, digging stick inheritance *?Vra- 'dig' Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103; also sype- other complex Callaghan 1987
Plains Miwok missing missing
Lake Miwok héllam digging stick unique simplex Callaghan 1965
Maidu she-wim' digging stick inheritance Proto-Maiduan m is suffix; see Nisenan other complex has -im suffix Merriam 41:275
Nisenan syw digging stick inheritance Proto-Maiduan see Maidu derived sy, su 'point, poke, insert' Uldall & Shipley 1966
Yokuts Yawelmani to-lo'-we digging stick unknown also ah'-tsĕ, of mountain mahogany simplex Merriam 44:529
Yokuts Yawdanchi tcapoi digging stick loan Southern Sierra Miwok ah'-se (Porterville) Merriam 44:445; note SSM sype- 'digging stick' simplex Kroeber 1907
Yokuts Palewyami che'-tel-kin digging stick inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Yawdanchi she'-tet Merriam 44:187 derived productive -kin, -ken Berman 2002
Washo díšu digging stick unknown simplex WHJ p. 503 WHJ
Wintu sen č'us digging stick inheritance *sen Proto-Wintun Shpeherd 2006:167 phrase Schlichter 1981
Yuki 7ëms digging stick inheritance *7ëms Proto-North Yukian also 7on pąl(m)ul' lit. stick for digging S&S p. 64 simplex Schlichter 1985
Wappo hác'e digging stick, crowbar unknown simplex Sawyer 1965
Mutsun oo'-mah-ren digging stick unknown Mason 1916:434 sutia 'poker or digging stick' derived Merriam 39:101
Esselen missing missing
Salinan A haypké7 digging stick unknown xuasul Pinart 76 simplex turner 1987
Salinan M missing missing
Chumash Obispeno missing missing
Chumash Ineseno 7ic-k'umu7 walking stick, digging stick unknown kush-kōk Merriam 37:519 derived Applegate 1972
Chumash Barbareno burtch digging stick unknown simplex Henshaw (Heizer 1955)
Chumash Ventureno 7ušpajï7ïš digging stick unknown Henshaw spa derived paj 'dig' Mamet 2008
Iipay 'Aa o-hwaht digging stick unknown might be cognate with Mojave usak (x=s is OK, and labialization could come from the /u/) ; also tup-pus simplex Merriam 38:215
Cocopa şmál nYmawpú:n digging hoe unique phrase grass/weed. To.hoe Crawford 1989
Mojave uusak digging stick unknown looks like CHM's 'fish spear'; he has ă-whel' 'digging stick'; might be cognate with IA o-hwat (CHM's form), (x=s is OK, and labialization could come from the /u/) pierce-k Munro et al. 1992
Yavapai 77ì:pòqpôqa digging stick unique compound 77i: 'wood' pòqpóq 'slender' Shaterian 1983
Kiliwa missing missing
Seri (Comcaac) missing missing
Ninam tiə Unknown Alternate: paktʰa Simplex See Language page
Yir-Yoront kathn digging stick, yamstick inheritance *kacin pPaman
Dhay’yi bakiki' unique
Burarra banaka inheritance
Ritharrngu bätju(') inheritance
Gupapuyngu bätju(') inheritance
Gumatj bätju(') inheritance
Dhuwal bätju(') inheritance
Ngarluma binkubuntharri warnda unique
Nyulnyul -bugarr- [mabugaran] CHECK - verb not noun and wrong gloss!
Yan-nhangu dhoṉa inheritance
Dhangu dhoṉa(') inheritance
Rembarrnga djakka unique
Mangala gananj inheritance
Karajarri gananj semantic shift
Yawuru ganany loan Marrngu
Djinang garni loan
Nyikina kanany loan Marrngu WW %kanany1
Warrwa milgin inheritance
Ngumbarl milgin inheritance
Nimanburru milkin inheritance
Jabirr-Jabirr milkin inheritance
Bardi milkin doubtful inheritance
Jawi muŋurr unique Bardi ‘jealous (preverb)’
Yulparija wana inheritance
Nyangumarta warnu semantic shift
Walmajarri kana inheritance WW %kana1
Mudburra kapili loan Jingulu Ji. Kapila Ji. Kapila
Jaru kapila unknown also kiyari
Gurindji kiyarri unique
Gooniyandi kananyi loan Gajirrabeng or very old pre-Pny or very old pre-Pny
Bunuba kananyi loan Gajirrabeng WW %kana1
Gajirrabeng kaniny inheritance WW %kanany1
Djapu wapitya(7) unique
Kija kanany loan Jaru WW %kanany1
Miriwung kurratykang derived kurraty 'dig' SUFFIX derived
Wardaman milirri unknown WW %milirri
Jingulu kapila unknown
Bankalachi Toloim nah-haht-teel' 189 inheritance
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone poton “cruch, cane, walking stick, digging stick” inheritance
Cahuilla naxat ? inheritance S&H 1979
Chemehuevi porO “crook” inheritance JPH: John Peabody Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List, Ditto copy in possession of Jane H. Hill
Chumash Ineseno ic-k'umu7 “walking stick, digging stick unknown A 197
Cocopa Smal nymawpu:/n “digging hoe” unique
Comanche ty7ehkooi7” cane, shepherd's crook unknown
Gabrielino ah-nahCH /7a-nax/ (also “spear for fish”) inheritance CHM/MC245
Kawaiisu poro-ci (? cane?) inheritance
Kiliwa nay=chruuw unknown
Kitanemuk nakat inheritance
Lake Miwok he/llam unique
Maidu sy/k “dig plants with digging stick” inheritance
Mojave uusa-k loan
Mutsun humren “woman's digging stick of wood with fire-hardened tip” inheritance NW (JPH)
Nisenan syw inheritance
Northern Paiute podo inheritance Stubbs 08
Northern Sierra Miwok sype- inheritance
Salinan M missing missing
Seri (Comcaac) hapoj unknown
Serrano -hunaqan "ceremonial staff" inheritance R&E2000:62
Southern Paiute poro- “cane, staff”; inheritance
Southern Sierra Miwok sype- inheritance
Southern Ute pyrychI “digging fork” inheritance
Tübatulabal uuluujniil (written uuluuyniil) loan
Tümpisa Shoshone poton inheritance
Wappo ha/c'e unknown
Washo di/shu 171 unknown J171
Western Mono po/do “cane, digging stick” inheritance
Wintu sen c'u:s inheritance SH05
Yavapai ??i\:po\qpo/\qa /\ is circumflex unique
Yokuts Palewyami che/-til-kin (ch'i ... JHH) unknown CHM Berman 2002
Yokuts Yawdanchi tcapoi unknown K07:244
Yuki 7on pa,l(m)ul' unknown S&S1984
Yuma xamalye/L H3:208 unknown
Carijona tikuetɨ (stick) (SM) missing See Language page
Dâw --  -- missing See Language page
Ninam tiə, paktha (EM72) tiə, paktʰa missing See Language page
Arabana wana inheritance
Bardi milgin XXngl given as 'walking stick' milkin inheritance
Bunuba gananyi loan
Burarra banaka unknown
Dhangu dhoṉa(') unknown
Dhuwal [missing] missing
Dhuwala waliya unknown
Diyari wana inheritance
DiyariREU [missing] missing
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing
Djapu [missing] missing
Djinang 771 unknown
Gajirrabeng ganiny inheritance
Gooniyandi gananyi loan
Gupapuyngu waliya unknown
Gurindji kiyarri inheritance
Jabirr-Jabirr milkin milkin inheritance
Jaru gana inheritance
Jawi moongorr XXngl in Bardi as the preverb for 'jealous' mungorr unique
Karajarri kanany loan
Kija kanany inheritance
Malyangapa Mal: withawitha unique
Mangala kana inheritance
Miriwung ganiny inheritance
Mithaka [missing] missing
Mudburra kabili
Mudburra kabili loan
Ngamini wana inheritance
Ngandi 400 inheritance
Ngarluma binkubuntharri warnda unique
Ngumbarl milgin <milgin> inheritance
Nhirrpi 125 unique
Nimanburru XXngl milkin milkin inheritance
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing
Northern Nyangumarta wanu inheritance
Nyangumarta warnu inheritance
Nyikina milgin milkin inheritance
Nyulnyul milgin milkin inheritance
Paakantyi gaṇga unique
Pirriya 363 loan direction unknown
Pitta-Pitta kukuru unique
Rirratjingu [missing] missing
Ritharrngu ba:tju' inheritance
Walmajarri kana inheritance
Wangkayutyuru kukuru unique
Warrwa milgin milkin inheritance
Wubuy arnany loan
Yan-nhangu 1542 missing
Yandruwandha 130 loan direction unknown
Yarluyandi [missing] missing
Yawarrawarrka 14 missing
Yawuru ganany kanany inheritance
Mapoyo yëhE (stick- same as wood and tree) jɛhə (stick- same as wood and tree) See Language page
Urarina kuj ɲaera kuj ɲaeɽa See Language page
Puinave iuk ɟuk See Language page
Kwazá nwãrãxu nwãrãxu See Language page