Wappo

Family
Isolate (NAM)
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
wao
Location
38.25°, -122.50°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location te/ymu “above, on top” loan Sawyer 1965 except where noted Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other mu/l unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar wey unknown Thompson and Park (T&S) Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body lu/lu7 (Napa dialect) loan Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body no/kha unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment he/lpipol' unknown Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -h unknown Jane Hill
back espalda costas body k'u/lih inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7u/wa loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body k'i/T'a inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 7oph ph is on same line unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality tu/ch'a (also “old”), singular ch is c hachek loan Jane Hill
bite morder morder body na7k'a/shi7 unknown Jane Hill
black negro preto colour co/:we loan direction unknown Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body neph unknown Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body phu/y'i7 inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ch'o/she sh is s hachek unknown Sawyer 1991:48 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body c'i/ti inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body hu/y inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body mehshi/k'she7 unknown Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment sho/y'shi7 (vi) loan Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body nahc'o/l'si7 unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human 7e/yk'a “child, baby, son” unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion mehya/se7 unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment c'u/m unknown Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality cHacH cH is on same line (that is, not c hachek) loan Jane Hill
come venir vir motion te- “toward” unknown Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact k'o/-m'i7 “cook, boil” unknown Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mehnit'a unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental me:ha/y'i7 unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental ka/m' loan direction unknown Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact T'ak'i7 “cut, mow” inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time hi/nta loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state cho/7el-ya:mi7 “going to die” unknown Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact 7o/n'i7 unknown Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna lu/hca (uncertain, maybe “fox”) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality pi-co:/we loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental hincho/hme7 “sleep-go” inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7uk'shi7 loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality wi/shi inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality shahlah “toothless” (of knives) inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment puTh inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body c'e/ma loan direction unknown Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment cHow unknown Jane Hill
eat comer comer body pa/7mi7 loan Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna p'eTha7 H is lc in orig unknown Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body hu/c'i loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body che/y'u inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion me/khshi7 unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality te/h-la unknown Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body hu/m-is loan Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship 7aya (requires prefix) unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental no:-c'e/u:-she7 unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna kha/pe loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment he/l unknown Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna 7e/w inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion te/h-she7 unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment 7o-ca/we inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion ho-yo/k'-a:la7 “fly around, sg.” unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pho/hi loan Jane Hill
foot pie body phe7 inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora sho/mo7 sh is s hachek unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality hu:-shi/-7i:ya unknown Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state he/u:se7 unknown Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body t'o/l loan direction unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body me- “hand, by hand” inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar he/phi (nearby); he/, ce/7 unknown Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body hu/7 loan Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental ka/hshi7 inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality 7ohta/7i:ya unknown Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion mo/nse7 inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact 7ohwa/Thihsi7 “hit or strike once” unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ten-mi7 unknown E1993 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar 7iha/7 unknown Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar 7a/h loan direction unknown Jane Hill
if si se grammar cel' unknown T&S Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ne/we:la unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body hame inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body nahmo/yi:si7 unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact T'a/-m'i7 unknown E1993 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ha/T-is-khi7 unknown E1993 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment mey-le/le unique Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental ka/t'she7 unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment hol-pe/l loan direction unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body na/c'e unknown Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body T'a/7\ inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion mu/ku:-khi7 (sg.) unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body hu/h-shi7 unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body kokh (also core, heart) inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality k'e/na inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna hi/y' (head) unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body cho/pha loan Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human k'e/w unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna k'e/shu “meat, deer” loan Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment hi/n (also “sun”) loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -na/7a loan Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body nan inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ya/we inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body hu/7aych unknown Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality shi/k'a unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body hoch “front of neck” loan Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality shi/c' unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time 7u/chu:a7 unknown Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar hi/7i (both vowels nasalized) unknown Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body shi/ma loan Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality na:-ch'e/w'-is unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number pa/wa, pa- inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other ch'ach'e/l'i7 unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar hi/na unknown Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ka/li:sha7 “to hurt, ache, pain” (vb) loan Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human k'a/: loan Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact wa/Thmi7 “hit or strike several times, beat” unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment ma/kh unknown Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour chi/pe unknown Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body wi/ti unknown Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture mi/cH inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora lu/k'i unknown Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality k'u/pa loan direction unknown Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment nu/y' inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ca/u:si7 unknown Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact ch'ath-i7 loan E1993 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental na/wshi7 inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality shahka/li (see “tooth”) inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact 7oh-T'o/h-e7 loan Jane Hill
short corto curto quality mi/te loan direction unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body huke/ce:ma unknown Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ke/lshi7 unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state yo/khi7 “seated, it's sitting” inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body chi/la loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tu/yhuwela unknown Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body hin- (hinto/khi7 “sleeping”) loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality kut'i:ya (singular) loan Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment cHi/n unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body k'u/hsha7 unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body ch'ahlu/chi7 “spit out” unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact hoch'a/m'i7 unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mesu/ti:si7 unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact 7o-t'ap-mi7 unknown E1993 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state le/p-u:-khi7 (sg.) unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment so/ke unknown Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other nu/hta7 “stolen” unknown Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ho/l loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment le/l loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body 7ot'-shi7 inheritance E1993 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body me/ye loan Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body ko/kh-ey-khi7 inheritance E1993 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion c'e/se7 inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body t'o/nuk unknown Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ce/7 inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar heko:to, ceko:to unknown Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality liy'e (like wood) unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality ch'o/le “skinny” unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental huhmo/ishe7 unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar he/ loan Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi/7 inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number hopo/k'a unknown Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body hoch “front of neck” loan Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact mahke/k'e7 “throw once” unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment lahya/ke unknown Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact 7ohwi/y'ti7 unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body na7ac'e unknown Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body sha/h inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ch'o-chit-el' unknown E1993 Jane Hill
two dos dois number ho/pi inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body 7i/k'e7 unknown Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion ho-cho/h-a:la7 (of one human) unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment me/y loan Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar 7i/si inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 7i/si inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality shichHelkhi7 unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar tha/l unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar 7i/ha7 unknown Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar 7iTa unknown Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour k'ay'el loan direction unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar ma/y inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship -misi inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment she/7i unknown Jane Hill
wing ala asa body c'i\c'a:-la\k'a7-wiy' unknown Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human me/t'e loan Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other ta/whal' loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body hona:c'a/se (n?) unknown Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour wi/cilo:-he\la loan direction unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mi/si inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. híle abalone (CHM confirms 52:577) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae hólo:t'ew' ant (CHM confirms 52:579) unique Note Wappo hun-tum?? phrase holo:- presumably some kind of critter element; see “snake” Sawyer 1965 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana moo'-oo antelope loan unknown Hah! The wanderwort antelope word; Salinan A mui; Widespread Hokan antelope/bighorn word, see all the way to Seri haamoja; Cocopa mɂu·ł “antelope, probably related to proto-Yuman *?-mu(w) “bighorn sheep”, perhaps *ahat-m?u·ł ...?? An old arealism? Y WW %mo: underived Merriam 52:565) 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus hen'-nĕh badger unique Note Tubatulabal pen-ne: (CHM) underived Merriam 52:565) 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus ah-wā-ko'-mah bald eagle unique Note Yokutsan owik “bald eagle phrase elements unknown Merriam 52:569 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata 7óp'el wild pigeon (CHM confirms 52:569) inheritance Yukian & Wappo Yukian *7opli Schlichter 1985 (This is the kind of stem alternation that Elmendorf 1993, 1997 discusses underived Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp t'áka:la bat unique Note Wintun *dehe:la (?); Salinan s-tamka:l; southern Chumash makal WW %tamakala underived Sawyer gives all nouns in object forms, which may involve deletion of root material but is the citation form prefered by his consultant Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor meyna7á:we beaver? CHM has as “otter”, beaver also as mā'-nah mo'-lah 52:565 unique phrase water-X Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp mel' beetle, striped Lachnosterna) unique underived Merriam 52:579 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus šóne round tule (CHM confirms 52:589 inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *son; Elmendorf 1993:211 underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis šíla skunk (CHM confirms 52:565 unique Note Yukian *sihs-kin (behind-stink) underived Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus lúhcha fox? wolf? CHM has “fox” (Urocyon) 52:563, wolf is wim'-mah) loan Pomo Proto-pomo *du:cá “fox” (McLendon 1973:77 underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna c'íc'a bird (CHM confirms 52:577) unique Pomo *c'ihtá, but c'i bird words are all over the place in California and elsewhere. underived Sawyer believes -a is an old suffix Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus chíca bear (CHM also has hōl-tum' “black bear” unique underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus yéniš jackrabbit (CHM confirms 52:567 unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus tse'-tsow wo'-ko blackberry (R. vitifolius) unique phrase elements unknown Merriam 52:583 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? ho-lā'-lik Blue grouse unique underived Merriam 52:569 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus pah'-mah-lah bobcat loan Patwin Wintun *p'a ..l ..m-; Salinan Tam'ul, Mutsun tammalah WW %talom underived Merriam 52:563 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera c'ilakhápe butterfly (Merriam confirms 52:579) unique phrase elements unknown Sawyer 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus tsoots California condor unique Note Kashaya, Central Pomo forms from *kukHi “buzzard” where k, kH become ch?? underived Merriam 52:569 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? c'áy bluejay (CHM confirms 52:569) loan Pomo Yukian *č'ə7əy; but Pomo c'ayi, ca”yi better; Wintun čayi(:)k, Mis Tajič, Miw *$aji:ch, Nisenan ch'ajit “bluejay” WW %chaj underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pálič' red-headed woodpecker (CHM confirms California woodpecker 52:571) loan unknown areal form, see Troike ms. WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. hōl-tsel'-mah chipmunk unique phrase hol “tree” Merriam 52:567 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota cékhe:ma swallow (CHM confirms 52:571 cliff swallow and barn swallow) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana méyc'ic'a mudhen (CHM confirms 52:575) unique phrase water-bird Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii hóčha cottontail (CHM says is brush rabbit, cottontail not there) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. pah'-to cottonwood inheritance Yukian-Wappo Merriam has pahtah'-pah al'-way for Mil (57:533); Yuki ; pątme7 WW %pa(t) ~ %lapat other complex Nearly all tree words end in -o, Sawyer 1991 says is reduction of compound with hol “tree” Merriam 52:581 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans húT' coyote, crazy unique underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ká7 crow (CHM confirms 52:569) unique Miwokan, Costanoan forms similar underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus (hìntil') k'éšu deer (lit. “Indian meat”) unique gentil “gentile, non-missionized Indian” underived “There appears to be no single word for deer” (perhaps taboo?) (Sawyer 1965:28)see “other notes” Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana náyo digger pine (CHM confirms 52:581) unique other complex -o for tree Sawyer 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris háyu dog unique similar forms in Patwin, Lake Miwok, nearly all Pomo; but Pmi; see Bodega Dic, C2001:325 WW %kaju underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura 7ápis mourning dove (CHM confirms 52:569) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae k'áya duck (CHM confirms as any duck 52:575) loan Pomo Proto-Pomo *q'a:yá(n) McLendon 1973:73 underived Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus k'áTe elderberry tree (CHM confirms 52:583) loan Pomo Note Northern Pomo kiTē “elderberry”; Mil kiTen; Callaghan 1962:103 also notes Mu xitna; underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus sóT'o:ko elk (CHM confirms 52:565) loan Yokuts Yokutsan *$ohkaj WW %sok underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna 7éw fish (CHM confirms 52:579) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *həw; note Costanoan hu:yi underived Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera č'óTe flea (CHM confirms 52:579) unique Note Yukian *T'ohk (a/i) underived Sawyer 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. c'ú:y flicker, yellowhammer (CHM confirms 52:569) unique Note Wintu *č'ilew, Utian *Tiw(:)a. Probably areally linked to Utian form. underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera chíw fly, housefly (CHM confirms 52:579) unique Note Yukian *č'op, *č'opi, *č'opa underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon lúhcha fox? wolf? loan Pomo Proto-pomo *du:cá “fox” (McLendon 1973:77 underived Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna k'áTik' frog (CHM confirms 52:577) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos lolopátih eagle (CHM lĕh'-pit; lĕ-pits 52:569) unique reduplicated Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer hána:koTa bullsnake (CHM confirms 52:577) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *hunk'an'; note Mutsun ko:Tehwa phrase elements unknown Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) šíy'e grass, weed (CHM confirms 52:589) unique Looks like Miwokan “green” words underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera cíy' grasshopper (CHM confirms (he has a binomial, tsel che) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. cíhma squirrel, ground squirrel (CHM confirms 52:565) loan Pomo Pn čimát' “tree squirrel”; Pomo *ku:maT' “squirrel” McLendon 1973:92 underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. hóth tree squirrel (CHM confirms 52:565) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus hutúku:lu moth (?), owl sp., hoot owl (CHM confirms great horned owl 52:569) loan Miwok Pmi *tuk:úli Callaghan Bodega Dic; Nim-Yokuts huttulu- WW %(hu)tukul underived hu- may be some prefix on the loan form Sawyer 1965 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis chíca grizzly bear (CHM confirms 52:563) unique Note Wintun **č'il underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawa:yu horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae cími:To hummingbird (CHM confirms 52:573) unique Note Eastern Miwokan cimit:olo “mockingbird” ?? Is this too much semantic change? Elicitation error? underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. lúče tobacco unique underived Sawyer 1965 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic č'ále bug unique underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp she-mah' nah-pe cho'-cho, she'-man-nap'-pe tso'-tso Junco unique phrase Merriam 52:573 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera híy' head louse (CHM confirms 52:579) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos k'áya Merriam confirms as also mallard 52:575 loan Pomo underived Merriam 52:575 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. čáno manzanita (CHM confirms A. manzanita 52:583) unique other complex Sawyer 1965 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis néth plant from which string is made, milkweed-like in exuding a white sap when broken (CHM confirms A. fascicularis 52:587) unique underived Sawyer 1965:80 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera c'óth mosquito (CHM confirms 52:579) unique Note Yukian *T'ohk (a/i) “flea”; Utian *shoj:u (Callaghan 1986:58) underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera hutúku:lu moth (?), owl loan Miwok Pmi *tuk:úli Callaghan Bodega Dic; Nim-Yokuts huttulu-; see “owl” (16) underived Sawyer 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor wíma panther? (CHM has kah'-tah-mah, wim-mah as “wolf”) unique Wintu wima “grizzly” underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus tsah'-tsah mountain quail unique reduplicated Merriam 52:569 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. kúčiš mussel unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? kah'-chah crested jay (Cyanocitta) unique usually something like /kay/, so not obviously areal underived Merriam 52:569) 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum pe'-ne-ne small clam unique reduplicated Merriam 52:579 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys čóya gopher (CHM confirms Thomomys 52:567) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *koya7 Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum k'ícu:ma poison oak (CHM confirms 52:585) unique Note MiL 7ittum; similarity noted in Bodega Dictionary by Callaghan other complex Sawyer believes -ma is instrumental, but cannot identify k'icu: Sawyer 1965 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. č'ép'iš rattlesnake, worm (CHM confirms 52:577) unique Note Costanoan 7ippi, Esselen ipishiksha underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp missing missing missing 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus č'ákh blackbird, red-winged blackbird (CHM confirms 52:571) loan unknown areal; “ Hill Patwin c'akatu “black bird”” 1965:204); Wintu L'ul č'ač'at; Mil c'akattu/a; but note Pmis *chakup-:a- (Callaghan 1997:58); Nim-Yokuts *č'ax WW %chak underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis shek' red-tailed hawk unique underived Merriam 52:569 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus cúch roadrunner (CHM we'-kah 52:569) unique Yuki o-chaw'-e MWO underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis k'aya loan Pomo underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica c'àpe:na7k'óy'a wormwood, a kind of Artemisia (CHM confirms 52:587) unique phrase elements unknown Sawyer 1965 2 2 1 used for poultices and soaking swollen feet Sawyer 1964:122 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss melkháw salmon (CHM confirms 52:579) unique phrase -haw is probably the "fish" word, what is melk? Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? tōn-nŏk; tawn'-nuk-kaw scaly lizard unique underived Merriam 52:577 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna holo:wík'a snake (CHM confirms 52:577) unique Note Lake Miwok holoomaj “rattlesnake” phrase holo:- presumably some kind of critter element; see “ant” Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum o-kah'-le soaproot, C. pomeridianum inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *kəlam underived Merriam 52:589 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco she'-nes-nah'-tsah, se'-nis-nats'-să Sparrow hawk unique phrase Merriam 52:569 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae 7éc'e spider (CHM confirms 52:579) loan Pomo Proto-Pomo *7ikHa(:) McLendon 1973:92 underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis koo'-too sheel/shil little spotted skunk unique phrase Merriam 52:565) 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae lelekópa toad (CHM confirms 52:577) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yuki al-kap'-to MWO reduplicated Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) hól stick, tree, wood inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *7ol; Elmendort 1993:207 (but perhaps areal) underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura máya:t'a buzzard (CHM confirms 52:569) unique Yukian *7ayam -- metath? underived Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines míče turtle (CHM confirms 52:577) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia híšo live oak (Q. wislizeni CHM 52:581) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yuki ha:s, hah”-sĕ; note Yokutsan forms like “esin” for Black Oak; Sawyer 1991:33 says -i:š- is “oak” other complex -o for tree Sawyer 1965 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata p'í:pho white oak, valley oak (CHM confirms 52:581) unique -ho from -hol "tree" according to Sawyer 1991 other complex -o for tree Sawyer 1965 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica pípi quail unique Note Wintu pʰites from *pHit “feathers”,Yokutsan *T'iphith “mountain quail”, but more likely sound-imitative reduplicated Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli Túpu:lu7; kú:Te7 Washington clam shell bead; Washington clam unique underived Sawyer 1965:8 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis lókh goose (not domestic) (CHM confirms as 'all geese” and Canada goose 52:575 loan unknown Note Patwin lak'a7 “small goose”74; but this a very widespread form; Pcos *la:lak, Nisenan la:lak', Maidy lylyk' (Callaghan 1997:59), Costanoan *la:lak WW %lala ~ %lak underived Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos huts-poo'-e brown Pelican (Pelecanus californicus) unique phrase elements unknown Merriam 52:575 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica méhwa wild grapevine (CHM confirms 52:589) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Elmendorf 1997:80 (Yuki mu7umam (and note Miwok muTe) underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) šiwáli:ya7 oats (CHM confirms 52:589 for wild oats) loan Spanish Sp. cebadilla WW %cebada underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica tet, tāt wild rose unique underived Merriam 52:585 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) káča7 wild sunflower, Wyethia agustifolia unique underived Sawyer 1965:80 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. chùpe pót'e white willow (for baskets) (CHM confirms S. hindsiana 52:583) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *sip(i/a); Elmendort 1993:211 phrase willow gray Sawyer 1965 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. 7óhka rat, woodrat (CHM confirms) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) lee'; no'; no'-mah-shaw'-e hairy caterpillar unique underived Merriam 52:579 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper 7ohna angleworm, earthworm (Merriam has chah'-lā “smooth worm” 52:579) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. néw yellowjacket (CHM confirms 52:579) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Elmendorf 1993:233; Yukian *naw' underived Sawyer 1965 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia hoo-we'-yu-kah tse-tsah yellowbird (Astragalinus tristis) unique phrase Merriam 52:573 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna ho/lo:t'ew' loan direction unknown Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna c'i/c'a loan Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna cHi/w unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna ha/yu loan Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna game unknown Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna k'e/shu “meat, deer” loan Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna holo:wi/k'a loan Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna 7ec'e loan Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food yékhe acorn soup, mush unknown simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
ball game food nah-líy'i7 shinny game unknown compound Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress cáT'e7 feather dance hat unknown worn with a headband called meynaléwukh Sawyer 1965:27 simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool méche arrow inheritance Proto-Yukian cf. Yuki miT 'shoot' simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material táka7 basket (generic) loan Wintu reconstructs in Proto-Wintun but glossed there as 'hat' simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material Túpu:lu7 clamshell bead loan Coast Miwok form from Bodega Mi (Callaghan 1968:14) simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool lúk'a bow, gun (in Sawyer) unknown somewhat resemblant to Yuki forms, but only in CV simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport khéye boat unknown simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool t'ak'a7 burden net, pack strap unknown simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation wote:ya bottle, any piece of glass loan Spanish WW %botella simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation pápel' paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology k'anitúč'ma chief, boss, leader unknown derived productive suffix -ma; probably also compound Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress may'šukháthe:ma breech clout, diaper, sanitary napkin unknown compound, derived I have no idea what elements are but it's too long to be canonical Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
cook food food k'ó-m'i7 to cook by boiling unknown compound Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
corpse food k'à: čhó7el cirosem dead person unknown phrase Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology 7olólmi7 dance unknown looks loan-y, may have Wintun 7ol 'up' prefix simpex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool hác'e digging stick, crowbar unknown simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool mèy táye:ma basket for dipping, dipper unknown derived, phrase mey 'water' Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology hinčóhme to dream (lit. sleep-go) inheritance *7in 'sleep', *ko7 'go' Proto-Yukian compound Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology thúm'e:ma drum loan Miwok and note Nisenan dul, Wintu tHudi derived Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation káyi:na7 chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
earring other c'éma:wihli7 earring (lit ear-bell/rattle) unique c'ema: 'ear' probably cognate with PNY *shym, note also Ppomo *xima:nY, usually shima in daughter lgs. compound Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other čimíne:ya7 fireplace loan Spanish WW %chiminea simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other hélhol firewood inheritance Proto-Yukian compound fire-wood Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food 7ew yékhše7 go fishing (fish hunt) unknown 7ew presumably cognate w/ Yuki haw 'fish' phrase Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool 7ewlék'e:ma thèti unknown phrase, derived FIND Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool 7ewlék'e:ma fishhook unknown derived Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
acorn bread food šáwo acorn bread loan Patwin note Y.Yawl. Sah-sah--Wanderwort? WW %saw simplex Elmendorf 1998 Jane Hill
wheat food tíli:ku7 wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology lúliš flute w/ 4-6 holes of maple or elderberry wood loan Patwin This is widespread, it's in Mis, maybe onomatopoeia simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other wey, teph black bone (= obsidian), white bone in grass game unknown simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7unuchápa ghost, spirit unknown also k'á7k'a7 'ghost, spook' simplex My guess is that it's compound but parts unidentifiable Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology helhu:téyu place of a grave fire, funeral pyre unknown compound hel'fire Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology yómto7 shaman, doctor loan unknown widepsread; in Mil, also note Hill Patwin yomta, Southern Pomo yomta 'doctor' WW %jom simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food túšhuméy honey (bee head water unknown compound Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
house other čhúya house unknown simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food ho-léw'-i7 to hunt unknown compound Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuči:ya knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
mat culture-material phípa matting, woven matting unknown simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool lel-tókel' bedrock or slab mortar loan direction unknown Lake Miwok compound lel 'rock' Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
necklace other káse necklace, bead string loan Coast Miwok Callaghan 1968 Bodega Miwok Dict simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool c'íti awl inheritance Proto-Yukian and note Utia *cylas?? simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool č'óla pestle inheritance Proto-Yukian simplex Elmendorf 1996 Jane Hill
pinole food wá7te pinole inheritance Proto-Yukian Yuki wo7oT simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other lúče-lel pipe (see'tobacco') unique compound lel 'rock' Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology yét'iš rattle made from cocoons unknown simplex but note 'sh ending on 'stirring stick' Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food čúme salt inheritance Proto-Yukian simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology may-khúy'e-ma clothing unknown compound, derived Elmendorf 1996 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material šone mayhuhéle:ma apron-like short protective arment made of round tule unknown derived, phrase Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool léw-ma snare for deer unknown derived Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology 7oč'íkukh song, sweathouse song unknown copound Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool t'áp'e:ma a spear unknown derived Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
stirring stick food wóliš stirring stick unknown simplex but note -sh ending on 'rattle' Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture THéTi cord, rope inheritance Proto-Yukian simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material t'úku7 sack, small bag unknown mentioned in Callaghan 1969 Lake Miwok Dict as possible source for Mil word for 'purse, small sack, etc' simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation káwa:ču7 sugar loan Spanish simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
sweathouse other hóc'a sweathouse unknown simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics lúče tobacco unique simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material phí7-ma winnowing basket unknown derived Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress phè7 cháp'e shoe unknown phrase Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics wénu7 medicine loan Lake Miwok this is good Miwokan etymon; Sawyer says is loan from Spanish 'bueno', which seems unlikely WW %wene simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material khéye cradle (same as 'boat') unknown simplex Elmendorf 1996 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation číri:fa7 policeman, sheriff loan Spanish WW %cherife simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sólta:Do7 D is barred d soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
corn food má:is corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
beans food híwhol' beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation tónči7 cat loan Yokutsan see Plains Miwok tonci7 WW %talom simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation lúk'a bow, gun (in Sawyer) semantic shift somewhat resemblant to Yuki forms, but only in CV simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress sómle:lu7 hat loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material wi/l'ukh unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture The/Ti “cord” loan into protolanguage E1993 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture lel-to/kel (see nudge, poke) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool ha/c'e unknown Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ch'o/la “pestle” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool nahta/yhi7 (this is child's toy, not weapon) unknown Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool lu/k'a unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool me/cHe inheritance Jane Hill
house other chHu/ya c hachek followed by lower-case h unknown Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium seasonal no