turtle (generic)

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Testudines trah'-tah Turtle loan Yokuts Yowlumne traw-tah; Tinlinne tal'-to-loi; Palewyami trŏ'-tah (so Proto-Yokutsan) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 2 2 0 0 1 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Testudines an-not'-se (RM) enna-tsi turtle (not here) inheritance *ayaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2539 (2008:316), with na- increment like in Tumpisa Shoshone same other complex has -tsi ABS Merriam 61:49 2 2 0 0 1 no
Cahuilla Testudines ʔáyilʸ ˈʔajiʎ turtle inheritance *ʔayaC Uto-Aztecan S2359 (Stubbs 2009:316) narrower (this is land tortoise, not water turtle. Generally in UA it is Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) other complex ˈʔaji-ʎ -7aʃ "pet" possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) Seiler&Hioki 1979:200 no info 2 shells used for rattles 2 no info hunted All roasted 0 1 Mojave Desert and Sonoran Desert Strong preference for alluvial fans, washes, canyons where they can dig dens in soft soil no
Central Sierra Miwok Testudines 7awán:aTa- turtle inheritance *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:60 WW %awan other complex -Ta an unproductive suffix (Broadbent p. 114) Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 1 no
Chemehuevi Testudines i'; pah-i ɂájA (JPH), paɂájA (JPH) Turtle inheritance *ayaC Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2359 (2008:316) narrower (tortoises only; with pa- prefix is water turtle) underived Merriam 59:535 2 2 0 0 1 no
Chumash Barbareno Testudines ʃaq turtle unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:184 2 2 0 0 1 no
Chumash Ineseno Testudines shahk'-ă turtle inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:17 2 2 0 0 1 no
Chumash Obispeno Testudines tsuwini tortuga (NOT sea turtle) unique underived Harrington III:1:0295 2 2 0 0 1 no
Chumash Ventureno Testudines ʃaq turtle inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Mamet 2008:57 2 2 0 0 1 no
Cocopa Testudines xnya·r turtle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa xnaal; Yuma axnaraxna/r Halpern 3:207 same underived Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 1 no
Comanche Testudines wakarée; wakate?ee Charney 25 turtle inheritance *ayaC Uto-Aztecan the -ee is from ay! Stubbs 2539 (2008:316) The wakata part looks like the UA “frog” word Stubbs 940 WW %wakat same underived etymologicall a phrase, frog-turtle Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 2 0 0 1 no
Cupeño Testudines ayily ˈʔajiʎ desert tortoise, turtle inheritance *ʔayaC Uto-Aztecan S2359 (Stubbs 2009:316) broader (includes tortoise-shell rattle) other complex ˈʔaji-ʎ turtle-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals; if rattle, no classifier Hill & Nolasquez 1973:152 no info 2 tortoise shells used to make rattles 2 no info hunted all shells retained (Lu. did not eat the animal, Cahuilla dia 0 1 ritual paraphernailia traded California and Southwest diverse habitats no
Esselen Testudines missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
Gabrielino Testudines pah'-ar” 72-79, 60-429 ˈpa:ʔa:r (?) turtle inheritance *pa:-*ʔayaC Uto-Aztecan S2359 (Stubbs 2009:316) same derived ˈpa:-ʔa:-r water-turtle-npn (is this synchronically productive?) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 2 couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony; shells used for rattles 2 McC p. 116 1 broth for aging (of a mud turtle) hunted all shells saved for rattles 0 1 Western North America Diverse habitats no
Iipay 'Aa Testudines ɂehnaally turtle, turtle rattle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa xnaal; Yuma axnaraxna/r Halpern 3:207 broader (turtle and shell rattle) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 1 no
Kawaiisu Testudines Ɂaya turtle (not water turtle) inheritance *ayaC Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2359 (2008:316) broader (includes tortoises) underived Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 1 no
Kiliwa Testudines xnaal Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizi), rattle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Cocopa xnya.r; Yuma axnaraxna/r Halpern 3:207 broader (tortoise and tortoise shell rattle) underived Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 1 no
Kitanemuk Testudines kopotat ˈkopotat turtle loan Yuman see Stubbs 2360 (Stubbs 2009:317). These forms are ONLY in Serrano, Kitanemuk (which is same language, really). Possibly the ko- element is related to ko in “back, shell”. But note Yavapai kpít, Mojave kapet “tortoise, turtle” broader (includes tortoises) other complex kopota-t turtle-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:361 no info 2 shells often used for rattles, but the rattle of this area may be cocoons or deer hooves 2 no info no info no info no info 0 1 Western North America Diverse habitats no
Lake Miwok Testudines meléeja turtle unique Pmiw only Bodega Dic; Callaghan 1997:60 underived Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 1 no
Luiseño Testudines páa'ila ʹpa:Ɂila turtle inheritance *ʔayaC (with *pa:- Uto-Aztecan S2359 (Stubbs 2009:316) narrower (California Terrapin) derived ʹpa:-Ɂi-la where Ɂi is what's left of Ɂaji; water/big-turtle-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999 661 Old family name (Harrington) 2 couplet: paa'ila, tamya$ut (the ritual mortar?); rattle made of shell of land tortoise 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info hunted all collected for shell, used as rattles 0 1 ceremonial regalia bought and sold Western North America diverse habitats no
Maidu Testudines 7ó 7opánoky turtle unique relative clause one who carries rock on the back Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 1 no
Mojave Testudines kapet turtle; primarily, desert turtle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai kpít; and note Serrano/Kitanemuk krprtt, kopotat; Yuma axnaraxna/r “turtle” Halpern 3:207 is cognate in Proto-Yuman; Yuma kwape/T “land turtle” Halpern 3:208 broader (turtles and tortoises) underived Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 1 no
Mutsun Testudines 7awničmin tortoise (Mason 1916;427 turtle inheritance *7aw... Utian Callaghan 1962:106, compares Pmie *7aw:an(a); Possibly Yok-Utian cf. Pyn *$awa-xitH Callaghan 1997:60 WW %awan relative clause -min "one who is/has" Okrand 1977:138 2 2 0 0 1 no
Nisenan Testudines 7awan turtle loan Sierra Miwok Miwokan *7awan:a, *7aw:an(a) Callaghan 1997:609 and Bodega Dic WW %awan underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 0 0 1 no
Northern Paiute Testudines missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
Northern Sierra Miwok Testudines 7awan:aTa- turtle inheritance *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- Eastern Miwokan Bodega Dic, Callaghan 1997:60 WW %awan other complex -Ta Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 1 no
Plains Miwok Testudines 7awan:aj, 7aw:anata- turtle inheritance *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- Eastern Miwokan Bodega Dic., Callaghan 1997:609 WW %awan other complex -:aj is derivational suffix Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 1 no
Salinan A Testudines Ta:wó:y turtle unique Salinan If /T/ is articular prefix, may be related to Miwokan “turtle” words like Mie *7awan:a-, WW %awan other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probablyl Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:86 2 2 0 0 1 no
Salinan M Testudines Tawə/ turtle loan Miwokan e.g. Pmie *7awan:a- WW %awan other complex probably /T-/ on vowe initial Mason 1918:125 2 2 0 0 1 no
Seri (Comcaac) Testudines xtamóosni desert tortoise unique narrower (desert tortoise only; mud turtle is a different word) underived but note moosni (caguama) Comcaac Dictionary 599 2 2 0 0 1 no
Serrano Testudines qorport-t turtle loan Yuman see Stubbs 2360 (Stubbs 2008:317). These forms are ONLY in Serrano, Kitanemuk (which is same language, really). Possibly the ko- element is related to ko in “back, shell”. But note Yavapai kpít, Mojave kapet other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:50 2 2 0 0 1 no
Southern Paiute Testudines ɂayA Turtle inheritance *ayaC Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2359 (2008:316) same underived Sapir 1930:554 2 2 0 0 1 no
Southern Sierra Miwok Testudines 7aw:anta- turtle inheritance *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- Callaghan 1997:60 WW %awan underived etymologically the -ta comes off Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 1 no
Southern Ute Testudines ?ayá-pų-cI turtle inheritance *ayaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2359 (2008:316) same other complex has -pɨci ABS (Givon splits, Sapir doesn't) Givon 1979 2 2 0 0 1 no
Tübatulabal Testudines kōyōt ko:ˈjo:t turtle unique Probably from *ko-ya-wɨ (or something like that); needs work. cf. koikoyoT, in several forms of Yokuts, but does not reconstruct to Yokutsan or Yok-Utian same other complex ko:ˈjo:-t turtle-npn Hill 2010:35 no info 2 2 “A difference of opinion” (Voegelin 1938:12) no info hunted all no info 0 1 Western North America Diverse habitats no
Tümpisa Shoshone Testudines ainna, enna turtle, tortoise inheritance *ayaC Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2539 (2008:316) broader (includes water turtles and land tortoises) other complex ai-nna tortoise -ING ??? Dayley 1989:312 2 2 0 0 1 no
Wappo Testudines míče turtle (CHM confirms 52:577) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 1 no
Washo Testudines gawánda7li7 turtle (CHM), desert turtle (WPD loan Northern Sierra Miwok Mins 7awan:aTa-; Pmie *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- WW %awan other complex has a suffix -li7 on the loan, and a prefix g- Merriam 55:311; WPD 2 2 0 0 1 no
Western Mono Testudines ooGa clam shell, coin purse, padlock, turtle loan Yokuts Note Chukchansi o>k “freshwater mussel” broader (lots of metaphoric extension, see gloss) underived Note that this has no classifier, but “freshwater mussels”, from same source, has it Bethel et al.:117 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 1 no
Wintu Testudines xokohas mud turtle unique underived probably complex but no root given even by Pitkin, -as has wrong suffix vowel Schlichter 1981 2 2 0 0 1 no
Yavapai Testudines kpít turtle inheritance Note Mojave kapet unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 1 no
Yokuts Palewyami Testudines trŏ'-tah turtle loan Yowlumne Yokuts Yawelmani T'od/to', Yawdanchi Toto is only similar form in Kroeber; presumably a Nim-Yokuts form borrowed into Palewyami (perhaps a nonce borrowing by this late generation speaker) same underived Merriam 58:529 2 2 0 0 1 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi Testudines Toto turtle inheritance Nim-Yokuts also in Yawel, Palew is probably bilingual nonce loan same underived Kroeber 1961:205 2 2 0 0 1 no
Yokuts Yowlumne Testudines T'OdO:' turtle inheritance Nim-Yokuts In Yowl, Yawd in Kroeber same underived Newman 1944:132 2 2 0 0 1 no
Yuki Testudines só-pŭ Cs, sop B, so-pah' MWO turtle inheritance *sop'(a7) Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -a7 animate in 2 of 3 forms Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 1 no
Yuma Testudines kwape/T “ Desert turtle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai kpít; and note Serrano/Kitanemuk krprtt, kopotat; Yuma axnaraxna/r “turtle” Halpern 3:207 is cognate in Proto-Yuman unknown Merriam 61:463, Halpern 3:208 2 2 0 0 1 no
Bardi (many species) goorlil goorlil inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Bunuba (many species) waywurru waywurru loan Jarragan underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Burarra (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Dhangu (many species) miyapunu miyapunu inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
Dhay’yi (many species) missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Dhuwal (many species) miyapunu miyapunu inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
Djinang (many species) gargiṉingi gargirniŋi unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gajirrabeng (many species) moonggoong mungkung unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gooniyandi (many species) wilarrabi wilarrabi inheritance wilarrapi Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gumatj (many species) miyapunu ma:ṯala unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gupapuyngu (many species) miyapunu ganawuyma unknown simplex collective for all sea mammals 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gurindji (many species) narrinytyila narrinytyila unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Guugu Yimidhirr (many species) missing missing missing /buunhtha/ 'male turtle' and /maamiingu/ 'female' poss. define a taxon. 0 1 0 0 0 no
Jaminjung (many species) kuwarlamparla kuwarlamparla unknown also in Gurindji underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Jaru (many species) barlaan barlaan inheritance parlawan Ngumpin uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
Jingulu (many species) warttyayi warttyayi unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Karajarri (many species) jalayapulu jalayapulu unique derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kija (many species) tarntal tarntal unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Koko-Bera (many species) pángarr; mim- mim-pángarr turtle (sp. undetermined) inheritance *pangVrr pSWPaman KThaay to Kurrtjar along the coast; not inland Poss. prototypical, but definitely one sp. among several; wárrvñ 'turtle shell' is poss. criterial for turtles as a taxon simplex
Kuku-Thaypan (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kuku-Yalanji (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kurtjar (many species) yaangirr yaangirr loan direction unknown *pangarr Loan status (to pangarr words) is a guess underived eeny 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kuuk Thaayorre (many species) paangarr; minh- paangarr; minh- loan *pangVrr Yir-Yoront pSWPaman (?) YYoront pengvrr or KKaper pangvrr poss. Species not given underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mbabaram (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Miriwung (many species) ngulurrng ngulurrng unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Ngandi (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Ngarinyin (many species) gonyorri gonyorri inheritance *kantyorri proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
Ngumbarl (many species) koolibel koolibel inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nimanburru (many species) gulibil gulibil inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nyikina (many species) kularrabulu kularrabulu semantic shift ‘western’ derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nyulnyul (many species) gurlibil gurlibil inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Pakanh (many species) kuypuke; minha- minha-kuypuke unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Rembarrnga (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Ritharrngu (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Tjaapukay (many species) badjigal pacikal turtle inheritance *pacikal pYTj To Yidiny /bajigal/ 'FW turtle' (Elseya latisternum) underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Uw-Olkol (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Uw-Oykangand (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Walmajarri (many species) jangkurr jangkurr unknown cf. Marrngu tyangkurr 'hat' underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Wardaman (many species) gornorrong gornorrong unknown uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
Wik Ngathan (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Worrorra (many species) diyagurri unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yan-nhangu (many species) ḏopun garriwa unique also ‘miyapunu’ simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yawuru (many species) minydyinyngurru XXgl 'big head turtle' minydyinyngurru XXgl 'big head turtle' unique derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yidiny (many species) missing missing missing /bajigal/ 'FW turtle (sp: Elseya latisternum) (TC)' is cognate w Tjaap /badjigal/, the generic term for turtles 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yir-Yoront (many species) pengrr; minh- & loql; minh- minh-pengrr & minh-loql inheritance *pangVrr pSWPaman KThaay to Kurrtjar along the coast; not inland There is no generic term for turtles/tortoises, but /minh-penrr/ is poss. prototypical. underived 0 1 0 Dug from mud with yamstick; post-Wet, Dry, & pre-wet. Eggs post-Wet & Dry women; also men cooked in ashes 0 0 no