Mutsun

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
no
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location taprey 306; unknown Okrand 1977:306 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar 7iThin unknown O77:81, 302 Jane Hill
all todo todos other himah7a “all” unknown O77:29 Jane Hill
and y e grammar yu: unknown O77:106, 307 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body muhtitihris??? “form veryunsure”, unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body somsom unknown O77:128 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment yo:kon unknown O77:61 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -tak, -tka (after vowel) unknown NW (JPH), L78 Jane Hill
back espalda costas body xop:o “back, upper back” inheritance C1962 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7ekeT-tak “in badness”;7ekTe to be evil, bad unknown O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body huttu “belly” inheritance O77:136 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location minmuy unknown O77:56 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality watreSYte “large”, wetreSYmin unknown O77:88,255 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body 7ichchin “bit” inheritance O77:145 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour murCumak “blackish ones, dark ones” inheritance O77:31,84 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body /patytyan O19 inheritance O77:19 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body pusrren “blows, in witchcraft” inheritance O77:65 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ra:Tam “boil, pimple” unknown O77:270 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body TatYtYi Y is sup-srpt y unknown O77:82 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body mus inheritance O77:253 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body [noswe “breathes”, nosso unknown O77:41, 122 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment yulke “burns (of fire)” inheritance O77:144 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body Tikka unknown ? Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human sinni inheritance O77:49 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion hopey! Ascend! (tree) unknown O77:189 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment mechke “it's clouding up” unknown O77:56 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality tursingka “I am getting cold” inheritance O77:53 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion Ta:kan “comes” unknown O77:109 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact hikku cook, be ripe, unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality aamane “indeed, truly; “it is the truth” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
count contar contar mental nanne unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental warka “to cry” inheritance O77:141 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact wa/ra/y! Cut! (w/ knife) unknown O77:102, 136 Jane Hill
day día dia time Tu:his Cap T is w/ subdot inheritance O77:21 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state se:mo “dead one” ; semmon “die” inheritance O77:136. 199 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact hura: “dig a grave” inheritance O77:259 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna ummuh “big wolf” loan direction unknown NW, (JPH) Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality yu:mus “filth” inheritance O77:61 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7istu-n- inheritance O77:214 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7ukki-si inheritance O77:237 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality chorkon “gets dry” O 32 unknown O77:32 Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality miccwihte is adj unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment muun unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tuksus inheritance C1962 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment pire: unknown O77:104 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7amma “eats” loan direction unknown O77:64 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna moTTeh unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body hi:n “face, eye” inheritance O77:69 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body 7irko “to defecate” inheritance O77:114 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion 7innan “falls”; 7innanin “falls down” inheritance O77:28, 144 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality anSa “distant” inheritance NW (JPH) Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body sakker (sawre- “to be fat”) inheritance O77:125 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship 7appa inheritance O77:61 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental ha:sin “to be afraid”, asli-n- “to be afraid (as a person alone at night) ; inheritance O 77:122 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna puT unknown O77:70 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment sottow inheritance O77:49 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna huuyi , huyni “to fish” unknown NW, JPH Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion soro, loan direction unknown NW? Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment ti:wis 0 24 unknown O77:24 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion hummu, huumu; pl humsu unknown NW Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment me:chikniSY “fog, mist” unknown O77:140 Jane Hill
foot pie body -koro inheritance O77:53 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora toynon “small fruit” loan NW (JPH) Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality /miSYte “good” inheritance O77:43 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state miTTen “grows” inheritance O77:89, 210 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 7uri: “head hair” inheritance? o77:119 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body 7issu inheritance O77:89 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar wa:k unknown O77:106, 307 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body mo:hel inheritance O77:56 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental namti unknown O77:19 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality parki “is heavy” unknown o77:145, 309 Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion lippay hide (it)! unknown O77:57 Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact haTTahne “was hit” inheritance O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other hoyoy! Take it! Grasp it! inheritance O77:189 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hinka-hte “how be?” inheritance O77:317 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ka:n inheritance O77:104, 165 Jane Hill
if si se grammar koc “when, if” unknown O77:308 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location rammay unknown O77:189 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body put:u-s inheritance C1962 Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body hasku “tickle, itch”, husku “itch”, loan direction unknown NW? Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact li:ki “kills” unknown O77:57, 280 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hinsu- unknown O77:284 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment Sp. loan only loan Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental ma:yi unknown O77:171, 278 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment marah “leaf, body hair” O 249 unknown O77:249 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body awiS unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body ka:tYul unknown O77:253 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ipli “lie down”, unknown ? Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment willep (N), wilpe (V) inheritance NW (JPH) Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body TiiTi “be alive, get well”, Titi “live” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body sire:sum “liver, heart” inheritance O77:331 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality laytaSYte “long, tall” unknown O77:130 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna rah “body louse” unknown O77:70 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body honaS (CHM) unknown NW (CHM) Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human Ta:res inheritance O77:150 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna to:Te “deer, meat” unknown O77:32, 112 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment Ta:r unknown o77:145, 309 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 7a:nan inheritance? O77:139 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body ha(:)y unknown O77:119,147 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human raakat unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body kaTTak loan NW? Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality Saanay, Saanay7a unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body missing Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality iTsa “to be new” unknown O77:200 Jane Hill
night noche noite time muruT inheritance O77:21 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar 7ekwe inheritance O77:13 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body hu:s-mak “noses” inheritance O77:70 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality mukyu-kniSY “old woman” inheritance O77:123 Jane Hill
one uno um number hemech7a “one” inheritance O77:29 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other SYachwe “opens unknown O77:49 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar 7anyis “other (one”) unknown O77:154 Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ka:yi “ache” inheritance O77:342 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human 7ama “body, person” unknown O77:64 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact hutna “pounds (in a mortar) unknown O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment 7ammani “rain” unknown O77:53, 131 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour Taskuhmin “red one” unknown O77:36,82 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body samma “be right-handed” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture 7innu, 7innuh “door; road” inheritance O77:51 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora hi:koT unknown O77:51 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pothenin “(it) rotted” inheritance O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment wiis/wis inheritance NW (JPH) Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental kuwa, ko:- “to say” unknown O77:203 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact haska, hassa “scratch an itch” loan direction unknown O77:121 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental hay(we) unknown O77:203 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality micci unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact tiyo: “to shoot (something) w/ arrow” inheritance O77:126 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality Notko “be short, of ANYTHING”, N is ny unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body cappal “paleta, espalda” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental haSmu “be ashamed”, unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state Tawra “sit, live” inheritance O77:85 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body pattah unknown O77:246 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment Tarah unknown O77:50 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body 7e:Te “is sleeping” loan direction unknown O77:76 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality ku:tyihmin “small one” loan direction unknown O77:251 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment kaare-s (N) nom. of “to be smokey” inheritance NW (JPH) Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hussen inheritance O77:172 Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body ru:se- “to spit on” inheritance? O77:253 Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact sachki “split something in half” unknown O77:210 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact Ti:nuy “wring it out!” unknown O77:24 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact rippa “to jab, stab” unknown O77:306 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state lichchey- “to stand” unknown O77:114 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment awiSna unknown NW Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other ha:Ta “to steal” inheritance O77:200 Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora tappur “wood” unknown O77:60 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment 7irek-tak “at the rock” inheritance O77:82 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body huSYlu “sucks” unknown O77:83 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body saawel (N), sawle (V) unknown NW? Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body po:kon “swell up” unknown O77:144 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion yuya “swim, bathe” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body tuupuy NW, JPH unknown NW, JPH Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar tina: 189 inheritance O77:189 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar /haysa unknown O77:44, 165 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tumru “be thick” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality kolle “to be thin, lean” unknown O77:269 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental pesyo “thinks, remembers” unknown O77:45, 294 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar neppe inheritance O77:57 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar me:n “you”; -me inheritance O73, 104, 165 Jane Hill
three tres tres number kaphan inheritance O77:25 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body horkos- “pescuezo” JPH, can be used in “cut throat inheritance O77:154 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact witi:hte “thrown something out, down, away” unknown O77:271 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment Tura:Tarahtak “it's thundering in the sky” inheritance O77:92 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact hotyohte 'tied”; hotyon “tied (somethig) up” inheritance O77:19, O81 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body lasseh, lasse inheritance O77:50 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body si(:)t inheritance O77:154 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other tippe “wander, turn”, ippe unknown ? Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7uthin inheritance O77:255 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body aThi unknown ? Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion hinne unknown O77:170 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment si: inheritance O77:49 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar makse inheritance O77:165 Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar makke inheritance O77:165 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality malaSYte “wet” loan direction unknown O77:180 Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hiTise inheritance O77:72 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hinwa unknown O77:84, 315 Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar hanni, ha:ni, ha:ne inheritance O77:92, 322 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour chupka “is white” unknown O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hatte inheritance O77:158 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship -hawnan loan O77:163 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment hiTwe- wind to blow unknown O77:302 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body wimmah unknown O77:61 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human mukurma inheritance O77:84, 315 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tawah (N) unknown O77:100, 143 Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body hawsu unknown NW Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ci:we (ciweSmin “yellow one”, inheritance NW (CHM) Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar makam inheritance O77:159, 165 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. haşʸşʸan abalone shell (Merriam confirms Merriam 55:417; “red abalone” in Pinart's Co III loan Chumash Pmis hás:yny-, perhaps Utian (I have it in Miss, Mics as a Costanoan loan) WW %kys underived Okrand 1977:42 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae moo'-moor-'re ant unique reduplicated Okrand p. 130--32 from {mumir} Merriam 55:419 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana tiwyen antelope unique Note NUA *tɨ(mmɨ)n(nV)-; Merriam recorded tŭ-winz for Serrano ??? Merriam has te'-wen in Rumsen 55:437 underived Okrand 1977:85 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus te-koo-ish Badger unique other complex -ish must be suffix, but can't find in Okrand Merriam 55:403 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata hă-rah'-oo band-tail pigeon inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co III, IV underived Merriam 55:409 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp wireskan; shim'-te-klah bat inheritance *wirE:s ? Utian Callagan 1962:102 other complex 3-syllable stems vanishingly rare, but morphology unknown Mason 1916:427; Merriam 55:403 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp un tcu-smin black beetle inheritance Costanoan Pinart has for Co II, IV relative clause -min "one who is/has" Mason 1916:427 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus ro'-kus big round tule (S. lacustris) inheritance Costanoan Note Mim lo/-kos “big round tule” CHM, Hill Patwin Laka- Callaghan 2001:324 (due to close similarity I think Mim is probably a loan from Costanoan, hence this must go further north and be Pco; Pinart has in Co I, II, IV underived Merriam 55:427 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tixsin skunk inheritance Kroeber has in Mont, Sjb only underived Mason 1916:428 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus uminx Merriam oom'-mō Merriam 55:403 wolf inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has in Mont, Scr, Sc plus sjb (Mu) underived root is hum, but complexity only etymological Mason 1916:427 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tcirit-min bird inheritance *čirV:t- Utian Callagan 1962:102 relative clause -min "one who is/has" Callaghan 1962:102 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger poskoi-min black ant (Merriam confirms) unique relative clause -min "one who is/has" Mason 1916:428 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus 7ores bear inheritance **7ole$ Costanoan Callagan 2001:326; and Note Yn, Yv ului in D&K (Callaghan 2001:340) underived Okrand 1977:39 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus intkx; tceies; Merriam chā'-ish large hare; hare inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has tceies form in Mont, Scr, SJ in addition to sjb (Mu) underived Mason 1916:427; Mason 1916:429; Merriam 55:405 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus 7e:nena berry sp.( Mason 1916:429 confirms blackberries; Merriam 55:421 confirms) inheritance Utian Note Eastern Miwokan *7in:an “berry sp.”, this probably Utian, perhaps a loan reduplicated from {7e:nan} Okrand 1977:130 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus toroma wild-cat inheritance *tol:om:a/*to:lom:a ? Utian Callaghan 1988:60; some Co forms may be loans; Possibly Yok-Utian callaghan 1997:33 WW %talom reduplicated from [toram]? Mason 1916:428 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera mumul:al:uk, siul:il:uk butterfly (Merriam has she'-o-lo'-lok' Merriam 55:419) unique reduplicated Mason 1916:427; Mason 1916:428 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus wasaka California condor (given as “eagle” by Mason) inheritance Southern Costanoan; Rumsen wah'-sak Merriam 55:439 reduplicated final -a would be reduplication, on model of “mountain lion” Merriam 55:407 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? saiae; ah'sh-sheet jays; California jay loan *saj... Utian unknown Pmiw *$ajiic; but a widespread arealism; Callaghan thinks the similar Mil word is Kashaya Pomo;, but gives as PmiMu 1962:102; Perhaps Yok-Utian WW %chaj underived Mason 1916:428; Merriam 55:409 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? paratu woodpecker (Merriam confirms Merriam 55:409) loan *para:tak ? Costanoan unknown Areal word, see Troike ms.; Pmi *pala-Ta ? Callaghan 1997:61; Pco Callaghan 1992:40 WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated from {parut}? Mason 1916:428 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pat:i chia inheritance *pat:ih Costanoan Callagan 1992:40 WW %pasv underived Mason 1916:430 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pe'-lo-ke-an barn swallow (Hirundo) unique Rumsen che'-lo-kan cliff swallow 55:443 other complex morphology unknown Merriam 55:409 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana yū-rān, u-ran coot inheritance Southern Costanoan only Pinart has for “duck” in Co IV underived Merriam 55:415 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii your-rā, ur-dā yu-ren JPH per CHM cottontail rabbit inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has weren, wiren, probably the same item, as Cos underived Merriam 55:405 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. porpor cottonwood, poplar (Merriam confirms Merriam 55:421) inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co III, IV reduplicated Okrand 1977:128 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans wawisaes, wakisaes, maian wak-shyish (JPH) coyote unique maian is Costanoan; the wa ... word only in Mu in Kroeber other complex -ish must be suffix, but can't find in Okrand Mason 1916:427 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos sa:ray crow (Merriam confirms Merriam 55:409 inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co II, III, IV underived Okrand 1977;150 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii mo'-noi Tolguacha, Jimson weed loan Salinan (and ultimately from Takic, perhaps by way of Chumashan) WW %moji ~ %moni underived Merriam 55:429 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus to:Te deer, meat (Merriam has this word under “Blacktail deer”) inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has in Mont, Scr, SF underived Okrand 1977:112 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana sak (JPH per CHM) digger pine (P. sabiniana, P. coulteri) inheritance *sak:y- Utian Callaghan 1997:18 underived Merriam 55:419 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris hučeknişʸ dog loan Salinan Note Salinan A xutc, Salinan M xutca:i; this Mu item unique in Kroeber 1910 other complex knişʸ prob. diminutive (O p. 139) Okrand 1977;14 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura hunu:nu dove (Merriam confirms) inheritance Utian Callaghan 1962:103 relates to Pmie *hululi forms reduplicated Okrand 1977:57 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae cho'-rō'k-tish duck inheritance Southern Costanoan only Pinart has for “duck with yellow head” in Co IV other complex -ish must be suffix, but can't find in Okrand Merriam 55:409 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus čisnan elder (tree, flower) inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co I, II, III, IV underived Okrand 1977:83 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus te-wo Elk inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has in Scr, Sc, underived Merriam 55:403 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna hoo'-ye fish (any) inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has only in Sjb; Pinart has huuyi form for Co I, II; Note Yukian *həw, Wappo 7ew underived Merriam 55:417 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera po:r; wipsur “ flea; fleas inheritance *po:r Costanoan Callaghan 1997:59 underived Okrand 1977:135; Mason 1916:427 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. tre-wah'k flicker inheritance *Tiw(:)a- Utian Callaghan 1986:62; Perhaps Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997 underived Merriam 55:409 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mu:muri fly inheritance *mu:muri, *mum:uri Costanoan Callagan 2001:326 reduplicated from [mumir] Okrand 1977:131 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon yah”-we Gray fox (Urocyon) (or Mephitis? in pencil) unique underived Merriam 55:403 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wakaraT-smin frog inheritance *waT(ar)ak- Utian Callaghan 1962:103 relates to Mi *waTak forms, but notes 2001:326 that such words are onomatopoeic and susceptible to borrowing WW %wakat relative clause -min "one who is/has" Mason 1916:427 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos she'-re golden eagle inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co III, IV underived Mason 1916:427; Merriam 55:407 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. tow-ka'-lee (JPH per CHM) gooseberry (with black berries) unique other complex morphology unknown Merriam 55:421 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ko:Tehwa big snake sp. (gopher or bull snake? Merriam confirms) inheritance Yok-Utian Cf. Pynim *xo:THongiTH (and *ko:langkHil “king snake”), Pmis *ho.tong-ja- Callaghan 1997:60 other complex -wa is "serpent" suffix O p. 142 Okrand 1977:142 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) tcasuni (Merriam hoo'-ne' hay; grass (any) unique other complex morphology unknown Mason 1916: 430; Merriam 55:427 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera po'-lo-kish grasshopper inheritance Costanoan M, R, S polokV-s/nč (Shaul 1989 on Esselen) reduplicated Merriam 55:419 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. 7e:h squirrel (Merriam confirms Gray Ground squirrel Merriam 55:405) inheritance Costanoan Shaul 1986:699 gives in all C; also Esselen he:x underived Okrand 1977:333 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. choo'-lol, chu-lōl Gray tree squirrel unique underived Merriam 55:405 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus hoo'-mish (hoo-mis JPH) great horned owl inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co I, II other complex -ish must be suffix, but can't find in Okrand Merriam 55:407 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis 7ores Merriam confirms for “grizzly” also inheritance **7ole$ Costanoan underived Merriam 55:403 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae o-shesH-kin horned toad unique other complex morphology unknown Merriam 55:417 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus he-cham-ish horse (this is the “pet” word JHH) unique other complex -ish must be suffix, but can't find in Okrand Merriam 55:407 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae humu:nʸa hummingbird inheritance *(h)umu:ña Costanoan Callagan 1992:40 reduplicated Okrand p. 130-32 describes this as reduplication from {humany}, with first vowel reduplicated and original root vowel moved to V3 position. Okrand 1977:55 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. maTTer tobacco inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has in Scr, Sc, Sj underived Okrand 1977:56 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic pitcina maggot, insect unique reduplicated from [pitcan]? Mason 1916:428 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera kahhay headlouse, black louse inheritance *kah:aj, *ka:j Costanoan Callagan 2001:327 underived Okrand 1977:83 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos cho'-rō'k-tish Mallard inheritance Southern Costanoan only other complex -ish must be suffix, but can't find in Okrand Merriam 55:413 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. choo-tush; chook-toosh; choo-toor JPH per CHM Manzanita (Arctostaphylos sp.) unique underived Merriam 55:421 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa sis'-kah Broadleaf milkweed inheritance Southern Costanoan; Rumsen she-chin 55:459 underived Merriam 55:427 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing Mason 1916:430 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos soksokian; mu-shyek? (JPH per CHM) bird like sensonte; mockingbird unique reduplicated Mason 1916:428; Merriam 55:409 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kash'-soop mosquito loan Yokuts underived Merriam 55:419 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tammala(h) mountain lion loan unknown T<am'ul Mason in both SA and SM; Pinart has only in Co III; Wappo pah'-mah-lah WW %talom reduplicated Okrand p. 131; final vowel is the reduplicated vowel, -h may be a nominalizing suffix “suggesting that tammarla- might be the reduplicated stem of a verb” Okrand 1977;131 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. xakua, xaakan mussel; Merriam confirms hah-kow (“black mussel of ocean JPH); shaul 1986:695 has xakaw Merriam 55:417 inheritance Southern Costanoan only In Pinart only in Co IV underived Mason 1916:428 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? ki-ki Crested jay (Cyanocitta) loan Utian unknown Eastern Miwokan kajkaj -- but widespread loaning possible WW %kaj reduplicated Merriam 55:409 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys sikkot mole (gopher?) (Merriam confirms pocket gopher Merriam 55:405 inheritance *sykw:ot Utian Callagan 1988:57 underived Okrand 1977:150 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum ne'-sis Poison oak inheritance Utian Callaghan 1997:227 shows the Miwok /k/, Costanoan /s/ correspondence underived Merriam 55:425 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. 7ippi rattlesnake inheritance Costanoan Esselen ipišikša (Pinart), noted by Shaul;probably C > E because Kroeber has in Mont, Sjb, Sc (Sta Clara) underived Okrand 1977:145 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp oTol, oTon red ant inheritance Costanoan Shaul 1986:699 notes Esselen otsoli-pša “ant”; also Rumsen oto underived Mason 1916:427 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus kulyan blackbird (Merriam 55:409 confirms both Brewer's and Red-wing) unique Southern Costanoan only Note Pinart's Antoniano čoola; Pinart has “kulian” only in Co IV (Rumsen) underived Okrand 1977:58; Mason 1916:427; 428 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis siwkker hawk sp.; Merriam confirms “red-tailed hawk, any big hawk” Merriam 55:407 unique Possibly a loan from Esselen but the opposite is more likely underived Okrand 1977:13 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus oo'-e-too-ey, oo'-too-e roadrunner loan Yokuts Resembles Pmi and Pyn forms, but they don't have the /t/ part; sound-imitative areal form. Rumsen is Tapsan (CHM 55:441) WW %uji reduplicated Merriam 55:409 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss uraka salmon (Merriam confirms Merriam 55:417, hears hoo”-rah-ka) inheritance *(h)u:raka Costanoan Callaghan 2001:333 underived Mason 1916:427 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? mă-hă-ru-ah Scaly lizard (Sceloporus) inheritance Southern Costanoan; Rumseh mĕCH-a-ren Merriam 55:449 other complex morphology unknown Merriam 55:417 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna sisin small bird unique reduplicated Mason 1916:428 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna esh-shā-loo small brown lizard (Uta?) unique other complex morphology unknown Merriam 55:417 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ko:Tehwa snake (any) Merriam confirms inheritance Yok-Utian Cf. Pynim *xo:THongiTH (and *ko:langkHil “king snake”), Pmis *ho.tong-ja-; Callaghan 1997:60 other complex -wa is "serpent" suffix Okrand p. 142 Merriam 55:417 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum torow soap-root unique Note Nim-Yokuts *ThoxoTh (Golla 1964) underived Not reduplicated, root is {toro:w} Okrand p. 141 Okrand 1977:89 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco 7eleymin hawk sp. (Mason 1916:427 goshawk; Merriam confirms sparrow hawk) unique Southern Costanoan only Pinart has “ellem” in Co IV; Merriam has el'-lim “red-tailed hawk” for Rumsen 55:439 relative clause -min "one who is/has" Okrand 1977:58 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae tira:smin spider unique relative clause -min is suffix "having a big rump" C2001:326 Mason 1916:428 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis dish'-shin little spotted skunk inheritance Probably the same word underived Merriam 55:403 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae puk-kuk-min (JPH per CHM) toad unique reduplicated, relative clause -min "one who is/has" Merriam 55:417 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) tappur wood, tree unique underived Okrand 1977;152 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura Tuilun vulture (Merriam confirms Merriam 55:407) unique Southern Costanoan only Kroeber 1910 has similar word only in Mont underived Mason 1916:429 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines 7awničmin tortoise (Mason 1916;427 turtle inheritance *7aw... Utian Callaghan 1962:106, compares Pmie *7aw:an(a); Possibly Yok-Utian cf. Pyn *$awa-xitH Callaghan 1997:60 WW %awan relative clause -min "one who is/has" Okrand 1977:138 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia you-kish (u-kish) Q. agrifolia inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co II, III, IV as “live oak” underived Merriam 55:419 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata ar'-rĕk-ky 7arkeh (Callaghan 1992:41 Quercus lobata inheritance *alkweš Utian Callagan 1988:62 underived Merriam 55:421 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica heksen quail (Merriam confirms valley quail Merriam 55:409) inheritance *hek... Utian hek:e:ke- in all Mis, perhaps Utian? underived Okrand 1977:146 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis la:lak goose (Merriam confirms Western Canada Goose Merriam 55:413) loan into protolanguage Utian unknown Definitely Pcos *la:lak (Callaghan 1997:59), But a widespread arealism, note PY *la7la7, Pcos *la:lak; Nisenan la:kak', Maidy lylyk' (Callaghan 1997:59) WW %lala ~ %lak reduplicated Okrand 1977:57; Mason 1916:428 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus Time whale inheritance Costanoan Shaul note sresmblance of Esselen čeme-pša (Pinart) to Bodega Miwok púuşu; Costanoan čime, Time 1988:696; Pinnart has for Co II, IV underived Mason 1916:429 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica pā-lik-kah wild grapevine (Vitis californica) unique other complex morphology unknown Merriam 55:427 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) oon-oosh-min wild oats loan Spanish arroz -- looks just like Miss ho:nosme- so maybe Utian WW %arroz reduplicated, relative clause -min "one who is/has" Merriam 55:427 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica mu:muči; te'-wis wild rose; wild rose unique reduplicated Okrand p. 130-32 describes this as reduplication from {mumič}, with first vowel reduplicated and original root vowel moved to V3 position. Okrand 1977;131; Merriam 55:421 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. patax; tarax willow; small, white willow (Merriam confirms the latter Merriam 55:421) unique Southern Costanoan only Pinart has “tarraš” in Co IV; Merriam has also for Rumsen underived Mason 1916:430 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. hire; rat (Merriam confirms round-tail wood rat Merriam 55:405) inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co II, III, IV underived Okrand 1977:146; Mason 1916:428 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper littokwa earthworm unique other complex -wa is "serpent" suffix Okrand 1977:142; Mason 1916:428 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. pe-nan yellow jacket inheritance Southern Costanoan only Pinart has for “abispas que tienan panales” as “pinnan” for Co IV underived Merriam 55:419 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum poo-koo'-te Yerba santa (E. glutinosum) unique reduplicated from {pukit} Merriam 55:425 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna oTTow “red fire ant unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna muuSik “bird of any kind, adult bird” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna mu:muri loan direction unknown O77:131 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna huchekniSY Y is sup-srpt y loan O77:14 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna huni “any type of grass” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna to:Te “deer, meat” unknown O77:112 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 7ippi "rattlesnake",ippih "rattlesnake" (a turned-around one) loan O77:145; Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna tira-smin (tira--Agt, or tiras-min “N-characterized.by”) unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food poknis thick mush unknown Merriam confirms this, 'cut with knife'; also Taywen 'mush' p. 24 which CHM says is 'mush of wild oats' 39:107 derived suffix -s, but see Okrand 245 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
ball game food pakču to play ball unknown derived Okrand p. 117; pa:kuš 'ball', pakkuT 'shinny ball' 126 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology hurčaşYmin-tak hell-to unknown derived, phrase Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
feather headband dress tiwih feather headdress inheritance Proto-Costanoan Sta. Cruz tiwi (Henshaw in Heizer 1955); Merriam confirms simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool tuyos arrow loan Yokuts also Temo p 24, 272; for Arroyo (Mason) this was 'arrow with point' and the tuyos was 'wooden arrow' (no point) simplex see Okrand 245, no corresponding verb; this is only e.g. of sequence u-o; tiyo 'to shoot arrow' 245 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tipşYin basket unknown Merriam 39:103 has o-mah-run, ho-mah-run; ulis Mason 1916:433 derived suffix -n nmlzr; note tippi-the 'coiled' (reverse th) 123 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material wal-lah-himn(walexin Mason 1916:433) small soup or mush bowl inheritance *wol:e Utian Callaghan 1962:102; also ruk'-shoon; also warsan, wetcot Mason 1916:433 derived Merriam 39:103 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing did not have Merriam 39:103 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material mah'-ahs (mas Mason 1916:433) beads inheritance Proto-Costanoan see 'necklace' derived suffix -s but see Okrand 245 Merriam 39:95 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool lawan bow inheritance Proto-Southern Costanoan perhaps ProtoC; Soledad has tawa (Henshaw in Heizer 1955); Rumsen has lawan 'gun' simplex Okrand notes has no corresponding verb Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport ko-no'-nah log dugout unknown simplex Merriam 39:101 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool ričkin carrying net unknown derived maybe ričwi, 'untie'? (-n is often NMZR Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation oo"-shin water bottle unknown tib-lay small water bottle (JPH) derived Merriam 39:103 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation pappel paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pe-ton, pe-tan chief loan Spanish WW %capitan simplex Merriam 39:113 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food missing missing Jane Hill
corpse food se:mo dead one inheritance *CE:m- 'die' Proto-Utian Callaghan 1962:103sem-mos-men Merriam 39:109 derived semmo- to die 267 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology čitte- to dance inheritance Proto-Costanoan Rumsen či:te Callaghan 1992; also in Sta Clara Henshaw in Heizer 1955 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology trah-rah-tah groo-kah god or good spirit unknown phrase Merriam 39:111 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool oo'-mah-ren digging stick unknown Mason 1916:434 sutia 'poker or digging stick' derived Merriam 39:101 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7istu-n to dream inheritance *7ektu Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:48 derived Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kayi:na chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
earring other uTel ear ornament of feathers unknown simplex Mason 1916:433 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hewe:pa devil (or bad spirit CHM) unknown also khukhsu 'devil' , in O's phonology chapter early-15?? simplex Merriam 39:111, Okrand 1977 313 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool kar"-kah fire drill, made of elderwood (Sambucus glauca) inheritance Proto-Southern Costanoan Rumsen kark (Henshaw in Heizer) simplex Merriam 39:99 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other cho-kor fireplace unknown simplex Merriam 39:97 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other tappur wood unknown simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food huyni- to fish unknown simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool šauus fishhook inheritance Proto-Costanoan Pinart Costanoan II (similar in III); Sta. Clara sanwas Henshaw in Heizer 1955 derived suffix -s Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
acorn bread food setnen acorn bread (of acorns and "mongo" Mason 1916:434) inheritance Proto-Costanoan Sta. Cruz sit-nen (Henshaw in Heizer 1955); Merriam heard "shret-te-nen" 39:107; Mason 1916:434 has at.e 'acorn bread'; Henshaw p/u-lu-ma derived suffix -n Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology lullup flute loan Miwok? very widespread simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other soo-trě counters unknown 7issu 'play handgame'Okrand 1977:230 simplex Merriam 39:115 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology yu-mep-pook ghost unknown nossow 'soul' Okrand 1977:104 compound Merriam 39:111 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology hura:ni, hu:rani grave hole unknown Merriam confirms 39:109 'grave in ground' derived hura- to dig a grave 259 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics mo-noi intoxicant drink of Datura loan Salinan WW %moji ~ %moni simplex Merriam 39:109 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology oo-ten shaman inheritance *7u:ten- Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:104 simplex Merriam 39:113 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food pĕt-sĭ honey, sweet (see 'sugar') semantic shift Proto-Southern Costanoan see 'sugar' derived suffix -n not heard by Merriam Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
house other rukka house unknown simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food payta to hunt (Mason 1916:435 'hunt (geese)', hunt deer is on-ome p.434 unknown simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material Tippe knife inheritance *Tip-a Proto-Costanoan Callaghan 2001:322 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
mat culture-material tokko(h) mat, bed inheritance Proto-Costanoan Sta. Cruz ta-ko/ Henshaw in Heizer 1955 derived tokko- to roll out, unroll mat Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool 7urkan mortar unknown Merriam 39:99 confirms as 'portable stone mortar' simplex see Okrand note on p. 243 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
necklace other mash-shā necklace of shells inheritance Proto-Costanoan also Henshaw, confirms for northern Costanoan simplex Merriam 39:97 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool e"-por or he"-por bone awl used in basketry unknown Mason 1916:434 sipirek; also Talis 'wooden awl' ibid cognate of Utian *Cylas simplex Merriam 39:101 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool hook-ke-en pestle unknown Henshaw has tu-mĕm-ca derived Merriam 39:99 Jane Hill
pinole food kurkah pinole (mush) unknown imini, ot-eme Mason 1916:433; rits 'coarse pinole' Mason 434 simplex koo-rah 'pinole seed' (Madia?) Merriam 39:109 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other tore:pa pipe inheritance Proto-Costanoan Sta. Clara, Sta. Cruz have same word (Henshaw in Heizer 1955); merriam soo-koom (made of reed) 39:101 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool loya pot loan Spanish Spanish WW %la olla simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool ah'-pook' quiver inheritance Proto-Costanoan Henshaw has tcú-cŭc; Sta. Clara u-pu simplex Merriam 39:99 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology hotokros cocoon rattle unknown is this part of the sokok, sokos system?? derived suffix -s Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology koo-rā red paint unknown kure Mason 1916:436; Henshaw u-tuh< simplex Merriam 39:95 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food 7akkes salt inheritance *7akW:es ? Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:105 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool she'-mah-lin (Mason 1916:434 simirin) seed paddle unknown derived Merriam 39:103 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ro:pa clothes loan Spanish esxen 'dress, clothes' Mason 1916:433 WW %ropa simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material kitro, kitroh garment, skirt unknown also po:kon 'her skirt' 338; sianexan skirt of tule or plants Mason 1916:434 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology sa:w song inheritance *şa(:)w Proto-Costanoan Callaghan 1997:53; suwene Mason 1916:437 simplex sa:we to sing 215 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool he'-por spear for fish unknown ruxe 'arrows, spears' Mason 1916:434 simplex Merriam 39:99 Jane Hill
stirring stick food kiTras stirring paddle unknown derived kiTra- to stir Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ru:k string inheritance Proto-Costanoan Sta Cruz ruk 'bowstring' (Henshaw in Heizer 1955) simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material xotio bag unknown Is this the Tyj word?? Utian? simplex Mason 1916 Jane Hill
string of shell money other ah'-tah wampum unknown Okrand hine:ru 100, 181 simplex Merriam 39:95 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation petsen ts cluster, not [c] sugar semantic shift Proto-Southern Costanoan Rumsen has (Henshaw in Heizer), also Soledad derived Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
sweathouse other tu:pen sweathouse inheritance Proto-Costanoan Sta. cruz has same word (Henshaw in Heizer 1955) derived Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology monşe tells unknown kuwa, ko: 105 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics maTTer tobacco inheritance Proto-Costanoan Sta. Cruz same word Henshaw in Heizer 1955 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
tule boat transport o/-wan canoe loan Yokuts Callaghan 2001 (unless Yok-Utian? More likely loan) simplex Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology hoo-pahk' white paint unknown simplex Merriam 39:95 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material te-pe-re (tip-rin JPH) winnowing basket unknown wahl-heen snowshoe shaped winnower from JPH derived Merriam 39:103 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress hŏ-to' moccasins for men (summer) inheritance Proto-Costanoan Santa Cruz ha/-ta (Henshaw in Heizer 1955:162); xotox 'shoes' Mason 1916:434 simplex Merriam 39:95 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material trol'-les baby basket unknown derived Merriam 39:103 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation súltatu soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food choo-loo-ish beans (cultivated) unknown simplex Merriam 39:107 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation penyék cat unknown simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress sumrero hat loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation sallik splitstick unknown simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ru:k “string” unknown O77:136 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7urkan “mortar” unknown O77:154 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool humren “woman's digging stick of wood with fire-hardened tip” inheritance NW (JPH) Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture hiswe “thresh, separate bits of chaff out from grain or beans” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture palsin “grinding stone” “mano de mortero de Indios”, o metate” loan NW (JPH) Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool u:ris “stick weapon” unknown NW Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool lawa:n “bow” inheritance O77:145 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tuyos “arrow” loan O77:24 Jane Hill
house other rukka O 102, 136 inheritance O77:102, 136 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium seasonal no