sugarcane/sugar

Semantic Field
acculturation
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
azúcar, caña de azúcar
Meaning Portuguese
açucar (de cana)

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla pisily sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño asuukar sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño kó$aat sweet, candy, jam, sugar, sweets, cookies unique other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7awe:7 sugar, azucar, es dulce unique other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
Serrano pīhç sugar, sweet semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk piha-č sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal hāpisht, asuka sugar, sweet semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim missing missing Jane Hill
Kawaiisu piha-vi sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi pihavI sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute missing missing Jane Hill
Southern Ute pia-gama-tY sugar, lit. sweet tasting semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 compound, other complex pia-gamay to taste sweet Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone pihnaapin, pihyaapin honey, sugar, sweets semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex pihnaa, pihyaa 'sweet' Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone pihnaa-pin sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex pihnaah 'sweet' Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche pihnáa7 sugar, sweets semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 simplex R Jane Hill
Western Mono suγanA7 sugar loan Spanish Loether thins might be from English, but that is probably the alternte form sUγA7 WW %soldado simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pihabi sugar semantic shift originally a sugar made from sap Liljeblad et al. 2012:377 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7asu:ka- sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok cu7cuj-u- sweet; jelly; honey; sugar; anything sweet semantic shift Proto-Eastern Miwok also 7as:u:ka- p. 266 other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok cu7cuj sweet; darling; sugar, cake semantic shift Proto-Eastern Miwok also 7as:u:ka-, 7es:u:ka- 'sugar' 187 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok kawáacu sugar, sugar from sugar pine, honey, anything sweet loan Western Wappo simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu sudák sugar, sweet semantic shift Shipley 1961:51 does not reconstruct simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan missing missing note kawa:su 'sugar pine sugar' 211 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo bámc'i sugar unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu su:ka sugar loan English also xurxur 'pine sugar, sugar', and mun- root for 'sweet' WW %sugar simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki su:ke sugar loan English WW %sugar simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo káwa:ču7 sugar loan Spanish simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun petsen ts cluster, not [c] sugar semantic shift Proto-Southern Costanoan Rumsen has (Henshaw in Heizer), also Soledad derived Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A k'óm'aš sugar unknown simplex Turner 1987 Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno jatSqe jaktajusa el panal, like onde ponen el azucar (= el miel) only word unknown phrase Harrington Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7asuka sugar loan Spanish see also 'honey' WW %azúcar simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7asukal sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa kumyulk sugar, sweets (lit. the sweet one) semantic shift Proto-Yuman see Yavapai myû(:)la sugar, sweet derived ku- form Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa 7asúkr sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave 7asukar sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai myû(:)la sugar semantic shift inheritance myul sweet, see 'Iipay Aa derived myuli 'sweet' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa t-kw-s+maqn sweets, sugar unknown derived maqn be sweet Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) sancáac brown sugar loan Pima Bajo or maybe Yaqui sankaka (ultimate source is what?) simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua dì dì unknown Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu kana (sugar cane; Casas2000) kana (sugar cane; Casas2000) loan Portuguese Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani owãdoka (IDS) unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï ʰkalãlã 'sugar cane' ʰkalãlã 'sugar cane' sugar doubtful loan Spanish Compound ʰkalãlã 'grease' ('tasty'??) + ʰyowã 'grains' See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami kretetiwë (sweet), puu sikɨ (sugar cane) (MM07) kretetiwə (sweet), puu sikɨ (sugar cane) (MM07) sugar cane unique Alternate: kretetiwə (sweet) Compound honey/bee ? See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam asuka asuka loan Spanish/Portuguese Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam asuka asuka loan Spanish/Portuguese via Nheengatu or other? Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria ~khadʉ ~khadʉ unknown See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo cavamene, cavameneñʉ kavamɛnɛ, kavamɛnɛñʉ unknown Also:kavamɛnɛñʉ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano ãrɨ̂ 'cane' ãrɨ̂ 'cane' missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano gãrʉ gãrʉ missing See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki yoco ja joko xã unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup mǔh=teg (arrow/sugar cane); acuka (sugar) mǔh=teg (arrow/sugar cane); acuka (sugar) unique Compound arrow=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw xãán’ (cane), asuk (sugar) xã̌n’, aʃuk Missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani basueboto basueboto sugar cane unknown Compound boto 'cane' See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan káihia sugarcane unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Pemon kaiwarakun yeuku erintesak (A1981); chiikaruu (E1980) kaiwarakun yeuku erintesak (A1981) Inheritance Akawaio-Pemon Alternate: kaiwarakun jeuku erintesak See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio chiigaruu tʃigaru inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi aʔkiʔku aʔkiʔku unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa karana karana loan Spanish Alternate: karanayeɲamun, paamë kaiʔmën See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna kana kana missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana kʰaiwara kʰaiwara sugar cane loan Carib Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro iítshiíjihú iítsʰidᶚi-hú sugar unknown Alternate: iítsʰi-mú (sugar cane, sugar + “tubelike” classifier) d͡ʒihu a classifier; or perhaps -d͡ʒi (nominalizer) -hu (classifier/singular marker?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
Achagua básue 'sugar cane' básue 'sugar cane' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco bèsuè 'sugar cane' bèsuè 'sugar cane' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena puyatʃiru (cane syrup) pujatʃiru (cane syrup) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero min'deľe min'deľe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi asoka atsoka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure ko'te-n ko'te-n See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá kanawĩya (from Port.) kanawĩja (from Port.) See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora imújtso (v. 'sweeten') imúxtsʰo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane náámoguiijɨ 'sweet powder' (W97) náámoguiixɨ 'sweet powder' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai asukara asukara See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana asikalu asikalu See Language page PLE
Tiriyó pïreimë pɨreimǝ See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare ëši:ča:dï (sugar cane) (KH) ëʃi:tʃa:dï (sugar) (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai Φaranči Φaranči inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari awaxi 'sugar cane' awaʃi 'sugar cane' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa anisi, asuka, jen, sésare anisi, asuka, hen, sésare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca su amne 'sugar cane?' su amne 'sugar cane?' See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá čia-sõ ('reed-suck' IDS) čia-sõ ('reed-suck' IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán sutsapa'cco (sugar cane); cuñajun'cho (sugar, honey) sutspaʔkho; kuñahunʔʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez nʸuša nʸuša See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna de-né ('cane') (Alv44) deʔné See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina hjanarihi 'sugar cane' hjanarihi 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke ta'o 'sweet' taʔo 'sweet' See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé čĩã-reã kʊ (sugar cane + ?) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [asuka], susim 'sugar cane' [asuka], susim 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar páat 'cane (sugar or wild)' páat 'cane (sugar or wild)' See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa paat 'sugar cane' paat 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna pagat 'sugar cane' pagat 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses pia bata (sugar cane) pia bata (sugar cane) See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo šita šita See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua sabodu 'sugar cane' sabodu 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa a'cúka ɨcá'pheh aɁsúka ɨcsáɁpheh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva õdi õdi See Language page Becky Walker
Carapana ñucãmene ñukãmene See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna mimi yucʉ mimi yukʉ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Tuyuka cãnʉ kãnʉ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Koreguaje chʉ'chʉ dʒʉ'dʒʉ See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona sˀɨʔsˀɨ sˀɨʔsˀɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Karitiana tẽm ('cana') tẽm ('cana') See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama uwakɨra uwakɨra See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi [asikalu] [asikalu] See Language page PLE
Sirionó takʷa reẽ ~ takʷa reĩ takʷa reẽ ~ takʷa reĩ See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina ñaamúra ('sugar cane') ɲaamúra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto gononaɨ̀gɨ ('sugar cane') gononaɯ̀gɯ ('sugar cane') (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá pu pu See Language page Kelsey Neely
Záparo ichawkanaka itʃawkanaka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari kajitawi (Sousa2009) kajitawi (Sousa2009) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e'ka e'ka See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña šita; asoka (The former is "sugar cane"; the latter is sugar, from the Spanish "azucar"; Girard states that šita is borrowed from Panoan) šita; asoka See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara asukara (P04) asukara (Sp loan) See Language page PLE
Kwazá atsuka, atsukanũ, atsukakalo atsuka, atsukanũ, atsukakalo See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima ča-raye, asukar tʃa-raje (cane), asukar (sugar, from Sp.) See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai aroxo-roxo-k, kanauiia aroxo-roxo-k, kanauiia See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ŋrɛ̃ 'sugar' (IDS) ŋrɛ̃ 'sugar' (IDS) See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi bekidji bekidʒi See Language page PLE