Záparo

Family
Zaparoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
zro
Location
-2.00°, -76.36°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Beier, Christine and Bowser, Brenda and Michael, Lev and Wauters, Vivian. 2014. Diccionario Záparo Trilingüe: Sápara-Castellano-Kichwa / Castellano-Sápara y Kichwa-Sápara. Quito: Abya-Yala.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location wakamiryaha wakamiɾjaha See Language page Becky Walker
and y e grammar See Language page Becky Walker
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment See Language page Becky Walker
at en, a em, a location hinya (en), ma (a) hinja (en), ma (a) See Language page Becky Walker
back espalda costas body ushiawku uʃiawku See Language page Becky Walker
bad mal mal quality ts+raniaka (malo) tsɨɾaniaka (malo) See Language page Becky Walker
belly barriga barriga body tawaka tawaka See Language page Becky Walker
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Becky Walker
big grande grande quality k+raka kɨɾaka See Language page Becky Walker
black negro preto colour kak+ka kakɨka See Language page Becky Walker
blood sangre sangue body nanaka nanaka See Language page Becky Walker
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Becky Walker
bone hueso osso body uku uku See Language page Becky Walker
breast pecho, seno peito body nam+tu namɨtu See Language page Becky Walker
child niño, niña criança human m+aricha mɨaɾiʧa See Language page Becky Walker
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Becky Walker
cold frío frio quality shinyaka ʃinjaka See Language page Becky Walker
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ityawraha itjawɾaha See Language page Becky Walker
day día dia time See Language page Becky Walker
dirty sucio sujo quality See Language page Becky Walker
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Becky Walker
dry seco seco quality maawtɨnu (vb.) maawtɨnu (vb.) See Language page Becky Walker
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Becky Walker
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Becky Walker
ear oreja orelha body taw+r+kaw tawɨɾɨkaw See Language page Becky Walker
earth/soil tierra terra environment rapaka ɾapaka See Language page Becky Walker
egg huevo ovo fauna iku iku See Language page Becky Walker
eye ojo olho body namihya namihja See Language page Becky Walker
far lejos longe quality taikwa taikʷa See Language page Becky Walker
fat/grease grasa gordura body k+raka (ɡordo/ɡorda) kɨɾaka See Language page Becky Walker
father padre, papá pai kinship kumanu kumanu See Language page Becky Walker
feather pluma pena fauna kahaakwa kahaːkʷa See Language page Becky Walker
fire fuego fogo environment See Language page Becky Walker
flower flor flor environment nukawiku nukawiku See Language page Becky Walker
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Becky Walker
fruit fruta fruta flora tuicha tuitʃa See Language page Becky Walker
good bueno bom quality w+tsaka wɨtsaka See Language page Becky Walker
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body anak+su anakɨsu See Language page Becky Walker
hand mano mão body kuruha kuɾuha See Language page Becky Walker
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar na na See Language page Becky Walker
head cabeza cabeça body anaka anaka See Language page Becky Walker
heavy pesado pesado quality inyaka injaka See Language page Becky Walker
how? como como grammar tiya tija See Language page Becky Walker
1sg yo eu grammar ku. ku See Language page Becky Walker
if si se grammar ihya ihja See Language page Becky Walker
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location kwahi kʷahi See Language page Becky Walker
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Becky Walker
lake lago lago environment nak+t+r+ka nakɨtɨɾɨka See Language page Becky Walker
leaf hoja folha environment u+m+ uɨmɨ See Language page Becky Walker
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page Becky Walker
leg/foot pierna perna body See Language page Becky Walker
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment maharu mahaɾu See Language page Becky Walker
liver hígado figado body kawaha kawaha See Language page Becky Walker
long largo comprido, longo quality saaka saːka See Language page Becky Walker
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna sukanaka sukanaka See Language page Becky Walker
man/male hombre homem human iryanaw, tawku irjanaw, tawku See Language page Becky Walker
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ishu iʃu See Language page Becky Walker
moon luna lua environment kashiikwa kaʃiːkʷa See Language page Becky Walker
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship anu anu See Language page Becky Walker
mouth boca boca body atupama atupama See Language page Becky Walker
name nombre nome human aychaw ajʧaw See Language page Becky Walker
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Becky Walker
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body utuha utuha See Language page Becky Walker
neck cuello pescoço body arichakwa, imanu ariʧakʷa, imanu See Language page Becky Walker
new nuevo novo quality See Language page Becky Walker
night noche noite time ninya ninja See Language page Becky Walker
no/not no não grammar taykwa tajkʷa See Language page Becky Walker
nose nariz nariz body nahuka nahuka See Language page Becky Walker
old viejo velho quality See Language page Becky Walker
one uno um number nukak+ha nukakɨha See Language page Becky Walker
other otro outro grammar taka taka See Language page Becky Walker
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Becky Walker
person/human being persona pessoa human kaya (nuestraˌ no ajena) kaja See Language page Becky Walker
rain lluvia chuva environment umaru umaɾu See Language page Becky Walker
red rojo vermelho colour natuka natuka See Language page Becky Walker
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Becky Walker
road/path camino caminho manufacture nu nu See Language page Becky Walker
root raíz raiz flora tapuka (of a tree) tapuka See Language page Becky Walker
rotten podrido podre quality mukaka mukaka See Language page Becky Walker
sand arena areia environment ayawhwa ajawhwa See Language page Becky Walker
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Becky Walker
short corto curto quality See Language page Becky Walker
shoulder hombro ombro body kuchinyu kuʧinju See Language page Becky Walker
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Becky Walker
skin piel pele body ichawk+ iʧawkɨ See Language page Becky Walker
sky cielo céu environment niya nija See Language page Becky Walker
small pequeño pequeno quality niichakakihya niːʧakakihja See Language page Becky Walker
smoke humo fumaça environment ahanaka ahanaka See Language page Becky Walker
star estrella estrela environment naricha, narihya naɾiʧa, naɾihja See Language page Becky Walker
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora amaka, nakuna amaka, nakuna See Language page Becky Walker
stone piedra pedra environment naruka naɾuka See Language page Becky Walker
tail cola, rabo rabo body uhamaka uhamaka See Language page Becky Walker
that ese/esa esse grammar nuka nuka See Language page Becky Walker
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nukwaka nukʷaka See Language page Becky Walker
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality k+raka kɨɾaka See Language page Becky Walker
thin delgado fino quality See Language page Becky Walker
this este/esta este grammar niicha niːʧa See Language page Becky Walker
2sg xx xx grammar cha= ʧa See Language page Becky Walker
throat garganta garganta body arishua aɾiʃua See Language page Becky Walker
three tres tres number aymukumara aʲmukumaɾa See Language page Becky Walker
thunder truenos trovão environment maharu mahaɾu See Language page Becky Walker
bite morder morder body tsainyu tsainju See Language page Becky Walker
blow soplar soprar body See Language page Becky Walker
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Becky Walker
burn quemar queimar environment katawnu katawnu See Language page Becky Walker
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body atsanu (comida), sak+hawnu (cualquier cosa) atsanu (comida), sakɨhawnu (cualquier cosa) See Language page Becky Walker
climb subir subir motion makanu makanu See Language page Becky Walker
come venir vir motion aninyu aninju See Language page Becky Walker
cook cocinar cozinhar impact mahinyu (carne), ityawhunu (todo menos carne) mahinju (carne), itjawhunu (todo menos carne) See Language page Becky Walker
count contar contar mental See Language page Becky Walker
cry llorar chorar mental aynyunu ajnjunu See Language page Becky Walker
cut/hack cortar cortar impact mahaanu mahaːnu See Language page Becky Walker
die/be dead morir morrer state puk+nu pukɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
dig cavar cavar impact wityahunu witjahunu See Language page Becky Walker
dream soñar sonhar mental mak+hawnu makɨhawnu See Language page Becky Walker
drink beber, tomar beber body ratunu ɾatunu See Language page Becky Walker
eat comer comer body atsanu atsanu See Language page Becky Walker
fall caer cair motion ɨtɨkwanu ɨtɨkwanu See Language page Becky Walker
fear miedo medo mental p+r+nu (tener miedo) pɨɾɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Becky Walker
fly volar voar motion ahanu ahanu See Language page Becky Walker
grow crecer crescer state nishinyu niʃinju See Language page Becky Walker
hear oír ouvir mental tahwinyu tahʷinju See Language page Becky Walker
hide esconder esconder motion mashit+nu maʃitɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
hit golpear, pegar bater impact apinyu apinju See Language page Becky Walker
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other as+nu asɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
kill matar matar impact amunu amunu See Language page Becky Walker
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ayt+nu ajtɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
laugh reír rir mental tsutanu tsutanu See Language page Becky Walker
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion amanu amanu See Language page Becky Walker
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ikinyu ikinju See Language page Becky Walker
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Becky Walker
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ahiryasutanu ahiɾjasutanu See Language page Becky Walker
say decir dizer mental See Language page Becky Walker
scratch rascar rasgar impact arishunu aɾiʃunu See Language page Becky Walker
see ver ver mental nukinyu nukinju See Language page Becky Walker
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact imakanahunu imakanahunu See Language page Becky Walker
sit sentar(se) sentar state ikunu ikunu See Language page Becky Walker
sleep dormir dormir body mak+nu makɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body nahuunu nahuːnu See Language page Becky Walker
spit escupir cuspir body arukunu aɾukunu See Language page Becky Walker
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact rawɨtɨnu (split wood) rawɨtɨnu (split wood) See Language page Becky Walker
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page Becky Walker
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Becky Walker
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page Becky Walker
steal robar roubar other nawkanu nawkanu See Language page Becky Walker
suck chupar chupar body sup+nu supɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
swell hincharse inchar body muinyu muinju See Language page Becky Walker
swim nadar nadar motion ukanu ukanu See Language page Becky Walker
think pensar pensar mental nishinyu niʃinju See Language page Becky Walker
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ahityanu, ihyanu ahitjanu, ihjanu See Language page Becky Walker
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Becky Walker
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other tawhunu tawhunu See Language page Becky Walker
vomit vomitar vomitar body ik+ninyu ikɨninju See Language page Becky Walker
walk caminar, andar andar motion awkunu awkunu See Language page Becky Walker
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Becky Walker
yawn bostezar bocejar body akan+nu akanɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
tongue lengua lingua body riricha ɾiɾiʧa See Language page Becky Walker
tooth diente dente body ichar+ iʧaɾɨ See Language page Becky Walker
two dos dois number amashaniki amaʃaniki See Language page Becky Walker
water agua agua environment murichaha muɾitʃaha See Language page Becky Walker
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kana, kanaha, pa= kana, kanaha, pa See Language page Becky Walker
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Becky Walker
wet mojado molhado quality tsutuka tsutuka See Language page Becky Walker
what? que, qué que grammar katsaka katsaka See Language page Becky Walker
when? cuando quando grammar tiyakari tijakaɾi See Language page Becky Walker
where? donde onde grammar tayi taji See Language page Becky Walker
white blanco branco colour ushicha uʃiʧa See Language page Becky Walker
who? quien, quién quem grammar kanat+ kanatɨ See Language page Becky Walker
wife esposa esposa kinship irichanaw iɾiʧanaw See Language page Becky Walker
wind viento vento environment paratu paɾatu See Language page Becky Walker
wing ala asa body kahaakwa kahaːkʷa See Language page Becky Walker
woman/female mujer mulher human irichanaw, ityumuka iɾiʧanaw, itjumuka See Language page Becky Walker
yellow amarillo amarelo colour t+k+r+ka tɨkɨɾɨka See Language page Becky Walker
2pl ustedes vocês grammar kinya, kinyaha kinja, kinjaha See Language page Becky Walker
foot pie body inyawka injawka See Language page Becky Walker
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Becky Walker
all todo todos other kawiryaha kawiɾjaha See Language page Becky Walker
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Becky Walker
armpit axila, sobaco axila body n++kari nɨːkaɾi See Language page Becky Walker
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body uyaka ujaka See Language page Becky Walker
lung pulmón pulmão body suaka suaka See Language page Becky Walker
sweat sudar suor, suar body upanashinyu upanaʃinju See Language page Becky Walker
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Becky Walker
bark corteza casca environment nakuna ichawk+ nakuna iʧawkɨ See Language page Becky Walker
fingernail uña unha body awashi awaʃi See Language page Becky Walker
heart corazón coração body uihya uihja See Language page Becky Walker
sun sol sol time yanawkwa yanawkʷa See Language page Becky Walker
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment tuanaha tuanaha See Language page Becky Walker
green verde verde quality n++ka nɨːka See Language page Becky Walker
hot caliente quente quality upanaka upanaka See Language page Becky Walker


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (135)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Becky Walker
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. atari atari See Language page Becky Walker
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna pishaka piʃaka See Language page Becky Walker
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. iminichaw iminitʃaw See Language page Amazonia Becky Walker
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. chawk+ tʃawkɨ (type) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Becky Walker
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. pawku pawku See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Becky Walker
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae uihya uihja See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes makawa (owl that eats snakes) makawa See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. suraka suraka See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica pikwar+ka (large parrot) pikʷarɨka See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Becky Walker
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae sɨsɨka sɨsɨka See Language page Becky Walker
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae amuka amuka See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Becky Walker
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba masanaka masanaka See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae muhukuruka (large woodpecker) muhukuruka See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris aryawku arjawku See Language page Not native; widespread Becky Walker
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) arawsu (tipo de) aɾawsu See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Becky Walker
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri muraka muraka See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Becky Walker
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. s+kaka sɨkaka See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Becky Walker
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus naha 'eel' naha 'eel' See Language page Becky Walker
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page Becky Walker
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Becky Walker
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae nima nima See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. ashinya aʃinja See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura puka, tawhwa (types of toads) puka, tawhʷa See Language page Becky Walker
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Becky Walker
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ayam+ (has skin that can be stretched on its neck, and can swim) ajamɨ See Language page Becky Walker
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. sapi sapi See Language page Becky Walker
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura turuk+naka (ravine crab? Cangrejo de quebrada) turukɨnaka See Language page Becky Walker
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae saw+raw sawɨraw See Language page Becky Walker
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna See Language page Becky Walker
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox kawnu kawnu See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Becky Walker
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Becky Walker
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Becky Walker
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Becky Walker
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa nushichaha nuʃitʃaha See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Becky Walker
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Becky Walker
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Becky Walker
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes amarihya amarihja See Language page Becky Walker
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua tsakumaha (pipa del ungurahui) tsakumaha See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Becky Walker
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Becky Walker
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Becky Walker
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra ashinyatu, sawanatu aʃinjatu, sawanatu See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Becky Walker
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens anakuka anakuka See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Becky Walker
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Becky Walker
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus ts+raniaka [loan S. Arawak] tsɨraniaka See Language page plant Becky Walker
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum karawana karawana See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Becky Walker
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. puhuyawka puhujawka See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Becky Walker
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Becky Walker
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) yawsuka jawsuka See Language page Becky Walker
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays sawku sawku See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Becky Walker
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum awn+ka awnɨka See Language page plant Becky Walker
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna nakuna nakuna See Language page Becky Walker
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana inyawhwa injawhʷa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Becky Walker
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Becky Walker
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Becky Walker
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala apaka iyawka apaka ijawka See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Becky Walker
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Becky Walker
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Becky Walker
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana sakwana sakwana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Becky Walker
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Becky Walker
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. kutsatu kutsatu See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Becky Walker
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Becky Walker
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Becky Walker
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Becky Walker
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta mu+ha muɨha See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Becky Walker
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum yawm+ka yawmɨka See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Becky Walker
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas imatsaka (camote) imatsaka See Language page plant Becky Walker
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. imatsaka (camote) imatsaka See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Becky Walker
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Becky Walker
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Becky Walker
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Becky Walker
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. iyawka ijawka See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Becky Walker
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ityawryawka itjawrjawka See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Becky Walker
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi iyawna ijawna See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Becky Walker
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Becky Walker
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Becky Walker
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kwanahunu kʷanahunu See Language page Becky Walker
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata masawku masawku See Language page Becky Walker
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Becky Walker
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis kar+ruana karɨruana See Language page Becky Walker
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Becky Walker
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Becky Walker
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera amanakaw [loan Kokama] amanakaw See Language page Becky Walker
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Becky Walker
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora tsarapicha (a kind used to fish) tsarapiʧa See Language page Becky Walker
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Becky Walker
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones shiriricha ʃiriritʃa See Language page Becky Walker
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Becky Walker
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page Becky Walker
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page Becky Walker
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae chiriku (found in the house) ʧiriku See Language page Becky Walker
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. kawruka kawruka See Language page Becky Walker
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Becky Walker
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. shinyaka ʃinjaka See Language page Becky Walker
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera anatuka anatuka See Language page Becky Walker
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea shimanaka ʃimanaka See Language page Becky Walker
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ahapaka (wasp or bee) ahapaka See Language page Becky Walker
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda maaha (also a word for an older woman) maːha See Language page Becky Walker
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae kawnunaka kawnunaka See Language page Becky Walker
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca imatinya imatinja See Language page Becky Walker
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Becky Walker
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha patawka patawka See Language page Becky Walker
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] arityawkuka aritjawkuka See Language page Becky Walker
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella tsutsawka tsutsawka See Language page Becky Walker
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons kwat+ kʷatɨ See Language page Becky Walker
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus saar+ha saːrɨha See Language page Becky Walker
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae sunaku / sunakaw sunaku / sunakaw See Language page Becky Walker
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Becky Walker
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis anasuihya anasuihja See Language page Becky Walker
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu kashi kaʃi See Language page Becky Walker
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari iyari ijari See Language page Becky Walker
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae munuri munuri See Language page Becky Walker
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua uhu uhu See Language page Becky Walker
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Becky Walker
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris akaya akaja See Language page Becky Walker
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti kashawkunu kaʃawkunu See Language page Becky Walker
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) tawr+ya tawrɨja See Language page Becky Walker
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus kash+richa kaʃɨriʧa See Language page Becky Walker
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kam+taka kamɨtaka See Language page Becky Walker
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris yasuka / yasukwa jasuka / jasukwa See Language page Becky Walker
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus n+k+ru (colored deer) nɨkɨru See Language page Becky Walker


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material apaka apaka See Language page Becky Walker
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
bed cama cama culture-material mas+k+ka masɨkɨka See Language page Becky Walker
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kwaticha kʷatiʧa See Language page Becky Walker
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa kanawa See Language page Becky Walker
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Becky Walker
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology kaha kaha See Language page Becky Walker
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology shimanaw ʃimanaw In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Becky Walker
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Becky Walker
broom escoba vassoura culture-material nanawtu nanawtu See Language page Becky Walker
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology shiiryapicha ʃiːrjapiʧa See Language page Becky Walker
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Becky Walker
firewood leña lenha other ayshawka ajʃawka See Language page Becky Walker
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Becky Walker
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tsamaraw tsamaraw See Language page Becky Walker
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology p+atsaw pɨatsaw In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Becky Walker
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology naahwa naːhwa multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Becky Walker
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Becky Walker
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
knife cuchillo faca culture-material sapuka sapuka See Language page Becky Walker
machete machete facão culture-material sahw+ri sahwɨri See Language page Becky Walker
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool naruka kahicha naruka kahiʧa especially for clearing fields See Language page Becky Walker
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page Becky Walker
spear lanza lança subsistence tool akachinya akatʃinja See Language page Becky Walker
bow arco arco subsistence tool rihwana rihwana arco See Language page Becky Walker
paddle/oar remo remo transport kawinya (kichwa loan) kawinja See Language page Becky Walker
plate plato prato culture-material asahi (clay plate) asahi (clay plate) See Language page Becky Walker
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool iatawku (clay pot) iatawku See Language page Becky Walker
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material uniha uniha See Language page Becky Walker
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool kawshima paraka kawʃima paraka agriculture? See Language page Becky Walker
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool iryawchi irjawʧi See Language page Becky Walker
wax cera cera other tupaka tupaka See Language page Becky Walker
honey miel mel food iwana (bee honey) iwana only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Becky Walker
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture iyawka ijawka See Language page Becky Walker
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material pasaicha pasaitʃa See Language page Becky Walker
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Becky Walker
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology nukityaru (hat, headdress) nukitjaru (hat, headdress) See Language page Becky Walker
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology rapaka rapaka See Language page Becky Walker
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology mak+nu makɨnu See Language page Becky Walker
chicken gallina galinha acculturation atawari atawari See Language page Becky Walker
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Becky Walker
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ichawkanaka itʃawkanaka See Language page Becky Walker
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Becky Walker
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation imakanaha imakanaha See Language page Becky Walker
hat sombero chapéu dress nukityaru nukitjaru See Language page Becky Walker
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Becky Walker
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Becky Walker
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
salt sal sal food ichahwa iʧahwa See Language page Becky Walker
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology uranu ('sing') uranu ('sing') See Language page Becky Walker
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool numanuka numanuka currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Becky Walker
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Becky Walker
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool apityu (feather fan) apitju (feather fan) esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Becky Walker
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food suyawnu sujawnu See Language page Becky Walker
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food shityawnu ʃitjawnu See Language page Becky Walker
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Becky Walker
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Becky Walker
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tsamar+kaw tsamarɨkaw See Language page Becky Walker
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Becky Walker
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool machicha maʧiʧa See Language page Becky Walker
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ahiryasutaka ahirjasutaka See Language page Becky Walker
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ahiryasutaka ahirjasutaka See Language page Becky Walker
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kasuma (generic) kasuma (generic) prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Becky Walker
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Becky Walker
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Becky Walker
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Becky Walker
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool numanaka numanaka hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Becky Walker
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Becky Walker
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool ityawru itjawru can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Becky Walker
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool utana (generic, not just for fish) utana (generic, not just for fish) See Language page Becky Walker
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Becky Walker
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Becky Walker
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
house other itya itja See Language page Becky Walker