Gurindji

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
gue
Location
-17.70°, 130.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location kankula inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar -rningan inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other purrp loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
and y e grammar [no equivalent] missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tari inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body karrwi inheritance Claire Bowern
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment puna unique Warlpiri Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ngka, -la inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body parntawurru unique Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality wankaj unique Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body majurl loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kanyjal inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality jangkarni unique Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body paya- inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour mumpung loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body kungulu inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body purriyip ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body karlapa loan Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body kuyuwarn inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngapurlu loan Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngayirrp ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment jiya- inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ngulynguly paya- unique Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human karu inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion partaj ya- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment maarn loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality makurru loan Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion ya- inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kampa- inheritance Claire Bowern
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality yijarni loan Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental yurrk ma- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental lungkarra karri- inheritance Claire Bowern
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kataj pa- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
day día dia time wurlngarn loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state tampang karri- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact kurrij pu- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna ngurrakin loan Ngaliwurru Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality nyunal unique Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental kuni ma- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body kukij paya- unique Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality pulparr inheritance Claire Bowern
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tapu loan unknown Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment jurtu loan Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body langa inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment janja inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body jaartkarra nga- inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna kampij inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body mila inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kura inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion wani- inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality yikili loan Unknown Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body wararr unique Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship ngaji loan Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental wukarra karri- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna pinkirr inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment warlu inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna yawu loan Proto-Yirram Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion warrayi ya- unique Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment yirna inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion tiwu ya- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kaparru loan Unknown Claire Bowern
foot pie body jamana loan Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora mangarri loan Mirndi Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality punyu inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state tuma- inheritance Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body kartpi loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body wartarn loan unknown Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nyantu inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body ngarlaka loan unknown Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental kurru nya- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality ngarturr loan unknown Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion wurlaj karri- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pa- inheritance Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other turt ma- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar nyatpa inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngayu inheritance Claire Bowern
if si se grammar nyamu...nga inheritance Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location walyak loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body lupu loan unknown Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body jalya karri- inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact tampang pa- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental pina karri- inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment langkana loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental yayip ma- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment jalyi inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jampukarra loan Mudburra Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body jamana loan Worrorran? Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion makin karri- loan Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment janginyina loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body wanji karri- inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body malumpa loan Mudburra Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality juwal inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna wutu loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body yaya unique Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human ngumpit inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ngarin loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment jakiliny loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ngamayi inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body lirra inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human yini inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body jikirtikirti loan Nungali Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality kajupari loan Jingulu Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body ngirlkirri loan Jaru Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality jalayalang inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time kaputa loan Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar kula inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body jitji inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality larrpa-nginyi loan Jingulu Claire Bowern
one uno um number jintaku inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other warnparlk ma- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar -kari loan Claire Bowern
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body janga inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human ngumpit inheritance Claire Bowern
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tarl pa- loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment yipu loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour winkilying unique Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body jutu inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture warntarri inheritance Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora wirnturru inheritance Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality puka loan Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment warrayarl inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact yikarrp ma- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental karrap nya- unique Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kutukutu loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact turkkarra pa-/luwa- inheritance Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality lutu unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body laja loan Claire Bowern
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental minyirri inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state lurlu karri- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body wajawurr loan Unknown Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment kulumarra loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body makin karri- loan Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality yapawurru loan Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment jungkart inheritance Claire Bowern
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ngapuk ma- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body jupak yuwa- loan Jaru Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact lak pa- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact july ma- loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact turrp pu- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kutij karri- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment kiki loan Jaru Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other jawurra ma- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora karnti loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment wumara loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body nyuk paya- unique Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body jilngit ya- inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body rumpa karri- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion lilaj ya- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body jawut unique Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar nyila inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nyarrulu inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality junyju inheritance Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality tinkal unique Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental kirr ka- loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar nyawa inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nyuntu inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number murrkun loan Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body ngirlkirri loan Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact waj wuya- loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment turlurlup loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tipit ma- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body jalany inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body lirra inheritance Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wirrminy yuwa- loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
two dos dois number kujarra inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body kurlpak yuwa- loan Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion kalu ya- inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment ngawa inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ngantipa inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ngaliwa inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality pantij loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nyampa inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nyangurla inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wanyjika inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour waki loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship janka inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wumaj loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body pinkirr inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human janka inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other waruk ma- loan Kriol Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body jaakip ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour Karrikurn-karrikurn loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nyurrulu inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (136)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis makiliwarn makiliwarn loan Ngaliwurru/Nungali underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pingi pingi inheritance pingi Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus taparung taparung loan Miriwung WW %taparu underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia pakuru pakuru loan Jingulu 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba kurrkutji kurrkutji loan with meaning change Jarragan meaning in Jarragan 'tawny Frogmouth' WW %kurrkurr underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer manyirrkirla manyirrkirla unique underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp parnkal parnkal loan Jarragan WW %parnkal underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris paka paka loan Jaru also thorn WW %paka underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jurlak tyulak loan WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon kalpun kalpun loan Wardaman also hawk in gereal, whistling kite WW %kornpun underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus mulyukuna mulyukuna loan Warlpiri compound nose-shit 9source, not Gur) 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis kamara kamara unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri tyatpurru tyatpurru loan Jaminjung WW %tyatpurru underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae pirlngi pirlngi unknown cf.Bunuban piyirn underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lungkura lungkura inheritance lungkurta Ngumpin-Yapa WW into Nyulnyulan etc WW %lungkurta underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii tyalkurrurru tyalkurrurru loan Mirndi WW %tyalkururru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kurrarntal tort loan Jarragan WW %kurrantal underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus pirrkirrkirn pirrkirrkirn unknown cf pirrk 'take away' <Jam, reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula jangana jangana inheritance p-NGY jangan; jangana Mudb? Also tyakulatyi loan from Jaminjung cf. Jingulu tyakulatyki underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) kumpirlang kumpirlang loan Kija WW %kumpurla underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius wirntiku panturlpit loan Jarragan WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis walayarra walayarra loan Jarragan WW %walayarra underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis tyamut kirtakirta loan Miriwung WW %tyamut underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata wayit wayit loan Western Mirndi Jam. Wayita <Mudburra because of -a but wayit could be older form WW %wayita underived 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera malimali malimali loan Jaminjung from Wardaman WW %malimali reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera milkurr milkurr unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) tyarlarlka tyarlarlka loan with meaning change Jaminjung Jam 'big catfish' underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda lirrimi lirrimi unique could be loan into Ngaliwurru or vice-versa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae kurrakurraka kurrakurraka loan Jarragan WW %kurrakurra reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes yawarlwarl yawarlwarl inheritance tyarralaparlparl Ngumpin-Yapa reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species karraŋkarraŋ karraŋkarraŋ loan Jarragan WW %karrangkarrang reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus pulykuwuny pulykuwuny unknown also puljuny; yulurriny=Nyikina underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo ngurrakin ngurrakin loan Jaminjung also marrany; Jam. Ngurrakiny <NGY ngurra 'camp' WW %ngurrakin underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris warlaku warlaku semantic shift cf. Warlpiri warlaki 'own' but could be loan < Jarragan walaki 'young, puppy' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae jipilyuku jipilyuku loan Jarragan WW WW %tyipily underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta latuŋ latuŋ unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae kalyumpurr kalyumpurr unknown underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yawu yawu loan Western Mirndi loan into NG pre-lenition WW %yaku underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) purluwul purluwul unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera warlngin warlngin loan Wardaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) warrpawurru pilkina loan Ngaliwurru Ngaliwurru/Nungali warrba 'f-f' loan could be opposite direction compound bat's wing -HAVING in Jam or Mudburra 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni warritya warritya loan Western Mirndi via Mudburra: -a added WW %warrity underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni tuku tuku loan Western Mirndi Jam. & Ngarinyman taka; source teke in a Jarr lg? underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii jaalij jaalij loan Wardaman WW %tyality underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii tyamankula tyamankula loan Jingulu underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) ngaltya ngaltya loan Miriwung also palngawurn underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kiliŋkiliŋ kiliŋkiliŋ loan direction unknown klilyingkilying WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) narrinytyila narrinytyila unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) warlarri warlarri loan into protolanguage warlarri Ngumpin Jarragan WW %warlarri underived 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp kirrawa kirrawa unique also tyarrampayi 'large g.' underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) yuka yuka loan Jaru NG internal loan *yuka underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera pilpilytyi pilpilytyi loan Jarragan WW %pilpiltyi underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis tyiwayurru tyiwayurru loan Western Mirndi WW %tyuwayurr underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata parli parli unknown also kirnirriny, marlityi underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus wutu wutu inheritance lutu Ngumpin-Yapa l>w? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus timana timana loan Western Mirndi WW WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae jiya jiya inheritance tyatyi Ngumpin-Yapa tyiya is also found in PNY lgs - retention from higher level? [find cognates] underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda wumirriny wumirriny unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kinarli kinarli unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) nganyanya nganyanya unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) nama nama semantic shift nama Ngumpin-Yapa Warlpiri nama=ant underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus parrtyirta parrtyirta inheritance parrtyarta NGY-Marrngu-Wati underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus pakuru pakuru loan Wati underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius miyaka miyaka loan Wardaman WW see Nash 1997:193 WW %miyaka underived 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia partiki partiki loan Jarragan underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis katykuru katykuru unknown probably loan from phonology; other word jangawa cf. Jaru tyangara Mudb tyarrangarra loan from W.Mirndi? underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya pakarli pakarli loan Jaru also pakarl Nyulnyul; wiyirnpi nut cf other lgs underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida marrpalaŋpalaŋ marrpalaŋpalaŋ unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp jakurli jakurli loan Jaminjung WW %tyakuli underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca kurlirrit kurlirrit inheritance kulinkirr Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis kumalawuta kumalawuta inheritance kumalawurra Ngumpin Yapa and Walm. Have kurrparu(paru_ WW %kumulawurr underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea tyanytyany tyanytyany unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis murrulumpu murrulumpu inheritance murrulumpu Ngumpin Jaru murrlumpu 'thorny wattle' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species purntaru purntaru loan Marrngu or could be retention? WW %puntaru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis timarlarn timarlarn loan Western Mirndi WW %malan underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi tinkana tinkana unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus luwarra luwarra loan Jarragan WW %leparre underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda tyalwarr tyalwarr unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta tikirrja tikirrja unknown also tyularta; rel to Jarragan tyikere? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus nalampaŋ nalampaŋ unknown rel to Jam yalampurrma? underived 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones muntarla muntarla loan Wardaman also in Jingulu WW %muntarla underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna kawuŋ kawuŋ unknown underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus tyuŋkuwurru tyuŋkuwurru loan Jarragan compound elbow (Jarr) -HAVING (Jam) 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kuljany kuljany semantic shift kuljany python also wari; kuljany 'carpet snake' in Jaru underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia lunytya lunytya loan into protolanguage lunytya Ngumpin Western Mirndi Jam. nunytya WW %nunytya/lunytya underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae tarru tarru unknown ?loan<Nungali with ti- prefix; Jam karra; Ward karap; Jig karrutyi underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species warrwa warrwa inheritance warrpa Ngumpin-Yapa Warlpiri warrpa seed-heads of spinifex underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia pulumpulu pulumpulu loan Jingulu Jing. Pulumpulurti WW %pulungpulung reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna tyikala tyikala unknown underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita palngarra palngarra loan Worrorran also pangarra, parrngarra WW %palngarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea yilkiyaŋ yilkiyaŋ loan Jaminjung Jam. Yurlkiying, cf.yilang 'snail' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides kurrkutji kurrkutji loan Jarragan WW %kurrkurr underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera murnkurt murnkurt loan into protolanguage munkurr Ngumpin-Yapa Jaminjung mungkel variant in Jarragan; termites=mound polysemy WW %mungku underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) munkut munkut loan into protolanguage munkurr Ngumpin-Yapa Jaminjung ? WW %mungku underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata kungurn kungurn unknown also wungurn underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina mirtirli mirtirli loan into protolanguage mirtili Ngumpin Jingulu also in Nyulnyulan; miti forms without l in Walm. WW %mirti underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wangkuriny wangkuriny loan Jarragan WW WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) karnti karnti loan with meaning change Jingulu Jing karnti=ironwood underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma mintaarraty mintaarraty unknown underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis warrayaŋ warrayaŋ unknown underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax warlawurru warlawurru loan Nyungar WW WW %walakurru underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys tyikirrity tyikirrity loan Mirndi also in Kija underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) lamawurt lamawurt loan Jaminjung underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna pingi inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jurlak loan direction unknown Jarrakan Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna walngirn loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna warlaku loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna yuka loan Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kuljany loan Jaru Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna tarru inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (113)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
armband dress taman loan Wardaman worn after subincision; WW %taman worn after subincision; can't see why 'semantic shift' assigned, looks unique Patrick McConvell
awl subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool kurrwa inheritance WW %kurrwa Patrick McConvell
bag (string) culture-material wananga loan Ngaliwurru Ngaliwurru wanak; could be opposite direction Ngaliwurru wanak; could be opposite direction Patrick McConvell
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool nguru loan Gajirrabeng also tobacco; cf. Gaj. ngooroong lump of chewed tobacco also tobacco; cf. Gaj. ngooroong lump of chewed tobacco Patrick McConvell
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
body feather decorations culture-mythology martukurru loan Ngarinyin mixture of ochre and down; Ngarinyin matakuri 'down' WW %matakuri Patrick McConvell
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool kurrupartu loan Gajirrabeng karli rare WW %kurrupartu karli rare Patrick McConvell
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool wirlki loan Walmajarri WW %wilki Patrick McConvell
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
bowl (coolamon) culture-material kawarla loan Wardaman ?<korlun WW %kawala or could be opposite direction Patrick McConvell
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
canoe canoa canoa transport kartiyi inheritance lalso large coolamon; Warlpiri kartiji lalso large coolamon; Warlpiri kartiji Patrick McConvell
cicatrice culture-mythology parturu loan Jaminjung WW %paturu Patrick McConvell
clapsticks culture-mythology karnpak loan Gajirrabeng but ij/al problem Patrick McConvell
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool kuturu inheritance WW %kuturu Patrick McConvell
cook food food kampa- inheritance wupkarra grill, fry wupkarra grill, fry Patrick McConvell
cook in earth oven food turturl kampa- inheritance <turn redup? <turn redup? Patrick McConvell
damper food mangarri loan direction unknown veg food WW %mangarri veg food Patrick McConvell
dance (generic) culture-mythology warrkap wanytyanana loan Gajirrabeng warrk/warrkep also Kija; +ep/ap activity warrk/warrkep also Kija; +ep/ap activity Patrick McConvell
digging stick subsistence tool kiyarri unique Patrick McConvell
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool piyati loan Jingulu WW %piyati Patrick McConvell
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kuni loan direction unknown WW %kuning Patrick McConvell
dreaming culture-mythology kuning loan Gajirrabeng father's dreaming WW %kuning father's dreaming Patrick McConvell
drone pipe culture-mythology kulumpung loan Gajirrabeng WW %kulumpung Patrick McConvell
fire drill subsistence tool kungkala loan direction unknown tyapirri wrong WW %kungkale tyapirri wrong Patrick McConvell
fire-saw other missing Patrick McConvell
fireplace hogar lareira other warluwatyi inheritance fire+katyi 'thing for' complex fire+katyi 'thing for' Patrick McConvell
firewood leña lenha other warlu inheritance Patrick McConvell
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool manyingila loan Jaminjung plant used for f-p; gutta-percha plant used for f-p; gutt-percha Patrick McConvell
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food wayayap tyayi- unknown stupefy give stupefy give Patrick McConvell
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wuyurrunkarra karri- loan Nungali fishing-line-ACT be; Nu. Wuyurruny string WW %wuyurrun fishing-line-ACT be; Nu. Wuyurruny string Patrick McConvell
fish (with spear) food tyapap loan Gajirrabeng G. tyaperrp 'wade' G. tyaperrp 'wade' Patrick McConvell
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wuyurrun loan Nungali string WW %wuyurrun string Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool puul inheritance puul more common < pouch Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
flour (European) food mangarri loan direction unknown veg food veg food Patrick McConvell
flour (bush) food mangurlu loan direction unknown NPN prefix + ngurlu WW %ngurlu NPN prefix + ngurlu Patrick McConvell
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ngarin loan Miriwung Patrick McConvell
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kaya inheritance tyanpa is different kind of spirit tyanpa is different kind of spirit Patrick McConvell
glue subsistence tool tyikala loan direction unknown wax wax Patrick McConvell
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology kurrku loan Jaru hole in ground; Jaru kurrku nyina bumpy road; also nakurr hole in ground; Jaru kurrku nyina bumpy road; also nakurr Patrick McConvell
grog food ngawa semantic shift < water, inheritance; nguku also used < water, inheritance; nguku also used Patrick McConvell
hair belt dress wirrityi loan Jaru Patrick McConvell
headband dress tartity loan Jaminjung WW %tartity Patrick McConvell
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology nyangunyangu inheritance see redup with old agent -u complex see redup with old agent -u Patrick McConvell
honey miel mel food ngarlu inheritance loan <Jarragan into proto-Ngumpin WW %ngare Patrick McConvell
house (European) other marru loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
hunt cazar caçar food yangkarrp inheritance tyapap for fish tyapap for fish Patrick McConvell
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology marntiwa loan direction unknown ?Alawa; aka karu 'child' WW %marntiwa ?Alawa; aka karu 'child' Patrick McConvell
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology para loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
knife cuchillo faca culture-material pinymala loan direction unknown Jingulu Patrick McConvell
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress matyarti loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
love song culture-mythology tyarrarta loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
mangrove raft transport missing Patrick McConvell
message stick culture-mythology yinytjangarri loan direction unknown from Kimberley language with -ngarri suffix from Kimberley language with -ngarri suffix Patrick McConvell
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tyikurnu loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
nosepeg other jarlumarla unknown bone for piercng septum bone for piercng septum Patrick McConvell
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Patrick McConvell
ochre culture-mythology karrikun loan Miriwung karrikulng yellow WW %karrikun karrikulng yellow Patrick McConvell
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology punip ma- loan Gajirrabeng WW %punu Patrick McConvell
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool marang loan direction unknown mara 'hand' +ngu>-ng WW %marangu mara 'hand' +ngu>-ng Patrick McConvell
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other lutykarrwaji inheritance luty 'inhale' + Karra (action) + waji (nomic) complex luty 'inhale' + Karra (action) + waji (nomic) Patrick McConvell
public song cycle culture-mythology tyunpa loan Nungali WW %tyunpa Patrick McConvell
red paint culture-mythology kalnga unknown murtu red o. mixed with fat WW %kalnga murtu red o. mixed with fat Patrick McConvell
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool tyikala loan Jingulu WW %tyikala Patrick McConvell
salt sal sal food karang inheritance WW %kerrela Patrick McConvell
shelter (native) other mangkaya inheritance Patrick McConvell
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tyunpa loan direction unknown WW %tyunpa Patrick McConvell
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology tyunpa loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
spear lanza lança subsistence tool karna inheritance milarrang with bamboo/reed WW %karna milarrang with bamboo/reed Patrick McConvell
spear (fighting) subsistence tool nguni loan Wardaman ngone spear WW %ngone Patrick McConvell
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
spearthrower subsistence tool warlmayi inheritance WW %walmayi Patrick McConvell
speartip subsistence tool yingka loan Jaru WW %yingka Patrick McConvell
string (from hair) culture-material wirrityi loan Jaru WW %wirrityi Patrick McConvell
string (from vine) culture-material murntiri unknown WW %murntiri Patrick McConvell
sugar acculturation warrayal semantic shift from sand Patrick McConvell
tea food tyirliny unknown also nalitya WW %nalitya also nalitya Patrick McConvell
tobacco (European) narcotics walayarra loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
tobacco (native) narcotics tyarrinyngarna inheritance cave-dweller, a variety complex cave-dweller, a variety Patrick McConvell
spirit child culture-mythology wipilirri missing Miriwung WW %wipiliri Patrick McConvell
wax cera cera other tyikala loan Jingulu perhaps proto beeswax WW %tyikala perhaps proto beeswax Patrick McConvell
white paint culture-mythology yatu inheritance Patrick McConvell
windbreak other purtun loan Jaru Patrick McConvell
yandy (n) culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
school escuela escola acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
net subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
paper papel papel acculturation mirlimirli loan Mantharda via other lgs; also pakarli 'paperbark' WW %milimili Patrick McConvell
corpse food linytyarr unknown Patrick McConvell
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kukkuk unknown onomatapoeic coining Patrick McConvell
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology wapaapa loan Wambaya with semantic shift Wam. Wapa 'skin' cf. Gurindji and other languages warrpa 'bat's wing' WW %wapawapa Patrick McConvell
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tyina-tyina loan direction unknown cf. tyina foot many Pny lgs Patrick McConvell
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tyamana semantic shift <foot Patrick McConvell
medicine narcotics missing lamparr2 is a plant Patrick McConvell
earth oven food KURRKU Inheritance WW %kurrku Patrick McConvell
policeman polícia policía acculturation munungku loan Jaminjung string, semantic shift WW %munungku Patrick McConvell
cat gato gato acculturation ngatyukayin unknown Patrick McConvell
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation turlkkatyi inheritance bang + SUFF complex Patrick McConvell
hat sombero chapéu dress murrkartu loan Jaru Patrick McConvell
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kantata unique Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture muntiri unique Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture jikurnu loan Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool kiyarri inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture jarlangup yuwa- unique Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture marang loan Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool kurrupartu loan Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool warlmayi inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool mirlarrang loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
house other marru loan Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium mobile no