if

Semantic Field
grammar
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
si
Meaning Portuguese
se

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone missing missing Jane Hill
Cahuilla hawa unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno hak'u inheritance Wash 2001:176ff Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno hak'u, ku- inheritance A 7, 437, Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno Aju j is [x] in this source unknown B67:14 Jane Hill
Cocopa ny-, nya- unknown Jane Hill
Cupeño chinga [tʃɪŋə] unknown Jane Hill
Esselen umases (Doc) unknown Shaul 1995:223 Jane Hill
Gabrielino ow/-te /awti/ unknown CHM/MC255 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa -vek [vək] unknown Jane Hill
Kiliwa -win (on verb of protasis) unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk -iva7 unknown Jane Hill
Lake Miwok miTi inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño tee unknown Elliott Jane Hill
Mutsun koc “when, if” unknown O77:308 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute -na inheritance SAA 1982:68 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok -ka- unique Jane Hill
Salinan A Ta- “conditional” (on vb) p. 38 unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M T(a)- unknown Mason 1918:43 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) pix unknown Jane Hill
Serrano pyvyipa7 unknown Jane Hill
Southern Paiute so:va unknown Jane Hill
Tübatulabal tan unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone ukkwah, unknown Jane Hill
Wappo cel' unknown T&S Jane Hill
Wintu kil (“conditional”) unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi akam “perhaps” unknown K07:273 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne Taw unknown N1944:238 Jane Hill
Yuki -ika unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa kádaa kádaa unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona ehihə doubtful loan Bora /-ʔaxčʰííxʸï, -kʰa/ and Muiname /-atʃtʃixɨ/ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo baru baɾu unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa -npək; -npan (IDS) -npək; -npan (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waorani ĩ-te baĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup tæn ~tæd unique See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi ya (IDS) ya (IDS) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu ça, aramẽ sa, aɾamẽ unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Pemon inna, sa, inna-pe, inna warai, inna kru, inna wi sane (A1981) ina, sa, inape, ina waɾai, ina kɾu, ina wi sane (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sikuani itsa (1) ítsa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Kotiria ~pateni pãʰtẽnĩ unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yukuna ee ee unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Arabana [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Bardi gorror(o) korror(o) unknown Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra minyja unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhuwal [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhuwala [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Diyari [missing] missing Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang bilangi unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng X Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Gurindji nyamu...nga inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr -gar -karr inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru nyanggan unique Claire Bowern
Karajarri 3921 unknown Claire Bowern
Kija X Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Miriwung X Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra abala unique Claire Bowern
Ngamini [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ngandi X missing Claire Bowern
Ngarluma wayi particle unique Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru -gar -karr inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nyikina ngaloo ngaloo ngalu ngalu loan Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul angad angad unknown Claire Bowern
Paakantyi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta thala unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu X missing Claire Bowern
Walmajarri puju loan Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Wubuy maanyji inheritance? Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawuru -dyarri -jarri inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua kita, ktate kita, ktate See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco asáisí asáisí See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero íjlanája íhlanáha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana paɨgaɽɨ paɨgaɽɨ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi ekoiya... -ya ekoija... -ja See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Waurá -miyã; -ec̷e -mijã; -e¢e See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora -ʔaxčʰííxʸï, -kʰa -ʔaxtʃʰííxʲɯ, -kʰa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane -aččo, -aččixɨ -atʃtʃo, -atʃtʃixɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio a'tai (SM) aʔtai (SM) Doubtful loan, direction unknown Compare Piapoco asáisí See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect a'tai (SM) aʔtai (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
Tiriyó ahtao ahtao See Language page Becky Walker
Wai Wai tan aw-eši-taw tan aw-eši-taw See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari imka imka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa pip See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Northern Emberá -bɨrɨ (IDS) -bɨrɨ (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán ta, -nda ta, nda See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra dosh (~ not) doʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna chi [2] tʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina hananiane hananiane See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa se, sna se, sna See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Pumé -rʊ hudi See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-u] (used as a suffix w/ verbs) u See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar {-ka}, {kia} {-ka}, {kia} See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa ee ɨ: See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna ehé ɨʔɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Chácobo roʔaṣ̌o roʔaṣ̌o See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua (~ no) netiy, teta; -tiy (conj. Clitic) netij, teta; tij See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano ari aɾi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Barasano -habã, -hakẽdẽ -habã, -hakẽdẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana -áta -áta See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana -gɨ, -go, -ro, -dã, -je -gɨ, -go, -ro, -dã, -je See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Karitiana tykit tɨkit See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama rashi raʃi See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi #NAME? #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sirionó awa...so awa...so See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Nɨpode Witoto -i.a -i.a See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto í.adï, ní.adï í.adɯ, ní.adɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto -dena, -na -dɛna, -na See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Záparo ihya ihja See Language page Becky Walker
Cavineña ni (C&L89) ni See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jisa xisa See Language page PLE
Movima ɗiʔ ɗiʔ See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang kỹ kə̃ See Language page PLE