3pl

Semantic Field
grammar
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
ellos/ellas
Meaning Portuguese
eles/elas

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ma- inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla pemem inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok 7i:-ko- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi ma-m(y) (vis) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno s-ij unknown Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno kayuwun' (indep. pronoun) unknown A 168 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno ci- (def), cam- (indef) unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
Cocopa animate subj: a:-, aw-, u-, u:-, 7aw-, 7u-; unknown Jane Hill
Comanche ma- + plural inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño pem [pəm] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen laT, lawis unknown Shaul 1995:209 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7em loan Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa pupch [pʊptʃ] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu sa-ma-my unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk 7amam inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok 7ikko (plural) inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño pom-o/m inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu mym bomo “those (plural)” unknown Jane Hill
Mojave vidaachvch inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun /haysa unknown O77:44, 165 Jane Hill
Nisenan myse, mysa, etc. inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute umy inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7is:ak:o inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok 7ik:o- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A heyo:/'t (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M hewo/'t unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ee unknown Jane Hill
Serrano a:m inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute am:y- “they, those” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7is:ak-koH- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute mamys (an, dl or pl, vis) inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal inta unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone matymmy, inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo heko:to, ceko:to unknown Jane Hill
Washo gi/.w unknown J443 Jane Hill
Western Mono mahu/wY/ inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu pite inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai nytha^chvch inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami 7aman unknown JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi na:n inheritance K07:221 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne 7ama: inheritance N44:229 Jane Hill
Yuki ki-, ki(7), ki:, kih unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Arabana [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Bardi irr irr inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhangu walal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal walal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwala walal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari thana inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 1069 inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu walal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang nyani inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng boorroo inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi bidi Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu walal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji nyarrulu inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru nyilandi inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi irr(i) irr(i) inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri -ya loan Claire Bowern
Kija perre- inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala paniyarti inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung boorroo inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka tana inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra ngalinya-ngalinya Claire Bowern
Mudburra nyani tartu inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini thana inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma palu-kurla Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl tchammin, yeeramulla jamin, yirrmala inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi thanawiri inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta jana inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta jana inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina yirrka yirrka inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul iere yirra inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi –ika unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta thana inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu dhali unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri nyantuwarnti inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu dhana inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha thana inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi thana inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka thana inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru -irr -irr inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua najá najá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco nía nía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yukuna neká neká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana n(a)ha n(a)ha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa nháa nháa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro ú (ellos), mi?á ú (ellos), miʔá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Warekena ni-ya ni-ja See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero anini anini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare kuhuni kuhuni See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana ɨnau ɨnau inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi exenai (close); hatyonai (farther away) eʃenai (close); hatyonai (farther away) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure no-'ti no-'ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá napapa napapa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora aá-tʰʸe, tií-tʰʸe {pl}, aatʰʸé-tsʰi, tiitʰʸé-tsʰi {m.d.}, aatʰʸé-pʰɨ, tiitʰʸé-pʰɨ {f.d.} aá-tʰʲɛ, tií-tʰʲɛ {pl}, aatʰʲέ-tsʰi, tiitʰʲέ-tsʰi {m.d.}, aatʰʲέ-pʰɨ, tiitʰʲέ-pʰɨ {f.d.} unknown; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane díí-to {pl}, díítɨ-si {m.d.}, díítɨ-ɸe {f.d.} díí-to {pl}, díítɨ-si {m.d.}, díítɨ-ɸɛ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio tok tɔk inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect kamɔrɔ kamɔrɔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai enaroro enaroro inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana inamolo inamolo inheritance See Language page PLE
Carijona makamoro (masc.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó namo (anaphoric) namo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Eñepa kamonton kamonton inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makiritare tɨnwano (IDS); tünwanno, ka:nno (KH) (also them) tɨnwano (IDS); tɨnwanno, ka:nno (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Makushi ínka-mo-ró ínka-mo-ró inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Mapoyo naaton (namotomo) naaton (namotomo) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Pemon tok (E1980); mi'yamörö (ellos) (M2000) tɔk (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai mošam (near); ɲešamro (distant) mošam (near); ɲešamro (distant) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Muisca asy asɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá ã'ǰa; ã'rã (IDS) ã'ǰa; ã'rã (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán jo´e, jondeccu, tsendeccu hoʔɛ, hoⁿdɛkʰi, tsɛⁿdɛkʰi See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Taushiro na´ne in naʔnɨ in See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez tyãawe´sh See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna nũmagũ [3-5, 4, 2] nũmagũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina akaʉrʉ akaʉrʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa chat tʃat See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke hǝü(k)khah (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Waorani dãia-s unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï diti - he (pl) dyudi - she (pl) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Pumé ǫdȩrõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave ot ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao tatuma tatuma See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar ni (ausent) / áu (present) ni / au See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa nita nita See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna dita dita inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup hɨ́d hɨ́d inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Yuhup hɨ̌d hɨ̌d See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Dâw rid hid inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses a, abi a, abi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo ka-; hato ka-; hato unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua riy rij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano paykuna pajkuna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa jwätü hwætũ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva jĩtuhu (ellos) hĩtuʔu (ellos) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano ~ida (mf); ti (n.) ~ida (mf); ti (n.) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo dinomiva (fem.), na (masc.) dinomiva (fem.), na (masc.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana na, to (inan.) nã, tɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Desano ẽrã ẽrã inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Kotiria tίnã (stenz) tίnã (stenz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Makuna ~ida (mf); iti (n.) ~ida (mf); iti (n.) inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti kɨ̃́hã kɨ̃́hã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana tiki-dã tiki-dã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano ĩ-'gɨ̃́-sã ĩ-'gɨ̃́-sã See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca ĩ'rã ĩ'rã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo dã, dã dã, dã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tukano inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Tuyuka 'kɨ̃ã ʔkɨ̃ã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja kɨ̃́hã kɨ̃́hã See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki que juna ja (male) (juna=animated beings)/ñiona ja (female) ke xuna xã / ɲiona xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Koreguaje jeena xeena inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona pˀakʷa pˀakʷa unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya jaohua'i hãõ'waʔi See Language page Amanda N
Nheengatu tau, tai tau, tai (etym: from "ta" which is most likely a 3rd person possesive) unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Kokama inu inu unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ɔ-...-kupa; ãwĩ-kũ ɔ-...-kupa; ãwĩ-kũ unknown See Language page PLE
Sirionó ae; ukĩ̯ ~ ũkĩ̯ ae; ukĩ̯ ~ ũkĩ̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina ïï-sa, áá {pl}, ïï-m̵á(ha) {m.d.}, ïï-ká(ha) {f.d.} ɯɯ-sa, áá {pl}, ɯɯ-m̵á(ha) {m.d.}, ɯɯ-ká(ha) {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto apé-makï {pl}, apé-maï-ǰïnoï {m.d.}, dáï-ǰïnoï {md.} apέ-makɯ {pl}, apέ-maɯ-dʒɯnoɯ {m.d.}, dáɯ-dʒɯnoɯ {md.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto aɸé-makï {pl}, í.ai-ǰïnoï {m.d.}, í.aï-ŋu.aï {f.d.} aɸέ-makɯ {pl}, í.ai-dʒɯnoɯ {m.d.}, í.aɯ-ŋu.aɯ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto i-makï {pl}, i.a-ma.i.aï {m.d.}, i.aï-ñu.aï {f.d.} i-makɯ {pl}, i.a-ma.i.aɯ {m.d.}, i.aɯ-ɲu.aɯ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Ninam pək, kama kɨpə (dual EM72), kama pɨkə (pl. anim. EM72), thəkə (pl. inanim. EM72) pək, kama kɨpə, kama pɨkə, tʰəkə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam kama kəp (dual EM72), kama thəp (pə) (pl. non-dist. EM72), thəp (pl. inan. EM72) kama kəp, kama tʰəp (pə), tʰəp inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami pə; tʰə pə, kama kə kɨbɨ (kama pə kɨbɨ, kama thə kɨbɨ) (dual EM72), kama thəpə (kama pə) (pl. non-dist. EM72) pə; tʰə pə, kama kə kɨbɨ (kama pə kɨbɨ, kama tʰə kɨbɨ), kama tʰəpə (kama pə) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sanumá ki tɨkɨ (dual EM72), ki tɨpɨ (pl. non-dist. EM72) ki tɨkɨ, ki tɨpɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito na-, nahuaáca (stand-alone pronominal form) na-, nawaáka (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo nukwaka nukʷaka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari karam maʔ karam maʔ See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo o-kwana-ya; o-'kwana-ya; o-xaña (Girard 1971); o-ya-kwana (Girard 1971) o-kwana-ya; o-'kwana-ya; o-xaña; o-ya-kwana See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña to-na; to-na-ra (The former is the absolutive form, the latter is the ergative form) to-na; to-na-ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jupanaka xupanaka See Language page PLE
Movima is-ko is-ko See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai uan uan unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ag ʔaŋ; Φaŋ See Language page PLE
Suyá níra níra See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi na na See Language page PLE