big wolf (gray wolf)

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Canis lupus yow'-le, yow-lit Big Wolf (yow-lit “male”) loan Yokuts Yowlumne yow'-lits (=chaser) unknown C. H. Merriam 72-77, 72-797, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Canis lupus pia 'isa, wonko ica wolf inheritance *isa'a(N)pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008;112), with “big” and “pine” increments and consonant gradation in ica same phrase Crapo 1976:110, 149 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cahuilla Canis lupus ʔíswet ˈʔiswet wolf inheritance *ʔisa-wɨ- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112); this particular derivation for “Wolf” restricted to Takic same derived 7is-wet coyote-augmentative -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ Seiler&Hioki 1979:66 Wolf is a Coyote Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 1 shamanic animal 2 meat restricted to very old people, powerful shamans (Bean 1972:63) no info hunted Men for skin, but very rarely hunted 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
Central Sierra Miwok Canis lupus húng:u- wolf inheritance *hu:n Miwokan Note Ceb xu:n “wolf” (allaghan 1971:30); Pwintu *hul (Callaghan 2001:25 other complex -u nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chemehuevi Canis lupus tɨvácI wolf inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:235) same other complex tɨvá-cI wolf-ABS Press 1979 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Barbareno Canis lupus mɨy wolf inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno k-asiməj, hesiməj underived Beeler 1978:179 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Ineseno Canis lupus mɨy wolf inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno k-asiməj, hesiməj underived Applegate 460 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Obispeno Canis lupus k-asiməj, hesiməj; tolopʰopo wolves; el lobo inheritance Proto-Chumash məj surely same as Central mɨj phrase -mej "wolf" JPH 91:0031; 0084 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Ventureno Canis lupus mueis wolf inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno k-asiməj, hesiməj underived Heizer/Pinart I:57 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cocopa Canis lupus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Comanche Canis lupus pia tseena wolf unique same phrase big coyote Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cupeño Canis lupus iswet ˈʔiswət wolf inheritance *ʔisa-wɨ- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112); this particular derivation for “Wolf” restricted to Takic same derived ˈʔis-wə-t coyote-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:157 iswetim, A lineage of the Cahuillas, also used for Cahuillas in general 1 mentioned with Coyote, “their homes to the north”, in mourning song at Burning (Hill & Nolasquez 1973:42) 2 probably not eaten; Luiseño, did not eat no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats yes
Esselen Canis lupus humu-x (Pinart same) wolf loan Costanoan compares Costanoan (h)umu-(k/x) other complex -x classifier suffix -x Shaul 1988:696 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Gabrielino Canis lupus e-sow't 72-77, 60-415 ʔiˈşawt (?) Wolf inheritance *ʔisa-wɨ- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112); this particular derivation for “Wolf” restricted to Takic same derived ʔiˈşa-w-t coyote/liar-augmentative-npn (may not be synchronic derivation since Gabrielino has 7i:tar for “coyote”) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 415 no info 1 Chingichngish animal 2 Chingichngich animals not eaten (McC p. 117) no info hunted men for hide only 0 0 hides often trade Americas Diverse habitats yes
Iipay 'Aa Canis lupus hechkullk wolf inheritance Proto-Yuman Maricopa hatkult, and see Kiliwa that=kil; but I'm not sure same underived might ultimately have “dog” word in it Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kawaiisu Canis lupus tɨvi-ži wolf inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:335) same other complex tɨvi-ži wolf-ABS Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kiliwa Canis lupus that=kil wolf inheritance Contains Proto-Yuman *(č)-xat “dog”; Maricopa hatkult same phrase dog-? (kil “broken off, notched”?? Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kitanemuk Canis lupus wanač ˈwanaʧr wolf, sealion inheritance *wana-ci Northern Uto-Aztecan also in Serrano. I'll bet this is S557a *wanci7a “fox” (these forms attest to an additional vowel), in Central and Southern Numic. May be an arealism/loan same other complex ˈwana-ʧr wolf-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:562 no info 1 2 big predators often not eaten, but probably hunted for skin no info hunted men for skin 0 0 skins often traded Americas Diverse habitats yes
Lake Miwok Canis lupus húun wolf inheritance Miwokan Pmi *hu:n; an areal or perhaps Penutian word: Ceb xu:n “wolf” (Callaghan 1971:30; PW *hul (Callaghan 2001:325) underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Luiseño Canis lupus íswut ʹɁiswut wolf inheritance *ʔisa-wɨ- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112); this particular derivation for “Wolf” restricted to Takic but *isa- is NUA same (sometimes confused with “Jaguar”?) derived ʹɁis-wu-t coyote-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (although Lu does not have 7isa- for “coyote”, they would know languages that do) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:191 no info 1 tukmi 7iswut, Wolf heart, North Star mentioned in mourning song (Harrington); represented in ground paintings (might be “Jaguar”) Kroeber 1925:662 2 most large predators not eaten no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas diverse habitats yes
Maidu Canis lupus helíjenè wolf unique Callaghan 2001 thinks might go with 7ole “coyote” forms but seems unlikely underived must be complex etymologically but Shipley 1961:23 lists are rare root type Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Mojave Canis lupus missing missing Maricopa hatkult Gordon 151 missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Mutsun Canis lupus uminx Merriam oom'-mō Merriam 55:403 wolf inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has in Mont, Scr, Sc plus sjb (Mu) underived root is hum, but complexity only etymological Mason 1916:427 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Nisenan Canis lupus lolla wolf unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Northern Paiute Canis lupus esa (Y) Big wolf (Canis ) semantic shift *isa'a(N)pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008:112); usually this form is “coyote” same underived Merriam 61:133 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Northern Sierra Miwok Canis lupus hung:u- wolf inheritance *hu:n Miwokan “Note Ceb xu:n 'wolf' (Callaghan 1971:30); Pwintu *hul (Callaghan 2001:325) other complex -u nominalizer Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Plains Miwok Canis lupus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Salinan A Canis lupus To:xó wolf unique Salinan looks a bit like the tukut “wildcat” words, but usually wolf and mountain lion are similar, not wolf and wildcat other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probablyl Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:87 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Salinan M Canis lupus To:xó' wolf unique Salinan looks a bit like the tukut “wildcat” words, but usually wolf and mountain lion are similar, not wolf and wildcat underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Seri (Comcaac) Canis lupus xeecoj wolf unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 583 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Serrano Canis lupus wana-T big wolf (same as mountain lion?) inheritance *wana- Northern Uto-Aztecan also in Kitanemuk. I'll bet this is S557a *wanci7a “fox” which must be *wana-ci7a with a diminutive; these forms attest to an additional vowel. In Central and Southern Numic. May be an arealism/loan. Note Yokutsan * *ɂawčhaɂ 'fox' other complex -t NPN Merriam 72:27 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Paiute Canis lupus tɨvatsI wolf (677) inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:335) same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:660 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Sierra Miwok Canis lupus 7o:nup- wolf unique Probably “the chaser”, cf. Mins 7onpu- “to chase” underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Ute Canis lupus sináą-vI wolf inheritance *sɨna'a Southern Numic only Stubbs 554 (2008:113); I think Comanche may be a Ute loan so probably just Southern Numic and not “Numic” same other complex has -vi ABS Givon 1979 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Tübatulabal Canis lupus tüpaych tɨˈbajʧ wolf loan Kawaiisu Southern Numic is *tyva/ch(i) S2503; if not loan should have /o/ or /u/, and final -ch is loan-y too. broader (includes a large coyote) underived Hill 2010:98 1 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A hmm -- may have been taken for pelt 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
Tümpisa Shoshone Canis lupus toopi, tooppi wolf inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:335); I don't think this set is regular, looks like it's been loaned around same other complex too-pi wolf-CL pi Dayley 1989:295 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Wappo Canis lupus lúhcha fox? wolf? CHM has “fox” (Urocyon) 52:563, wolf is wim'-mah) loan Pomo Proto-pomo *du:cá “fox” (McLendon 1973:77 underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Washo Canis lupus tulí:ši7 big wolf “not here” unique underived tu-is a nominalizer but Jacobsen in his discussion does not mention this word Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Western Mono Canis lupus to'apE Timber wolf inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:335); in fact I don't think this set is regular, looks like it's been loaned around, but can't identify a source yet same underived Bethel et al.:239 no info 1 Coyote's younger brother in myth times 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 yes
Wintu Canis lupus lubeles wolf unique other complex Schlichter 1981 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yavapai Canis lupus (ɂ)hàt(ɂ)kʷīla wolf inheritance Proto-Yuman Contains *(č)-xat “dog”; Maricopa hatkult, and see Kiliwa that=kil unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Palewyami Canis lupus yev'-lĕ-che Big wolf inheritance Yokutsan looks like Choynolk and Yawe forms only; like these, probably derived from verb “to chase”s same derived from a verb yawa:l “to follow, to chase” in Yawe (Kroeber 1961:214 note 180), probably the same here, has -itch/its agentive element Merriam 58:515 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Yawdanchi Canis lupus iwèyiT wolf inheritance Nim-Yokuts nearly universal in Kroeber; this form probably metathesis of the yVw- forms from “chase” same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Yowlumne Canis lupus yaw'lic' wolf inheritance Yokutsan Note apparent Pal. cognate from Merriam, yev'-lĕ-che same other complex from “to chase” with -ic' agentive suffix Newman 1944:14 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yuki Canis lupus wois'-mah MWO, wais'-mol P, wáN-'yĭl-mol Cs big wolf inheritance *wayis(m)ol' Yukian Schlichter 1985 relative clause -mol agentive Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yuma Canis lupus hă-tah-loo Big wolf inheritance Colorado River Yuman only Maricopa hatkult gordon 151 unknown Merriam 61:449 1 2 0 0 0 yes