Guayabero

Family
Guahiban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
guo
Location
2.90°, -71.84°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Instituto Linguistico de Verano. Rivet, Paul. 1948 [1918], La famille linguistique Guahibo. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes, 37.1:191-240. Waller, John and Adreana de Waller. 1979. Guayabero. Aspectos de la Cultura Materiel de Grupos Etnicos de Colombia, vol. 2. Bogota: SIL.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
and y e grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment weruʔsa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
at en, a em, a location xot, -tat inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
back espalda costas body peh matwɨ́ah-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
bad mal mal quality pa-béh ('cosa mala, que no sirve' - 'bad thing, no good') inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
belly barriga barriga body peh-weh-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tónkese (R48) Doubtful loan Carib; Yabarana 'tɜhnɜ(mo); Mapoyo to'nekiri, See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
big grande grande quality pinhíx-ja [gloss of parts?], 'cosa grande' - 'large thing' inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
black negro preto colour pa-ɸói (pa-ϕói-jax 'cosa negra' - 'black thing') unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
blood sangre sangue body hal, peh hal inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
bone hueso osso body tit inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
breast pecho, seno peito body matíeɸ-t, mí-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
child niño, niña criança human jimxɨ́-tʃ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cloud nube nuvem environment ötlehe-nu unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cold frío frio quality bokóela, ('tener frío' - 'to be cold', lɨnk 'hacer frío', tɨl 'enfriarse la comida' - 'food gets cold') unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality dieʧpáˀ (means, 'decir la verdad' - 'tell the truth') unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
day día dia time matkói inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dirty sucio sujo quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dry seco seco quality siow inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality bóel, bóˀel unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dust polvo poeira environment ˀas-bél-in ('en el mano' - in hand, ˀas sɨx 'en el aire' - in air) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
ear oreja orelha body netʃóʔ-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
earth/soil tierra terra environment sat, as inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
egg huevo ovo fauna peh tabɨ́-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
eye ojo olho body ʔiɸú-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
far lejos longe quality ˀatɨah inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fat/grease grasa gordura body pasí inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
father padre, papá pai kinship ʔax inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
feather pluma pena fauna pa-lá-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fire fuego fogo environment hit, law unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
flower flor flor environment patál inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment nasɨxan unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fruit fruta fruta flora nae-báeʧ (ne-báeʧ, pa-báeʧ = 'fruto del árbol' - 'tree fruit') unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
good bueno bom quality pat-tʃém unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mat-lá inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hand mano mão body keʔé unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ha-pón, -pon [he]; ha-pów, -pow [she] inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
head cabeza cabeça body mat-né-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
heavy pesado pesado quality dém-nik unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
how? como como grammar ma-, maáʧ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
1sg yo eu grammar xan inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
if si se grammar wɨt unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location tutat, -tat ('adentro' = 'within', 'inside') inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
intestines intestinos intestinos body peh ˀɨl inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
lake lago lago environment púka inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
leaf hoja folha environment nɨaɸɨ́-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body soena-lél inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
leg/foot pierna perna body peh tit unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ʧamx inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
liver hígado figado body pa-háp-t, peh hap-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
long largo comprido, longo quality pakʧó-wax ('cosa larga' - long thing), pakʧó-n 'hombre alto' - tall man unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tɨ́aʔ-an unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
man/male hombre homem human poi inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pa-wí-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
moon luna lua environment huím-t madói píh-in inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ʔen inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
mouth boca boca body kátʃa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
name nombre nome human peh wɨl inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
near/close cerca de perto quality mox inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
neck cuello pescoço body peh kaʧa-ríama unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
new nuevo novo quality pa-rél-ax inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
night noche noite time madói inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
no/not no não grammar dóˀdoˀ ('no más' - no more) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
nose nariz nariz body ɸumú inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
old viejo velho quality patíʔ-in inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
one uno um number káe-, káe-jax inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
other otro outro grammar ása-x (inanimate, ása-n 'otro hombrel - other man) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
person/human being persona pessoa human hiw inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
rain lluvia chuva environment ˀiam inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
red rojo vermelho colour pa-sói-jax inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pokla-lél (espec: 'lado derecho' - right side) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
road/path camino caminho manufacture nɨam-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
root raíz raiz flora tatín-t, ne-tatín-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
rotten podrido podre quality xoep ('frutas podridas' - 'rotten fruit', sáˀla 'herida infectada' - infected wound, xasái 'carne podrida' - 'rotten meat' inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sand arena areia environment táeh-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality pabɨaˀ inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
short corto curto quality mɨramáta-x ('cosa corta o hajita' - 'short or low thing') inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
shoulder hombro ombro body peh táka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
skin piel pele body bɨʔ-t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sky cielo céu environment tat-baxó inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
small pequeño pequeno quality tʃaʔél-ax unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
smoke humo fumaça environment ʔitmúm unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
star estrella estrela environment ʔit-táeh-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ne, nae inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
stone piedra pedra environment ʔia-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
tail cola, rabo rabo body peh toʔtí-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
that ese/esa esse grammar ha-póx unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ha-pí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality dáˀ-nik unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
thin delgado fino quality híap ('flaco' - 'thin', tatáelk, como papel 'like paper') inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
this este/esta este grammar ʔam-póx unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
2sg xx xx grammar xam inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
throat garganta garganta body čiriame unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
three tres tres number pamópa-x-he unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
thunder truenos trovão environment ˀíam nahúw (ref. see 'lightning' - ʧamx) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
bite morder morder body líkal inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
blow soplar soprar body ϕɨ,ϕɨl ('fuertemente' - 'strongly') inheritance Probably cognate Macaguan ('breathe'). Onomatopoeic; looks vaguely similar to Arawak/Carib forms See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
burn quemar queimar environment wɨhat, fórhow, taet unknown; inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
come venir vir motion ϕaláen unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cry llorar chorar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tasíapa doubtful loan see Candoshi, Jivaroan See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
die/be dead morir morrer state tɨp inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dig cavar cavar impact kow inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
drink beber, tomar beber body ʔáɸ inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
eat comer comer body xael inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fall caer cair motion hop (singular) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fear miedo medo mental peh-léw-la unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
flow fluir fluir motion min ϕol inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fly volar voar motion pa-pún inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hear oír ouvir mental hum-tén, naewét inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ba (ref. to 'kill' - pa - sing. subject and object) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other mamámta, haelt ('grab') unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
kill matar matar impact pa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental matabíht unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
laugh reír rir mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ˀóel, ˀok unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
say decir dizer mental hum-ˀáeʧ inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
see ver ver mental tén inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sit sentar(se) sentar state ˀék inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sleep dormir dormir body moiht inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body xatúka inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tíˀa, horizontal; tawáka, vertical unknown; doubtful loan Piapoco See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact takɨ́kt, takɨ́ka (pl) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact xɨ́ala (con espina - with thorn, xɨaˀla (sing.), xɨaˀɨat (plur.), con cuchillo (with a knife), xadón (sing.) con aguja (with a needle) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state nuk inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
steal robar roubar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
suck chupar chupar body suw inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
swell hincharse inchar body pɨ́dal inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
swim nadar nadar motion how inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
think pensar pensar mental nehʧahóel unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact fóˀa 'pelt' (obj) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
vomit vomitar vomitar body ʧaká inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
walk caminar, andar andar motion léha unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
work trabajar trabalhar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
tongue lengua lingua body katʃiéʔ-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
tooth diente dente body bɨaʔ-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
two dos dois number koʔlé-n-he unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
water agua agua environment min inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar -s, xatís inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar xatisel [Queixalos1993] unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
wet mojado molhado quality páetʃ-nik inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
what? que, qué que grammar ʔatʃá-x unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
when? cuando quando grammar mas-wɨ́t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
where? donde onde grammar am-xót (am-xót xotóx) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
white blanco branco colour pa-póe-jax inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
who? quien, quién quem grammar ʔatʃá-n inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
wife esposa esposa kinship píh-ow inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
wind viento vento environment hóewa, wik inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
wing ala asa body pa-bá, peh baˀ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
woman/female mujer mulher human puwís unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
yellow amarillo amarelo colour pa-wáerla-jax inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
2pl ustedes vocês grammar xámal inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
foot pie body tɨ́ak inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
all todo todos other púexa (póexa, póxa, póta) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
lung pulmón pulmão body peh xataedal unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
bark corteza casca environment pa-bók-t, ne-bók-t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fingernail uña unha body ki-bók-t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
heart corazón coração body matpɨ́a-t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sun sol sol time huím-t matkói píh-in inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ʔiabót, mɨax unknown; unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
green verde verde quality pa-tói-jax unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hot caliente quente quality tɨ́ah-nik unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (136)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana jois hoes-t inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bɨl bɨl inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. mɨakléh, makléh mɨakléh, makléh inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus tadí-t unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes hombói hombói loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak, cf. Piapoco umawali same term - anaconda and boa compound See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ɸaóe-t ɸaóe-t inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) mesabéhen, tʃoél tʃoél, mesabéhen inheritance l to n correspondence elsewhere uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri túha túha inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum makleh-ád-t makleh-ád-t unique alligator-?' other complex See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. parátna parátna loan Spanish 'platano', prob via Arawak Piapoco palátuna; Wanderwort WW %palana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. hɨ́awa-t hɨ́awa-t doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Yanomami hɨwɨ, hewesi Yanomami hewǝ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ban-t ban-t, hɨa-t inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna mia-n mia-n doubtful loan West Tukanoan, e.g. Siona bĩʔã e.g. Orejon bĩjã uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae hombói hombói unknown formed from 'snake'; but cf. Piapoco umawali same term - anaconda and boa compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) haʔ-t haʔ-t ('gourd', H&R); há-of ('calabazo', prob. Crescentia, Waller) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris homóe-t, hombóe-t homóe-t, hombóe-t inheritance compound from snake + ? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. mãmaø 'bejuco' missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tʃáma tʃáma loan (into protolanguage?) North Arawak e.g. Baniwa dzamolíto uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) papúd, papúd-ne papúd, papúd-ne inheritance possibly semantic shift uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. kuis-tɨʔba, kuis kuis-tɨʔba, kuis loan North Arawak e.g. Mandawaka kuíːʒi (no info Piapoco); not into protolanguage uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ʔawói ʔawói inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris wɨr wɨr loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak: Achagua/Piapoco Achagua áuli uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family catso loan Arawak: Achagua missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna baxí baxí inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. chon tʃon unknown missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera taɸíɸ-t taɸíɸ-t unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera dáetʃn-it dáetʃn-it inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis bohléw bohléw, tʃarmáʔ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) polá polá inheritance l to n correspondence uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba anpát anpát unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. maráew, kótʃo maráew, kótʃo loan (into protolg?) - WW %mare Piapoco malài; see also Yanomami WW %mare uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi tuip tuip loan into protolanguage? direction unknown - WW %tuipa uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens nol-t nol-t inheritance l to n correspondence uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ʔárowat ʔárowat loan - WW Carib, via Achagua/Piapoco? Achagua or Piapoco àlawàta; or Carib, e.g. Mapoyo arawata uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae sisíʔw-it, sasíʔw-it sisíʔw-it, sasíʔw-it inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. matíw matíw inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca nud, nusa nud, nusa (R95) unique uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ɸaóe-t unknown missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. máha máha loan into protolanguage Tukanoan? uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays jes hes inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta jelwøj; mayne-lon, bao ('manioc', Rivet 1918) halwɨ́ah unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta báva, báwa, báw (Keels 1985) baw inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. waes waes inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis bohléw bohléw, tʃarmáʔ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes tʃahoʔo-wat tʃahoʔo-wat unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ʔaɸɨ́a ʔaɸɨ́a inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana bam'øf missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica xuʔ, ʔól xuʔ, ʔól inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes wibúx-tot wibúx-tot unknown missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus dúind (Keels 1985) inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae leʔ leʔ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hom hom inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox casadora negra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ʔamɨ́a ʔamɨ́a inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. haʔ-t haʔ-t unknown same as 'bottle-gourd' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas dɨahd (Keels 1985), dɨd (CM72) dɨad inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris mésa mésa inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ʔóɸ-t ʔóɸ-t inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura bus bus inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum xo xo inheritance compare Muisca hoska uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria hatʃk, haʔ hatʃk, haʔ inheritance uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tʃahɨ́a tʃahɨ́a doubtful loan North Arawak e.g. Yucuna jahe, jase, Piapoco tʃáse; see also Carib: ʧaha’ko uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna nae, ne nae, ne inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella ɸófa ɸófa missing uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae buzzard tɨ´da (buzzard) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons ɸófa ɸófa (? 'Machín') unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus tʃóka tʃóka unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari ʔatí-t ʔatí-t doubtful loan Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. na, na-t na, na-t doubtful loan Unknown Tukanoan, e.g. Desano ñamu; Carib, e.g. Yukpa ɲáme uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool buya; buitat, pialan (R18) búja loan; inheritance Achagua Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool sparǝ, fiapan (R18) loan - WW Proto-Guahiban %sipara/sapere, via Piapoco in other languages this WW means 'machete WW %sapara Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B.
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material cønør unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material hoel Unique Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material tɨa-ék-ax tɨa-ék-ax unknown Proto-Guahiban (doubtful) See Language page Ana Paula B.
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ɸumói ɸumói-t unknown Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bow arco arco subsistence tool fadoit, woijta; lut (R18) ɸadói-t unknown (Also: wohita) Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
canoe canoa canoa transport kanáw kanáw loan - WW %kanawa ############################################################################################################################################################################################################################################################### WW %kanawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B.
dance (generic) culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool juit doubtful loan (into protolg?) Proto-Guahiban cf. Yavitero mahu'ita, Sikuani huata, Kokama wauta But compare Yavitero mahu'ita Simplex esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
firewood leña lenha other hĩ (R18) ʔi unknown Also: hĩ (Rivet 1918) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food chon ('fish-poison, barbasco') inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food húw ('catch fish', Keels 1985) catch a fish' unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool chon Inheritance Proto-Guahiban Shared Sikuani ('fish with timbo') Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ben (Waller); mayne (Rivet 1918) doubtful loan (into protolanguage?) North Arawak; but cf. 'dust' and 'meal' Could be loan into protolanguage. Also: man 'corn bread' (Keels 1985), mayne 'bread/manioc' (Rivet 1918) Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B.
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food benilon báenal unique formed from loan 'flatbread', or from 'dust'? Other complex Contains 'manioc' (loan) agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B.
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool haʔ-t ('gourd', H&R); há-of ('calabazo', prob. Crescentia, Waller) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool míd (Keels 1985) unknown Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B.
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool checa unknown Unknown Simplex agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B.
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material búu búu (CM72) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B.
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology pinhóʔ-in pinhóʔ-in unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
honey miel mel food bán (Keels 85) inheritance Proto-Guahiban But compare Carib wan, wanɛ Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B.
hunt cazar caçar food wɨlwek unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
knife cuchillo faca culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
machete machete facão culture-material sierat síera doubtful loan Spanish sierra 'saw'? WW Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B.
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material kanáeɸ kanáeɸ loan - WW %parapi, via Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool béax (clay pot, Keels 1985) clay pot inheritance Also: kandermata, herbuyrd (Rivet 1918) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology márma márma-t unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool mäst hawétʃ unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology ba missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
salt sal sal food dom dom loan Achagua/Piapoco Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
school escuela escola acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
spear lanza lança subsistence tool baóin unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ba-bɨ́t unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food wáa unknown Similar to Macaguan wabá-t; possible loan? Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B.
tobacco (native) narcotics xo Unknown Compare Muisca, hoska Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
wax cera cera other bénθit unique from 'bee' See Language page Ana Paula B.
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool sur doubtful loan North Arawak (*tsiiru-li) Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B.
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material joel (carrying basket) hoel unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B.
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology pinhóʔ-in unknown Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B.
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology dẽep (R18), phɛhmác̶ (Keels) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
paddle/oar remo remo transport canä́f unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mɨa-t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B.
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture saxa sáxa doubtful loan Mapoyo (Carib) prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
house other bu inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
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