Kiliwa

Family
Yuman
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
klb
Location
30.55°, -115.12°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location nat unknown Mixco 1996 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kW-p-7nyi-7-i7 inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other kW-spi7l unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar -7n "conjunctive" unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body miy=n+kwaaw “anklebone” unique Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body sl=paa inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment mituw unknown Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body maq inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality h-u7-luuy, h-u7-luy-u unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body pha7 inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location puq unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7-tay inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body cha7 31 inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour (kW)-nyiir inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body t-khWat inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body p-sul, p--suul ”soplar” inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body chiilq unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body haq(l) inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body ny-maayu (senos) inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body yaay=caa-w (also “breath, voice”) inheritance Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment maal (of flame), -chi7 “burn, kindle” unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body 7kway/-nya7 "with molars" inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human nay unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion ch7ii-k unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7-kWiy, 7-kWiy-u inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality 7xcha7k inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion yii, t-yii inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact t-h-maa h-uuy inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality chpiiy 49 “recto” inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental t-t-siip-u inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental h-mii, h-mii-t inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact qhat, t-qhat-u, qhaw inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time 7-nyaay inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state (s)-pi; (s)-pi-t-u inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact h-nuq, h-t-nuuq unknown Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna miti7, kW-san (coyote) unknown Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality xpil inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental t-7-smaa inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body chhii, chhii-t c hachek inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality s7aay inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment 7+mat=sa inheritance Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body smaql inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment 7-mat inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body h-maa; h-maa-t inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna xma7=yit inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body ny-7-yuw inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body waq loan direction unknown Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion tilu “caer uno”, tiilu “uno tras otro” inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality 7-mat=nyaa-m unique Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body sa7 inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship h-s7uu, ny-p-s7uu unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental huu; huu-t unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna walu inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment 7-7aaw inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna mchaa unknown Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion yul p. 77 unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment t-p-yaw-p unknown Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion p-i7-hiw, p-i7-hiiw-u unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment yuw=hi7 unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
foot pie body ny-7-miy inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora t-kW-ma7 unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality mraay “esta bien” 50 unknown Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state x7iip, t-x7iip unknown Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 7iy=smaq inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body ny-7-sal n tilde inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar missing Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body 7iy inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental kWii; kWii-t inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality mchaa unknown Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion h-nan, kW-7-n-yaw “escondido” unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact h-chi7, h-chi-t-u “golpear” unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other p-yaw, p-yaaw-u unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar p+aux unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar nya7-(p) inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar -win (on verb of protasis) unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location puq 77 unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body pha7 inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body s7iir unique Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact h-nyuu, h-nyuu-t (kill one); tchaw (kill several) unknown Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental spuuw inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment xa7=7=tay “mar” inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental h-chin, h-chiin unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment smaq inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body sal=kw-sar-(y) inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body ny-7-miy inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion yaq inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment h-nyam unknown Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ipaa-y, p-ipaa-y “vivo, sanar inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body lphii unknown Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality 7-kus, 7-kuus inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna wa7=7il unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body nkhwal, x-7_kwiiy=waa-u7 inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human kw-umiiy inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7-xaq unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment xa7la7 inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship h-ny7uu, ny-p-ny7uu unknown Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body ha7 inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ny-7-mil inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body p-kw-7+ni7 unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality nyaa-m mat; p-yaa-m unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body 7iypuq inheritance Mixco 1978 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality mraay-xay inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time tiiy inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar kWat (not); mat (no) inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body phi7 inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality ipaa=7-tay inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number msir inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other kap unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar kW-chipi, kW-chiipi unknown Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body rap, rap-chaw, raap-u “doler”; ipaa=t-kW-rap “enfermo” inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human 7-ipaa “gente” inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact h+nya7 (w/ hammer), p+tiiti “pound seeds” unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment kwWiy=h=uhaa-k inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour 7-kwal inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body sal=paa inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture wnya7 inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora 7uuw=smaa inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality sax (podrir) inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment mat=xiw unique Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental 7ii, 7ii-t inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact s-7+xwal, xwaal “scratch at”, maat p-c+khip, /maat p-s+min “scratch body (dog)”, p+khil-t waa waqu “scratch (arse)”, x_kwiiyr-p “w/ claws” unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental saaw, saw-u unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality yaaw-p h-yuw inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact qhaa inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality x7kWiiy, nmux unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body skimiy unknown Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental m7siiy-p, m7siy-u-p unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state p-waa; p-waa-t inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body 7-kwal inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment 7-wiiy unknown Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body smaa, smaa-t inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality muwtt 36 unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment 7-7aaw=phuuy unique Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body khwisu inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body ha7=cha7 p+lax/p-c+phu unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact -cap inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact s-kWilu, s-kWiilu inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact p+sa7, s-x+khwap inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ch7ii; yuw, 7iw “parado” unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment msi7 inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other x-chiit-p, xchit-u-p inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora 7-ipa7 “palo” 433 inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment 7-uha7 inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body sip, siip, ch-phuup loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body m-x+mi7-y unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body p+tap/haR unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion xa7-h-paa unique Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body pisa7 unknown Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar paa “ese” unknown Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality x7uun, x7un-u unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental 7-l-t-h+7ip ha7 “ponder”; man h+7ip/yuw(p) h+7ip (believe) unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar mi unknown Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar ma7-(p) inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number xmi7q inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body cmi (outer), t-m+nyal-u7 (esophagus) unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact 7+uha7 h-n+waa “stones” unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment 7-kW-iy-h-mii, ha7=kw=ny=mar kWiy unknown Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact riw 138 unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body ha7=pal inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body ny-7-yaaw inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wiR/kwiR inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number xwaq inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body yuq loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion (7-mal)7aaw unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7-xa7 inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar pa-/mi-7+nya7-p inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar pa-/mi-7+nya7-p inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality kW-chha7-y inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar 7-kWit unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar 7-mat=p=7i-m unknown Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar 7ap-l, 7ap-q unknown Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour (kW)-m7sap inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar 7-m7aa unknown Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship ch7wa7 unknown Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment ha-t-u-k inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body t-walu=haq=7-tay inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human kW-kuu, kW-ku-t-u “hembra” inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other t-i7-chhat “trabajo” unknown Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body ha7=phaap inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kW-7siiy unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. x?al=spa?i abalone unique same phrase abalone-seashell (x?al also appears in word for “boss” Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae no generic unique unknown 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana xpar antelope unique same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus mxwaa=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq badger (lit. wild pig) inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai mhwá·; same relative clause mxwaa=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq; pig=wilderness-in-NMR-REL=lies “wilderness pig” (a marking reversal) Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp xmcaw bat (Eptesicus fucus); large, brown unique narrower (a kind of bat) underived Mixco 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp c+phi? stinkbug, Eleodes unique same other complex possibly from *c-p+si “flatulent thing” Mixco 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus xsuutk round tule (cf. suq “reed, tule”) inheritance Proto-Yuman same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis kw-ckhuw skunk inheritance *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:96, Langdon 1976:873 Metath same relative clause from *kw-c-kw+xiw “that which smells” Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus that=kil wolf inheritance Contains Proto-Yuman *(č)-xat “dog”; Maricopa hatkult same phrase dog-? (kil “broken off, notched”?? Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis ?+muw Mountain sheep, domestic sheep, Orion's Sword inheritance *?-mu(w) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:80, 91 for P-Y WW %mo: broader (includes all kinds of sheep) other complex ? dummy.nominal.element +sheep Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna t+walu bird (generic) inheritance -waR “feather, bird” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:81 for P-Y same other complex t- not treated clearly, but some kind of derivation from -waRu “wing” Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger kl?mayup ant, black, medium-sized, lives in willow, sycamore, and cottonwood trees unique narrower (a kind of black ant) underived Mixco 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus kw+maqn bear; engine unique same relative clause kw-maqn REL-sweet Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus ?+x?ilu jackrabbit inheritance metathesis of the various kuly forms??? same other complex ? dummy.nominal.element + jackrabbit Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus nmi?=pi-y+t-kw+yaq wildcat, bobcat inheritance *nymi- Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION same relative clause nmi?=pi-y+t-kw+yaq cat=wilderness+in-REL-lies “wildnerness cat” (a marking reversal) Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera kuu=xtap butterfly (vars.) unique same phrase both elements meaningless; kuu onomatopoeic in a bird name Mixco 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? ?+suul Mexican jay unique same other complex ɂ- “dummy nominal prefix”, suul only in this form Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? t?lphuu woodpecker inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa hatepull broader (is this generic for woodpeckers? Mixco gives no genus or species. Gila woodpecker? underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae psil chia loan Takic Widespread in California; cf. Cupan *pasal WW %pasv same underived Mixco 1985 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pnwiitu swallow (Hirundinidae) unique same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii xa?law cottontail rabbit inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai hló, Mojave halyɂaw; Cocopa xłyɂa· same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. ml=tay cottonwood unique contains *tay “big” same phrase ?-large Mixco 1985 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans mlti? coyote unique same underived Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ?+qhaaq Crow inheritance Proto-Yuman Sound-im but probably good as *qaaq same other complex ɂ- “dummy nominal prefix”; qaaq onomatopoeia Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii smiil=kw+xaa jimsonweed; toloache (which?) unique Note Yavapai smá·lkktū·, Mojave ɂamalykatu; loan direction unknown although Yuma es'-mi-kă-peet' is clearly from Cocopa. Smiil part is probably cognate, probably means crazy or bitter or something like that same relative clause smiil=kw+xaa plant=REL+bitter Mixco 1985 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus xaq=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq deer (modern way to say) unique same relative clause xaq=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq meat=wilderness-in=NMR-REL-lies “wilderness meat” (a marking reversal) Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana ?+xaal pine (P. ponderosa or contorta) unique broader (diverse pines) other complex ? dummy.nominalelement + pine Mixco 1985 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris ?+that dog inheritance *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 same other complex ɂ- “dummy nominal prefix”; “from *?-c+xat pet-thing) Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura x-wi? mourning dove inheritance *k-wi(?) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 same underived x- is NOT the causative; Mixco says “perhaps onomatopoetic in origin” Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae t+walu=xa?=kw+paa-t duck (lit. tide bird) inheritance Note paat in 'Iipay Aa form, is it same or from Spanish pato? same phrase t+walu=xa?=kw+paa-t bird=water=REL+leaves (Mixco glosses as “tide bird”) Mixco 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus x?wa?=msqhaan elderberry in English-Kiliwa, Sycamore (Platanus racemosus) in Kiliwa-English??? unique same phrase clearly complex but root elements undefined Mixco 1985 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna xa?=tay-l=t-kw+yaq fish (lit. sea-dweller) unique same relative clause xa?=tay-l=t-kw+yaq water=big-in-NMR-REL-lie Mixco 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera wa?=?il flea (lit. house vermin) unique Contains *?-?il WORM Langdon 1979:639 same phrase house=vermin Mixco 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera c?in housefly unique same underived Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei ?+ma? yucca (Y. baccata) unique same other complex ?-ma? dummy.nominal.prefix-yucca Mixco 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon pnxaaw fox (probably Kit Fox, Vulpes macrotis) inheritance *p-rxa·w/m-rxa·w Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FOX WW %kaw same underived Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna x?nqhaatq toads, frogs unique Probably not Langdon 1979:637 *xa-nya FROG broader (toads and frogs) underived but x? may be “water; perhaps xa?=naa “swim”??? Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos ti?payu Golden Eagle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa ɂihpaa same underived “probably from *?+mat=?=ipa-y-u Earth Being, a deity Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) t+hip grass, fodder, pasture unique This may be same root as tobacco (?-hip “tobacco, cigarettes” broader (grass and its functions) other complex t-hip ?-hip Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera xnkpaap grasshopper inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai kąpámka, Cocopa łxmpaţ same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. nway mexican ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) inheritance Proto-Yuman probably related to MOUSE (Kiliwa waay; cf. Colorado River ?avee) same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. xmaal western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) inheritance Proto-Yuman Iipay Aa ɂehmaall same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus missing missing missing 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae kw+x?yaan-p Horned toad unique same relative clause kw+x?yaan-p REL-?-(MEDIO)-PASSIVE Mixco 1985 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus nay=t+tha? horse unique same phrase child=pet?? Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae t?msuq hummingbird (Trochilidae) unique same underived Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ?+hip tobacco, cigarettes loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown something like *hip originally???,i > u in whole family except Kiliwa??; cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi WW %7u:p broader (includes plant and cigarettes other complex ?-dummy nominal element + hip Mixco 1985 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic no generic unique unknown 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica ?+saa Juniper unique same other complex ?dummy.nominal.element-juniper Mixco 1985 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera x?ciil head louse, flea unique Probably contains *?-?il WORM broader (pest) underived Mixco 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus ?+suq reed, tule (Scirpus) inheritance Proto-Yuman Iipay Aa es-suk' (Merriam) same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos sman Mexican mockingbird, Mimus unique same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera cwaas mosquito unique same underived Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera ?+?aaw-(l)=kw-(p)+uhaa-m moth unique same relative clause ?+?aaw-(l)=kw-(p)+uhaa-m dummy.n.e.+fire-(in)=REL-(?)+arrive-different.subject Mixco 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor nmi?=tay cougar inheritance *-mi(?)-tay cat-big Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:91, Langdon 1979:638 *nymi-t same phrase cat-big Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus xmmil California quail Lophortyx californucus unique same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. m+la?, mla? unique broader (bivalve shells?) other complex m-la? archaic.adjectival.prefix-? (la? only in this word) Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? kw+khwaa Pinyon jay unique same relative clause kw- a relativizing prefix; khwaa only in this form Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla ?+xiw Pinus monophylla inheritance Proto-Yuman Iipay Aa ɂehwiiw tree & nuts; Yavapai ɂkʰō same other complex ? dummy.nominal.element +pinyon.pine Mixco 1985 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum m+la? clam, mussel unique broader (bivalve shells?) other complex m-la? archaic.adjectival.prefix-? (la? only in this word) Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys sl=kaa gopher, shrew unique same phrase sl from *sal “hand”; kaa only in this form Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum smiil=pa-kw-mat poison ivy unique same relative clause plant-plural.object-REL-? Mixco 1985 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. ?+wi?=pnthit Rattlesnake inheritance Proto-Yuman narrower (species of rattlesnake, probably Crotalus viridus) phrase ?+wi?=pnthit dummy.nominal-snake-? (appears only in this expression) Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp tlpaa large red ant unique narrower (a kind of red ant) underived Mixco 1985 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis pkwalu Western Red-tailed haw, Buteo borealis calurus) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa ɂepkwall, Yavapai skwāla; UA *kwa'a “large hawk” should be considered as a source (S716) same relative clause “probaby from *kw-p+walu “feathered” Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus tlpi? Roadrunner loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Hokan Langdon 1976:873 Metath; cognate with the %pu: words elsewhere in Yuman but phonologically dissimilar WW %pu: same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica kw+?hiw sage-like plant, Spanish romerita unique same relative clause kw-?hiw REL-? Mixco 1985 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? xmsilq spiny lizards. S. poinsetti? unique same underived Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna xu?chiin lizard, similar to Mojave fringe-toed liazrd, U. scoparia unique same underived Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ?+wi? snake, viper inheritance Proto-Yuman same underived Mixco 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata xuwaal sumac, laurel (Rhus laurina) unique same underived Mixco 1985 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae ?+wi?=?il spider (lit. snake vermin) unique Contains *?-?il WORM Langdon 1979:639 and SNAKE same phrase snake-vermin Mixco 1985 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae x?nqhaatq toads, frogs unique broader (toads and frogs) underived but x? may be “water; perhaps xa?=naa “swim”??? Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) sal=haq=?+tay tree unique same phrase sal=haq=?+tay hand=bone=dummy.nominal.element+big; sal=haq=tay is “branch” (literally “big arm (hand=bone)), so adding ? turns this into “tree” (thing with branches?) Mixco 1985 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura t+xaa=sii turkey buzzard, Cathartes aura inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai sé·, Mojave ?ase, Co. šayí· same phrase xaa may be “homosexual”, “hiss” or “bitter, poison, spicy”; t+sii is “black buzzard” Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines xnaal Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizi), rattle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Cocopa xnya.r; Yuma axnaraxna/r Halpern 3:207 broader (tortoise and tortoise shell rattle) underived Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia ?+?aal live oak unique same other complex ? dummy.nominal.element + live.oak Mixco 1985 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata kw?il=msi? white oak, sweet acorn doubtful loan Takic Takic *kwinily “Black Oak” (best acorn) same phrase oak=star Mixco 1985 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica xma?=pi-y-l+t-kw+yaq Gambel's quail (Lophortyx gamblei, lit wilderness hen inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:871 Metath same relative clause xma? “poultry, hen”, pi-y “wilderness” kw-yaq REL-lies.on; xma? is the “quail” cognate, so this is marking reversal Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus paa=naq California grey whale and Black Right Whale inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa ɂehpank same other complex obviously complex, paa- perhaps from xa?-paa “swim”? naq only in this expression Mixco 1985 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos ?+qhayu Pelican (probably American White Pelican, Pelianus erythrorhynchos) unique same other complex ɂ- “dummy nominal prefix”; qhayu only in this form Mixco 1985 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica kwstuut wildrose (Rosa minutifolia) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa hŏ-toot' same underived (might be some kind of relative clause but not so treated by Crawford) Mixco 1985 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. ?+?yaaw willow inheritance with *-yaaw Proto-Yuman JHH same other complex dummy.nominal.element -willow Mixco 1985 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. ?+maql rat (Neotoma) inheritance Proto-Yuman Iipay Aa ɂemallk; Yavapai (ɂ)mālka same other complex ? dummy.nominal.element + rat Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ?+mi? worm, grub unique broader(diverse squirmy smooth (?) larvae) other complex ? dummy.nominal.element + worm Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. cpaaw wasp, yellow jacket inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Cocopa şxmpa·; 'Iipay Aa metpaaw, Mojave thaampo broader (includes other kinds of wasps) underived Mixco 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum smiil=xpiil Rama Santa, Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon angustifolium) unique Note 'Iipay Aa sa'mall same phrase plant-filthy Mixco 1985 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna kl7mayup (black), tlpaa, t7msin unknown Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna t-walu unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna ch7in unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 7-that inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna smiil “hierba” unknown Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna xaq=pi=y=t=kWyaq inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 7-wi7 inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna 7wa7=7il unique Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food s-7+wiy acorn mush, atole unknown Looks like Cupan wiwish but geography argues against derived swiy 'make acorn mush' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
ball game food 7+uha7=m=lim kickball unknown M. says lit. 'to lift with instep' but I can't figure out how compound 7uha7 stone, rock Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology t-kw+hiiy-p=ny+mat hell (lit. devil land) unknown compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
feather headband dress t+sa7-y head plume, headdress unknown might include the 'bird' word derived sa7 stab, poke Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool 7+pa7 arrow, bullet, ammunition inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other 7+pa7=ny+paa-u7 arrow straightener (lit. where arrow is reclined) unique compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation t-x+pha7=t-h-u7+sa-w-tay-u7 school (lit. shere they teach (cause to read) unique compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material 7+hay shallow seed basket (used generically throughout dictionary) unknown x-(7)s+kwin flat basket/bowl (58) kwin twist; derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material m+puul hat, sack (from hat basket) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa form with puull derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology m+sil ochre unknown derived siR 'rub', m- Adj. Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool h+tim rifle, bow inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation kul7suuw bottle (modern), large water jar, amphora semantic shift see Mojave, Yavapai 'boat', a container word with kul… simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation t-x+pha7 paper (perhaps part of the ruminant digestive system called "el libro" in Sp., or related to sheepskin parchment? unknown derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology 7ipaa=kw-t+hiy chief, headman (lit spirit, great person) unknown compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool t-h+nyuu=7+uha7 war club (lit. kill=stone) compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food t-h+maa=kw+uu-y-tay cook inheritance *u:y < *wi Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 compound food-make Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
corpse food ny-7+maat-pi a body a corpse, also live body (spiritless) inheritance *pi 'die' Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 derived maat 'body, self' -pi 'die' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology h+ima dance inheritance *-ma(7) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology mt=ipaa Creator (earth-being) unique inherited elements compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool t-s-7+yaa-w-tay-u7 ladle, large spoon unknown tay is 'large' derived s-7+yaa-w extract, dig out Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology s-7+maa dream something inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH always from 'sleep' derived smaa 'sleep' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation xma7 poultry, hen semantic shift Proto-Yuman marking reversal from Gamble's Quail, now 'wilderness hen"; note Cocopa has same shift simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
earring other s-7+miilu-p earrings unknown derived miilu 'hang' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology t-kw+hiiy-p devil, evil spirit, goat unknown derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other mil pit campfire, pit fire (archaic) unknown phrase Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other 7+ipa7 firewood, stick, wood, lumber unknown does this reflect PY *ii7?? derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food x+wiitu fishing; use fishing line unknown derived wii 'give' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food npaay wheat (unknown aboriginal referent) semantic shift Proto-Yuman Cocopa has same word simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tuw7=tuw7=h-7-h+uu-7-u7 flute unknown derived, reduplicated Mixco 1965 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology t+hiy spirit, ghost unknown derived perhaps from *hi-y, see hi 'omen' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology mat h+nuq grave unknown phrase earth dig Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
alcohol food xa7=kw+xaa liquor (lit. bitter water) semantic shift compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics smill=kw+xaa Jimsonweed inheritance smal, smil, etc.; see remarks for C, compound smiil bush, plant, medicine Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology kw+miiy shaman, sorcerer, healer (lit. one who is powerful) unknown derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food 7+mi7=yaw-t honey unknown compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
house other wa7 house, dwelling inheritance *wa(7) Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food h-7=kwir-u hunt unknown derived x+kwiir make a turn Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material nay=c+ruuw knife, sword, clubs (in cards; Sp. Espadas) unknown compound ruuw wrap, bind up Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
mat culture-material t+qhaw mat, rug (lit. piece of something) unknown derived qhaw 'break, sunder (non-rigid object) Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool t-h+nya7-tay-u7 deep mortar (Sp. molcajete) unknown tay is 'big' derived h-nya7 'pound, hammer' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
necklace other t-p+naq necklace, neckerchief inheritance Proto-Yuman WW derived p+naq 'wear around neck' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool t-x+pap-u-u7 needle unknown derived x+pap-u 'sew, darn' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool xmaa pestle, muller unknown simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other 7+hip=p+ciw-u7 pipe (lit. what you smoke tobacco in) unknown derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
pitch food t+xpil pine pitch, turpentine inheritance Proto-Yuman see Cocopa 'glue' derived xpil tacky, filthy Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool xskaa ceramic bowl (modern) inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see 'Iipay Aa simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool 7+pa7=p+sul-u7 quiver (lit. where arrows are inserted) unknown compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology xnaal Desert Tortoise, rattle inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food kw+7iy salt (what is salty) inheritance *7iR < s-7iR Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:95 derived not transparent for kw+7il-y 'what is salty' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material h-7+wiin dress, skirt unknown derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture chuul string, cord unknown simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material xi(7)mi7 bag, sack inheritance Proto-Yuman see Cocopa simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation t-kw-s+maqn sweets, sugar unknown derived maqn be sweet Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology t+ha7 (w)+naa tell a story unknown phrase ha 'tell' naa narration Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology h-7+chi7 h=maa cremate unknown phrase maa 'eat' chi7 'burn' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics 7+hip tobacco, cigarettes loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Hokan JHH WW %7u:p derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress m-x+nyaw shoe, footgear inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see 'Iipay AA derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics smiil bush, plant, medicine unknown simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material p-u7+khwit cradleboard inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH, see kwil forms derived p+khwit carry in cradleboard/piggyback Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation ipaa-m=kw+skwaa-y policeman (lit. people guard) unknown compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation miy=kw-x+7al=u=h-7=h+uuy soldier (lit. made into a Mexican) unknown compound h+uuy is 'made' part Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
corn food ta7=yit corn, maize (Zea mays) inheritance Proto-Yuman from the 'seed' word derived t+yit seed Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
beans food xpiip beans unique where on earth does this come from? simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation nmi7 cat semantic shift *-mi(7) 'mountain lion' Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:82 simplex *n-mi 'cry'??? Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation h+tim rifle, bow semantic shift Proto-Yuman JHH derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress m+puul hat, sack (from hat basket) semantic shift Proto-Yuman note 'Iipay As basket hat with puull derived phuuy having to do w/ smoke Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material h+say (vb) unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture x7yiil “mecate” 86 inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool nay=chruuw unknown Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture xmaa unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool h+tim inheritance Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool 7-pa7 “flecha” loan Jane Hill
house other 7-wa7 inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG low mobile no