turn

Semantic Field
other
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
girar, volter, torcer
Meaning Portuguese
virar

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone puinuah, puinui”, puinukka” (Cherry Creek dialect) inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla -meye- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok wi:/la- (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi koto/7o-ngu “turn around, return”, unknown Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno kin'omoj “turn over” unknown Wash 2001:482 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tutYino7a “return, come back” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno kinomoj “turn around while standing” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa kwany “turn around” unknown Jane Hill
Comanche koonity inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño wax-yax [waxyax] inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa apekwiilp, telekwin [apəˈkʷiˑlp], [t̯ələˈkʷɪn̯] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu mynishi- “turn around” inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa wiR/kwiR inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk manu7mk (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok tu/upHliTi “turn around” unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño moma~i- inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu wy/n unknown Jane Hill
Mojave aakwin=, inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun tippe “wander, turn”, ippe unknown ? Jane Hill
Nisenan w2c'2t unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tsamyna (sg) inheritance Thornes 03:316 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok jo:wu- unknown Jane Hill
Plains Miwok wi:lakse- “turn around” inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A (il)k'elpa, k'ethpha (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) iiqui toii cpot “turn self around” unknown Jane Hill
Serrano ngOhA:h-q turn w/ forward momentum, change direction, go around a bend inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute mynic:i-G to turn over, several turn back inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7im:yt-wi-j:- (turn that way); unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute komo”7nichi inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal paj7k-yt “turn around” unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone -munuh (around or over) inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo ch'o-chit-el' unknown E1993 Jane Hill
Washo p'íʔlugay unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
Western Mono mi/naa- inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu -thama unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai sihWi_:ni “turn (car, horse) in motion” unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi tcadax K07:252 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne c'atap “turn over” inheritance Golla 1964:66 Jane Hill
Yuki wit inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa kapokóita kapokóita inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B. may be transitive or intransitive
Carijona notoɲoganə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Cubeo cũturuvañʉ; turuyayʉ kũtuɾuvajɨ; tuɾujajɨ unique; unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein may be transitive or intransitive
Dâw bâd bǝd unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps may be transitive or intransitive
Desano ãĩmajipeo-ri (transitive) ãĩmahipeo-ɾi inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein may be transitive or intransitive
Eñepa turn over: -areɲaka-; turn around: -oponaka-; -os-oponaka- (IDS) turn over: -areɲaka-; turn around: -oponaka-; -os-oponaka- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross may be transitive or intransitive
Waorani dadi wẽdẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Hup d’oʔkǝd-, hupkǝd- d’oʔkǝd-, hupkǝd- unique See Language page Pattie Epps may be transitive or intransitive
Makushi turn over: eraʔtɨ; turn around: ennaʔpo (IDS) turn over: eraʔtɨ; turn around: ennaʔpo (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross may be transitive or intransitive
Nheengatu muyeréu (mu=fazer, yeréu=virar-se), yeréu mujereu (mu=fazer, jereu=virar-se), jereu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin may be transitive or intransitive
Ninam šimore (EM72) ʃimoɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely may be transitive or intransitive
Maihiki aniyi aniji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Pemon ataime ataime (A1981) inheritance? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza may be transitive or intransitive
Sanumá hãkoma, ioto (EM72) hãkoma, ioto unique See Language page Kelsey Neely may be transitive or intransitive
Sikuani jiarabajaraba (4), jiarabajarata (4), jiarabia (1), jiarajiarajai (21), jiaraka (3), jiarata (3) unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Tariana kapúku kapúku inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B. may be transitive or intransitive
Tukano mahâmi mahâmi inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak may be transitive or intransitive
Kotiria majare pahara, sariãna majare pahara, sariãna inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein may be transitive or intransitive
Yanomam šimore ʃimoɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely may be transitive or intransitive
Yanomami shimore-aɨ, shimoremou ʃimoɾe-aɨ, ʃimoɾemou inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely may be transitive or intransitive
Yukuna pilóro'okaje pilóroʔokahe doubtful loan, direction unknown Macaguan pirárre; see also Chocoan See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Yuhup k'ot-doʔ k'ot-doʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps may be transitive or intransitive
Arabana kalja unique Claire Bowern
Bardi dirrayi -banyi-; dirrayi -ar-; -midurdu- dirrayi -banyi-; dirrayi -ar-; -midurdu- unique Claire Bowern
Bunuba gurnaga- inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra ngukurdanyja unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu bil inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal bil Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ŋanydjaḻa'yun unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari kartyi inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 1927 unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu bil unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang ḻiw unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng leberrg unique NJ Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi goornag- inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu ŋanydjaḻa'yun unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji wirrminy yuwa- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
Jaru gunag wand- loan Claire Bowern
Karajarri pirrp yintanpa waranykarti (1) unique Claire Bowern
Kija tuwurrng 'turn over' unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala kurari kanarri (1) unique Claire Bowern
Miriwung luwurrg unique NJ Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra wirrmin Claire Bowern
Mudburra wirrminy loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini karatyina inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi burlet-dhu unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma wagardarri (-gu) Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla kurarri-ka-rna Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nyikina birrb XXngl turn off, turn aside. birrb XXngl durn off, durn aside. unique Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul nolo man@ian nolo manyan unique Claire Bowern
Paakantyi ḏamba-ḏamba- unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta wangkuma unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu birrirri'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kurnakkuji- loan Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru mirrpari- unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa walara walyi; gurnag walara walyi; kurnak unique Claire Bowern
Wubuy warlarlha inheritance? Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu mirradathun inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha wapawagawaga unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi kartji- inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka kartjindri inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru -mirdurdu- XXngl transitive (turn it around) -mirdurdu- unique Claire Bowern
Achagua ríhkueriu ríhkueriu unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Piapoco càpucùadaca, èwìaca, ènúadaca kàpukùadaka, èwìaka, ènúadaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Wapishana pʰadantʰa-n pʰadantʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B. may be transitive or intransitive
Paresi ehaikoa ehaikoa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Baure šoporiporik- ʃoporiporik- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino may be transitive or intransitive
Waurá ɣak-uwa ɣak-uwa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick may be transitive or intransitive
Bora vihyo (T98) βiʔjo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Muinane vííuhi (W97) βííuʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Akawaio eeratöng (turn around) e'ratöŋ (turn around) inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin may be transitive or intransitive
Wayana pelelep -ka pelelep -ka unique See Language page PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Tiriyó epanama epanama unknown See Language page Becky Walker may be transitive or intransitive
Wai Wai aknama-kɨ aknama-kɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross may be transitive or intransitive
Yukpa atabrémapo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross may be transitive or intransitive
Muisca yz zukuscansuca ɨz tʂukuskansuka See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Northern Emberá pʉrrɨgábi, pʉrratˈɨi pʉrrɨgábi, pʉrratˈɨi See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Macaguan pirárre pirárre doubtful loan Yukuna; Chocoan? See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram may be transitive or intransitive
Candoshi-Shapra yapátámaama japátámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Páez spondó, tignuend spondó, tignuend See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Tikuna enangó-égo (Alv44) enaŋóʔégo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Pumé karupá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Puinave [-he-wuk] (~ around) he-wuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett may be transitive or intransitive
Ashuar téenkatin te:nkatin See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Huambisa ayantratsa ajantratsa See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Aguaruna papegát papɨgat unique See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Matses bidiad bidiad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker may be transitive or intransitive
Chácobo pɨyɨ- pɨyɨ- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick may be transitive or intransitive
Yagua nubenu nubenu unique See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Southern Pastaza Quechua muyurina mujuɾina See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Ingá tallii taʎii See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Napo Lowland Quichua bultiyachina bultiʎatʃina See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Quechua Ayacuchano muyuy muyuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Piaroa ka'rEuh kaɁræuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker may be transitive or intransitive
Sáliva cãchahllajaha kãʧaʔʤahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker may be transitive or intransitive
Makuna jᵾda-re (transitive) xɨda.ɾe unique See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein may be transitive or intransitive
Tanimuca õ'te ri'ka (trans); õ'si bi'I ri'ka (intrans, reflex) õ'te ri'ka (trans); õ'si bi'I ri'ka (intrans, reflex) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely may be transitive or intransitive
Koreguaje canimʉ kanimʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle may be transitive or intransitive
Siona quëhuijeiji kɨwiheihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely may be transitive or intransitive
Secoya quëhui, sëno kɨwi, sɨ̃nɔ See Language page Amanda N may be transitive or intransitive
Wayampi -yɛwɨ -jɛwɨ unknown See Language page PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Sirionó uquia, uma (P85) ukia, uma unique; unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker may be transitive or intransitive
Kamayurá jerowak, mojerep jerowak, mojerep inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans may be transitive or intransitive
Ocaina toon̈u tõõn:ɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Murui Witoto gɨrerioìde gɯrɛrioìdɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Záparo tawhunu tawhunu See Language page Becky Walker may be transitive or intransitive
Wari yami jami See Language page PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Cavineña tipiro tipiro hoya; kawalʸati-ya; romo-ya; tipirotana-ya; warere-ya; walʸaki aya (tipiro tipiro hoya, kawalʸati-ya, and romo-ya all mean "turn over"; tipirotana-ya, warere-ya, and walʸaki aya all mean "turn around") tipiro tipiro hoya; kawalʸati-ya; romo-ya; tipirotana-ya; warere-ya; walʸaki aya unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker may be transitive or intransitive
Central Aymara muytaña xaḳukipa-ɲa See Language page PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Kwazá are-, deba-, mũrjerwa-, piriri-, xare- are-, deba-, mũrjerwa-, piriri-, xare- See Language page Joyce McCormick may be transitive or intransitive
Movima ɗa-pil-na ɗa-pil-na See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker may be transitive or intransitive
Kaingang jakajẽn wə̃n ke; wĩrn ke; yɨ rã; yɨ ŋĩn See Language page PLE may be transitive or intransitive
Djeoromitxi pari, bero pari, bero See Language page PLE may be transitive or intransitive