Muinane

Family
Boran
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
bmr
Location
-0.87°, -72.42°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Aschmann, R. P. 1993. Proto Witotoan, SIL and University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 114. Dallas: SIL and University of Texas at Arlington. Walton, James W. and Walton, Janice P. and Pakky de Buenaventura, Clementina. 1997. Diccionario bilingüe: muinane-español ; español-muinane. Santafé de Bogot: Lleras Camargo.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location cáamo (W97) káamo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
and y e grammar bu, jáánaa, jáánéri (W97) bu, xáánaa, xáánéri See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment bai-gííxɨ bai-gííxɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
at en, a em, a location -βɨ -βɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
back espalda costas body yóobai jóobai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bad mal mal quality ími-tɨ-no ími-tɨ-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
belly barriga barriga body íiba, xéebɨɨ íiba, xέɛbɨɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location guííno, báavɨ (W97) gííno, báavɨ (W97) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
big grande grande quality mítya-no, gíráa-no, kééɸi-no bókkɨ-no, kóyɨ-no, tʸɨ́gaba mítʲa-no, gíráa-no, kέέɸi-no bókkɨ-no, kójɨ-no, tʲɨ́gaba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
black negro preto colour kɨβo-no kɨβo-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blood sangre sangue body tɨ́ɨ́-xóʔo tɨ́ɨ́-xóʔo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body cáillɨno (W97) káidʒɨno See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bone hueso osso body bákkɨ bákkɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body woman's breast: míɸaɲo woman's breast: míɸaɲo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
child niño, niña criança human séémene, gaí-ɸíí-séé {being-male-child} sέέmɛnɛ, gaí-ɸíí-sέέ {being-male-child} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment áimúufai (W97) (=smoke) áimúuɸai (W97) (=smoke) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cold frío frio quality sɨɨku sɨɨku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tḯkkóβo-bo, míyáá-no tɯ́kkóβo-bo, míjáá-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
day día dia time kúuxe kúuxɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality xííni-βa-no, béé-βa-no, mɨ́ʔɨni-βa-no, ɨ́díkku-no xííni-βa-no, bέέ-βa-no, mɨ́ʔɨni-βa-no, ɨ́díkku-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dry seco seco quality ɸííga-ño ɸííga-ɲo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality sɨ́ɨ́eβa-tɨ-no, gíʔi-no sɨ́ɨ́ɛβa-tɨ-no, gíʔi-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment pʰá-gíixɨ (powder classifier) pʰá-gíixɨ (powder classifier) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ear oreja orelha body nɨ́xɨ-meeʔu nɨ́xɨ-mɛɛʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment xíínɨ-(xe) xíínɨ-(xɛ) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna ííyɨ ííjɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
eye ojo olho body ááǰɨɨ áádʒɨɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
far lejos longe quality téʔesi-no tέʔɛsi-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body dɨ́ɨrɨba dɨ́ɨrɨba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship gíʔí(rubi) {vocative}, kááni gíʔí(rubi) {vocative}, kááni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna íxée-ne íxέɛ-nɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment kɨ́ɨxɨ-gai, kusííbai kɨ́ɨxɨ-gai, kusííbai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flower flor flor environment déeka, tá-dʸeeka-no (my flowers) dέɛka, tá-dʲɛɛka-no (my flowɛrs) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment áimúu-ɸai(ʔu) (cloud liquid/gas), súɨ áimúu-ɸai(ʔu) (cloud liquid/gas), súɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora óbáxákímaxe óbáxákímaxɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
good bueno bom quality ími-(no) ími-(no) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body nígaɨ-xeene nígaɨ-xɛɛnɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hand mano mão body úse úsɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar he: díi-bo, áxáa-nɨ; she: díi-go, áxáa-mo; it: xáá-no he: díi-bo, áxáa-nɨ; she: díi-go, áxáa-mo; it: xáá-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body nígaɨ nígaɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality bókkɨ-no bókkɨ-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
how? como como grammar mɨdʒɨ mɨdʒɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar úú-xóʔo úú-xóʔo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
if si se grammar -aččo, -aččixɨ -atʃtʃo, -atʃtʃixɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location fáño (W97) ɸáño See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body íiba, ííba-no (pl) íiba, ííba-no (pl) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lake lago lago environment káási, xɨkkóoba káási, xɨkkóoba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment áame áamɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body náni-ʔɨgo náni-ʔɨgo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body xúúnu-ga xúúnu-ga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment náme-ba, námé-ba-no (verb) námɛ-ba, námέ-ba-no (vɛrb) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
liver hígado figado body íga-no, íigá {his} íga-no, íigá {his} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality cáámovono (W97) káámoβono See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna gáañiʔu gáaɲiʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
man/male hombre homem human gáí-ɸi {being-male} gáí-ɸi {being-male} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna úúku, dúú-xoʔo {edible}, asímɨ úúku, dúú-xoʔo {edible}, asímɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
moon luna lua environment (ɸúkkuo) nɨ́ʔɨ-ba (ɸúkkuo) nɨ́ʔɨ-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship gáʔá(rubi) {vocative}, sééxɨ gáʔá(rubi) {vocative}, sέέxɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mouth boca boca body íi-xɨ íi-xɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
name nombre nome human mómo mómo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality fíitɨhi (W97) (= 'to not be far') ɸíitɨʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body kódááʔe kódááʔɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
new nuevo novo quality bóʔo-no, bo-, bu- bóʔo-no, bo-, bu- See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
night noche noite time ɸúkku ɸúkku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
no/not no não grammar chá (W97) tʃá (W97) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
nose nariz nariz body tɨ́xɨ-ʔu tɨ́xɨ-ʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
old viejo velho quality sɨ́kɨ́xeʔɨ-no, kóomo-bo {old age} sɨ́kɨ́xɛʔɨ-no, kóomo-bo {old age} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
one uno um number sááno sááno See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
other otro outro grammar sí- (W97) sí- See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body dɨ́ɨ́cɨba (W97) dɨ́ɨ́kɨba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human míyámɨnaa {people} míjámɨnaa {people} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment nííxa-ba nííxa-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour tɨ́ɸai-no tɨ́ɸai-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ímíyanago-no ímíjanago-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture xɨ́ɨ́-ʔai xɨ́ɨ́-ʔai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
root raíz raiz flora bakó-ʔoko {yajé root}, -tano bakó-ʔoko {jajέ root}, -tano See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality túúkɨ-no, núkúkuu-no túúkɨ-no, núkúkuu-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sand arena areia environment xíínɨ-gai-yɨ-ʔai {earth-piece-?-?} xíínɨ-gai-jɨ-ʔai {earth-piece-?-?} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality sɨ́ɨ́xéβa-no sɨ́ɨ́xέβa-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
short corto curto quality bááre-ne báárɛ-nɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body xɨ́xe-baɨ xɨ́xɛ-baɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental núcúfé- (W97) núcúɸé- See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
skin piel pele body méeʔe mέɛʔɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sky cielo céu environment níkke-xe níkkɛ-xɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality núméné-na, áxášu-no, áxášu-no-gayɨ númέnέ-na, áxáʃu-no, áxáʃu-no-gajɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment aimúu-ɸai(ʔu) {cloud-liquid/gas} aimúu-ɸai(ʔu) {cloud-liquid/gas} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
star estrella estrela environment méékɨrɨ-gai mέέkɨrɨ-gai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ɨ́meeʔ-i, dʒári-ga ɨ́mɛɛʔ-i, dʒári-ga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment gíisi-ba gíisi-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body ííbuʔu ííbuʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar xóʔono xóʔono See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar díí-to {pl}, díítɨ-si {m.d.}, díítɨ-ɸe {f.d.} díí-to {pl}, díítɨ-si {m.d.}, díítɨ-ɸɛ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ɸééme-ne ɸέέmɛ-nɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thin delgado fino quality ɨ́si-no, áñino ɨ́si-no, áɲino See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
this este/esta este grammar xíno, xííxe xíno, xííxɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ɨ́ɨ́-xóʔo ɨ́ɨ́-xóʔo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
throat garganta garganta body cójííhu (W97) kóxííʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
three tres tres number míínokkɨ sááno {two one} míínokkɨ sááno {two one} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment sísi sísi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bite morder morder body éédu-ʔi έέdu-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blow soplar soprar body ébásu-ʔi (light fire); búúsu-ʔi (fan); gísɨ-ʔi) (blow gun); ɸúúnɨ-ʔi (mouth); gíbú-ʔi) (wind) έbásu-ʔi (light fire); búúsu-ʔi (fan); gísɨ-ʔi) (blow gun); ɸúúnɨ-ʔi (mouth); gíbú-ʔi) (wind) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body jáguisɨhi (W97) xáguisɨʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment xɨ́gasu-ʔi, mérai-βe-ʔi xɨ́gasu-ʔi, mέrai-βɛ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body désácuhi (W97) désákuʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
climb subir subir motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
come venir vir motion sáá-ʔi sáá-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tɨ́ɨhi (W97) tɨ́ɨʔi (W97) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
count contar contar mental éévehi (W97) ééβeʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental táahi táaʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact gáβɨ́rɨ́ɨ́ku-ʔi, kíttɨ-ʔi, tútúku-ʔi gáβɨ́rɨ́ɨ́ku-ʔi, kíttɨ-ʔi, tútúku-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state gíxé-βe-ʔi, čééme-ʔi gíxέ-βɛ-ʔi, tʃέέmɛ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact séédi-ʔi sέέdi-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental tɨ́gahi (v.) tɨ́gaʔi (v.) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body ádu-ʔi ádu-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
eat comer comer body dúú-ʔi {meat}, gééne-ʔi {fruit}, máčču-ʔi dúú-ʔi {meat}, gέέnɛ-ʔi {fruit}, mátʃtʃu-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fall caer cair motion áákétte-ʔi (inanimate), áíɸe-ʔi (animate) áákέttɛ-ʔi (inanimatɛ), áíɸɛ-ʔi (animatɛ) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fear miedo medo mental ígi-ʔi, ñɨ́ʔikku-ʔi ígi-ʔi, ɲɨ́ʔikku-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion niiβa-ʔi (tone not known), kuu-ʔi niiβa-ʔi (tone not known), kuu-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fly volar voar motion gáʔáɸe-ʔi gáʔáɸɛ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grow crecer crescer state júsihi (W97) xúsiʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental gúúbu-ʔi gúúbu-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion fátánɨhi (W97) ɸátánɨʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ídʒáyu-ʔi, gáβíríku-ʔi, gánɨɨkɨ-ʔi, gáɸúúβe-ʔi (ref) ídʒáju-ʔi, gáβíríku-ʔi, gánɨɨkɨ-ʔi, gáɸúúβɛ-ʔi (rɛf) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ikka-ʔi (be), gááyɨkkɨnɨ-ʔi ikka-ʔi (bɛ), gáájɨkkɨnɨ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
kill matar matar impact gíxé-βe-su-ʔi, gíxé-nɨ-ʔi, gáikkáau-ʔi gíxέ-βɛ-su-ʔi, gíxέ-nɨ-ʔi, gáikkáau-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental gááxa-ʔi gááxa-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
laugh reír rir mental jéjébahi (W97) xéxébaʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion cágáivehi (W97) kágáiβeʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ícahi (W97) íkaʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other fááyɨ́cɨhi (W97) ɸáájɨ́kɨʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact gánɨɨcɨhi, gávírícuhi, púpúcuhi, úvútúsuhi (W97) gánɨɨkɨʔi, gáβíríkuʔi, púpúkuʔi, úβútúsuʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
say decir dizer mental néehi, jɨ́ɨ́béguehi (W97) néeʔi, xɨ́ɨ́bégueʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact dúnucɨhi (W97) dúnukɨʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
see ver ver mental áttyɨ́me-ʔi, méekkɨ-ʔi áttjɨ́mɛ-ʔi, mέɛkkɨ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact áñɨ́hi (W97) áñɨ́ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state gɨ́ɨ́-kkɨ́nɨ́-ʔi gɨ́ɨ́-kkɨ́nɨ́-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body kɨ́ga-ʔi kɨ́ga-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body xɨ́gíkku-ʔi (sniff), úsu-ʔi, nɨ́nɨɨkkɨ-ʔi xɨ́gíkku-ʔi (sniff), úsu-ʔi, nɨ́nɨɨkkɨ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body jɨ́ɨ́rébámáaihi (jɨɨre = saliva) xɨ́ɨ́rébámáaiʔi (xɨɨre = saliva) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact quísíívehi (W97) kísííβeʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact máámɨ-ʔi, áámɨ́su-ʔi (make hit), ñéñéku-ʔi, gátiañɨ-ʔi máámɨ-ʔi, áámɨ́su-ʔi (makɛ hit), ɲέɲέku-ʔi, gátiaɲɨ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact káɸáttʸɨ́kkɨ-ʔi (punch) káɸáttʲɨ́kkɨ-ʔi (punch) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state xúdʒééβe-ʔi xúdʒέέβɛ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
steal robar roubar other nánihi (W97) nániʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
suck chupar chupar body gééne-ʔi (fruit), múginɨ-ʔi (milk) gέέnɛ-ʔi (fruit), múginɨ-ʔi (milk) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body xúúri-ʔi xúúri-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion ísi-ʔi ísi-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
think pensar pensar mental ésámáá-ʔi έsámáá-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact gáɲú-ʔi, xɨkku-ʔi gáɲú-ʔi, xɨkku-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact sísɨ-ʔi, dúxéne-ʔi sísɨ-ʔi, dúxέnɛ-ʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other vííuhi (W97) βííuʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body íguíyuhi (W97) íguíjuʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion ɨ́guehi (W97) ɨ́gueʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other dúdɨ́cámáaihi (W97) dúdɨ́kámáaiʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body néxe-ba nέxɛ-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tooth diente dente body íí-gai, íí-ga-ñe {pl} íí-gai, íí-ga-ñɛ {pl} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
two dos dois number míínokkɨ míínokkɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
water agua agua environment ɸaiʔu, nɨ́-ɸáíʔu {water-liquid/gas} ɸaiʔu, nɨ́-ɸáíʔu {water-liquid/gas} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mɨ́ɨ́-ʔai {pl}, mɨ́-si {m.d.}, mɨ́-ɸe {f.d.} mɨ́ɨ́-ʔai {pl}, mɨ́-si {m.d.}, mɨ́-ɸɛ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality ɸéé-ɸa-ño máá-ño ɸέέ-ɸa-ɲo máá-ɲo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar xínéxe xínέxɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar (kú)súmi (kú)súmi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
where? donde onde grammar kúúka kúúka See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
white blanco branco colour séséé-ne sέsέέ-nɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar ká-xáá-nɨ {m}, ká-xáá-mo {f}, mɨ́xɨ́ ká-xáá-nɨ {m}, ká-xáá-mo {f}, mɨ́xɨ́ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship táaba, áttʸáaba táaba, áttjáaba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wind viento vento environment gíbúʔu-ba gíbúʔu-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wing ala asa body xɨ́xeku xɨ́xɛku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human gáí-go {being-female} gáí-go {being-female} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour gíí-giβa-no gíí-giβa-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar amɨ́ɨ́-ʔai {pl}, amɨ́ɨ́-si {m.d.}, amɨ́ɨ́-ɸe {f.d.} amɨ́ɨ́-ʔai {pl}, amɨ́ɨ́-si {m.d.}, amɨ́ɨ́-ɸɛ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
foot pie body tɨ-ʔai tɨ-ʔai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar dójɨcuvɨro (W97) dóxɨkuβɨro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
all todo todos other ɸámóro (all people), ɸáá-no, párʸɨɨ-(kɨ-no) (everything) ɸámóro (all people), ɸáá-no, párʲɨɨ-(kɨ-no) (everything) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body rúúbuɨ (W97) rúúbuɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body námo (W97) námo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body βáβáágano, βáaβaga (sing.), xɨ́-gisɨ-ba (blow?) βáβáágano, βáaβaga (sing.), xɨ́-gisɨ-ba (blow?) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body túgáahi (W97) túgáaʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bark corteza casca environment (kuu)-mééʔu (kuu)-mέέʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fingernail uña unha body úse-gai-méeʔu {hand-finger-shell} úsɛ-gai-mέɛʔu {hand-finger-shell} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
heart corazón coração body kɨ́ɨdɨɨ, xéebɨɨ kɨ́ɨdɨɨ, xέɛbɨɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sun sol sol time (kúuxe-o) nɨ́ʔɨ-ba (kúuxɛ-o) nɨ́ʔɨ-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment (-)báaɨ, -gáxɨ {gorge}, káamo-βo baaɨ́, káamo-βo-gaxɨ (-)báaɨ, -gáxɨ {gorge}, káamo-βo baaɨ́, káamo-βo-gaxɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
green verde verde quality attyɨ́βa-no attjɨ́βa-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hot caliente quente quality áígúkku-no, ɸóómoβaku-no {warm}, gánúkúú-no {very} áígúkku-no, ɸóómoβaku-no {warm}, gánúkúú-no {very} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. kíkíxe kíkíxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna xóóɨ xóóɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. kɨ́gáʔo kɨ́gáʔo See Language page Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. nɨ́go, xɨ́ɨ́kkɨgai, rɨ́ʔúúʔu, bárʸígai nɨ́go, xɨ́ɨ́kkɨgai, rɨ́ʔúúʔu, bárʲígai See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ɸéékaxe ɸéékaxe See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae cúúváru (W97) kúúβáru See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ɸááibe, rúúbéǰɨ ɸááibe, rúúbédʒɨ See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae tááhu (W97) tááʔu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes βááú, márúúku, búru, βádu (H&R92) βááú, márúúku, búru See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. xéeβa, ínóʔai, ééréda xéeβa, ínóʔai, ééréda See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kɨ́ɨ́rába, {many more} kɨ́ɨ́rába, {many more} See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae nímɨihu (W97) nímɨiʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae búcaɨ, túúnumo (W97) búkaɨ, túúnumo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae áñɨ, súkkuga áɲɨ, súkkuga See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family víheje (W97) βíhexe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba jíhíchɨ́ba (W97) xíʔítʃɨ́ba See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae babáiho, jɨ́suɨ (W97) babáiʔo, xɨ́suɨ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris xɨ́kku {see jaguar/puma} xɨ́kku {see jaguar/puma} See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) xééxɨ, túúxe xééxɨ, túúxe See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri góóɨ, nɨɨguiba (dasypus kappleri, R95) góóɨ See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. dáágui (W97) dáágui See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. níhiba, meedúba (W97) níʔiba, meedúba See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna táaβa táaβa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae gáíkku-xe, nítta gáíkku-xe, nítta See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. mácáaba, mɨ́hɨba táfáihu (W97) (both catfish types) mákáaba, mɨ́ʔɨba táɸáihu (W97) (both catfish types) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. tánóoba (W97) tánóoba See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura xakúkúga, bɨ́ɨ́riʔi, níxaga, mɨ́ɨ́méba, xáákkɨba, βaúra xakúkúga, bɨ́ɨ́riʔi, níxaga, mɨ́ɨ́méba, xáákkɨba, βaúra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. mááɲáʔu, xúúčáíʔi {chameleon} mááɲáʔu, xúútʃáíʔi {chameleon} See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata júúchaihi, maatyícu (W97) xúútʃaihi, maatjíku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. báje (W97) báxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura nɨhɨbaje (W97) nɨhɨbaxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes búúa, ígáíβatɨ búúa, ígáíβatɨ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae búua, ígáiba (W97) búua, ígáiba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna xíinimo; íttɨ {small snake} xíinimo; íttɨ {small snake} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox rattlesnake: táakaʔo {sabanera} rattlesnake: táakaʔo {sabanera} See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria xúʔúpúku xúʔúpúku See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis jámana (W97) xámana See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) tóotoba (W97) tóotoba See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. túúgaiyɨ (W97) túúgaijɨ See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa ínoho (W97) ínoʔo See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana jáje (W97) xáxe See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes móomo móomo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua cumare (W97) kumare See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca xííbi-(ʔo) xííbi-(ʔo) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) xáʔadi xáʔadi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens déé dέέ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus quíllaha (W97) kídʒaʔa See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum búi-ga búi-ga See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ɨxe-(ba) (H&R92); táávaɨ́jehi (W97) ɨxe-(ba) (H&R92); tááβaɨ́xeʔi (W97) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) súkkumexe (weeds), ɸáíxɨ súkkumɛxɛ (weeds), ɸáíxɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays béǰa {borr. From Huitoto?} bέdʒa {borr. From Huitoto?} See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum báñójɨ báñíxɨ See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ɨ́mo-ʔo ɨ́mo-ʔo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana nóobaba nóobaba See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. tɨ́ɨsi (W97) tɨ́ɨsi See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana cúújɨ (W97) kúúxɨ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] jéréécu (W97) xérééku See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana cáatɨ (=leaf for paint) (W97) káatɨ (=leaf for paint) (W97) See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. máaquinicu (W97) máakiniku See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia báacu (W97) báaku See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta féeca (W97) ɸéeca See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta fáicúumɨɨ (W97) ɸáikúumɨɨ See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ǰírúúmɨba dʒírúúmɨba See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. kɨ́ni-rumi kɨ́ni-rumi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) xááxe, xáʔaxe, dúutuʔu; domeco, merígɨ (Allin, 'gourd'); théʔkhépa (H&R 'gourd') xááxɛ, xáʔaxɛ, dúutuʔu See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. múúhuɨ 'vine' (W97) múúʔuɨ 'vine' See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. jɨ́ɨ́mino (W97) xɨ́ɨ́mino See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi bákotamɨ bákotamɨ See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae generic ant: ɸíimo generic ant: ɸíimo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata tɨ́ɨ́fomogai (W97) tɨ́ɨ́ɸomogai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ííhɨjoɨ (W97) ííʔɨxoɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis nɨ́ɨ́bɨri, mɨ́ɨbɨriʔɨ (cf. Tukano??) nɨ́ɨ́bɨri, mɨ́ɨbɨriʔɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria góogaiba (W97) góogaiba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae méécɨrɨgai (W97) méékɨrɨgai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tyúhútyúba (W97) tjúʔútjúba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda aacába, rálláhiigai, rɨ̵́ɨ́llɨhu (W97) aakába, rádʒáʔiigai, rɨ̵́ɨ́dʒɨʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones júúvehu (W97) xúúβeʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea llááríbaje, llíreyɨ (W97) dʒááríbaxe, dʒírejɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera xɨ́ɨ́ku-gai xɨ́ɨ́ku-gai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera gíinixa gíinixa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae séseruba, cháhácába, síísi (W97) séseruba, tʃáʔákába, síísi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. áfaicu (W97) áɸaiku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae dúúmójo, éjeecuga (W97) dúúmóxo, éxeekuga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. gáai-xɨ-ba, upijˇɨ gáai-xɨ-ba, upijˇɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera mɨ́ǰɨ́gíyɨ, máʔarɨ, táabano mɨ́dʒɨ́gíyɨ, máʔarɨ, táabano See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tɨfímɨje (W97) tɨɸímɨxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita guísɨ́re (W97) guísɨ́re See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda xɨ́siku xɨ́siku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ɸáaga-xe, xɨ́ɨ́múʔai, ííkkuxe ɸáaga-xe, xɨ́ɨ́múʔai, ííkkuxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca xɨ́kku {=dog}; heko, hoku (R95); uunubajiecu (R95) xɨ́kku {=/dog} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha cɨɨmi (R95) kɨɨmi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] íyu; yu (R95), illumɨ (R95) (cf. Minica/Murui) íju, ijumɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella chullilli (R95); kɨdʒíba, tʃujíjí (H&R92) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons jímuhai (R95) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus xɨ́bííǰaxe; méecu (R95) [Carib loan] xɨ́bíídʒaxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae uuga (R95) úuga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis bumóomo (R95) bumóomo (R95) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis súkku súkku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu méeni; faafaiba, saamaiba (R95) méeni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari ɸááɸaiba; meení (R95) ɸááɸaiba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae dááráɨ, tánííniba (W97) dááráɨ, tánííniba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua iigomɨ, noobaiigo (R95) iigomɨ, noobaiigo (R95) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. ɸáttɨ ɸáttɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris nimɨ́-tɨ́ɨ́ʔe nimɨ́-tɨ́ɨ́ʔe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti jɨɨcimo (R95) dʒɨɨkimo (R95) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) tákkɨ tákkɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus gíiɸo {field mouse}, bííččaɨ {house mouse} gíiɸo {field mouse}, bíítʃtʃaɨ {house mouse} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae tiitiu (R95) [cf. Cofan] tiitiu (R95) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tɨ́ɨʔe tɨ́ɨʔe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus níiβɨ-gai {red}, xííbai {white} níiβɨ-gai {red}, xííbai {white} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus jééjɨ (also = anteater; mule) (W97) xééxɨ (also = anteater; mule) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material jɨhicu, jɨííbai, sáicɨbai (W97) xɨʔiku, xɨííbai, sáikɨbai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material kɨ́ga-íixe, kɨ́ga-taxe kɨ́ga-íixɛ, kɨ́ga-taxɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material gááí-ba gááí-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material íkka-ga íkka-ga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport mééne-ga {canoe-long} mέέne-ga {canoe-long} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture kɨ́ɨ́mɨ-ba kɨ́ɨ́mɨ-ba Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology ápíchúubo (W97) ápítʃúubo In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology táábúmɨnaaɸi táábúmɨnaaɸi Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material guíjáaba (W97) guíxáaba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology gááchehu, -chéhu (W97) gáátʃeʔu, -tʃéhu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
firewood leña lenha other kúúxo-ʔo {firewood-wood} kúúxo-ʔo {firewood-wood} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology méei (W97) méei malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology gáija (W97) gáixa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology mócaani ('our father=God'); mohéédeebe (traditional deity) mókaani ('God'); moʔéédeebe (traditional deity) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology mɨríícu (Yurupari trumpet?); sírumeeje, tyotyítyiba mɨrííku (Yurupari trumpet?); sírumeexe, tjotjítjiba multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology gáánaba gáánaba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material mééyuʔu mέέjuʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material níísúga níísúga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool xɨ́gáá-xe {axe-flat} xɨ́gáá-xɛ {axe-flat} especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool tɨɨbú-ga {arrow-long} tɨɨbú-ga {arrow-long} hunting, warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool áámɨ áámɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool tɨɨbú-ga tɨɨbú-ga arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport búʔúdú-ga búʔúdú-ga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material búútáje (W97) búútáxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool gírí-ʔiǰu gírí-ʔidʒu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tazáhillu (W97) [Sp loan]; cábɨ́ɨ́cɨga (W97) tazáhidʒu; kábɨ́ɨ́kɨga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool jɨ́goba (W97) xɨ́goba agriculture? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology xáá-ku, gáadai xáá-ku, gáadai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool máani (W97) máani See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wax cera cera other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
honey miel mel food íímɨhu (W97) íímɨʔu only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture gáaibaɨ (of hammock), dúuxe-yɨ gáaibaɨ (of hammock), dúuxɛ-jɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material jáje (W97) xáxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology mínɨhai (W97) mínɨʔai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation áámene ɨ́ɨ́fɨnɨcɨja (lit. 'house where one looks at books') (W97) áámene ɨ́ɨ́ɸɨnɨkɨxa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation sáyu (W97) sáju See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation áame (=leaf) (W97) áame See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tɨ́gahi ('to dream') (W97) tɨ́gahi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cátáva (W97) kátáβa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology cɨ́ɨ́hójɨ (W97) kɨ́ɨ́ʔóxɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation náámoguiijɨ 'sweet powder' (W97) náámoguiixɨ 'sweet powder' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material guíínooja (W97) guíínooxa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation ámócasimɨnaafi (='fighter') (W97) ámókasimɨnaaɸi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation mííshi mííʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation áñɨ́jɨ (from 'shoot') (W97) áñɨ́jɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress nɨ́jega (from 'shelter') (W97) nɨ́xega (W97) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology áivojɨɨbo (W97) áiβoxɨɨbo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool gáihuɨdaahe (W97) gáiʔuɨdaaʔe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress nɨ́ɨtahɨ (W97) nɨ́ɨtaʔɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
salt sal sal food ɨ́muhu 'salt'; átyóga 'sal de monte' (W97) ɨ́muʔu 'salt'; átjóga 'sal de monte' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology másijɨ (W97) másixɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool gisɨ́-xɨ {blow-tube} gisɨ́-xɨ {blow-tube} currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pépecuta (W97) pépekuta esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food cádéréyɨcɨhi (W97) kádéréjɨkɨʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food cáánɨhi (W97) káánɨhi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food dúúdújahi (W97) dúúdúxaʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ási 'animal (gen.)' (W97) ási 'animal (gen.)' Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool xááxe, dúutuʔu (Allin, 'gourd'); théʔkhépa (H&R 'gourd') xááxɛ, dúutuʔu, théʔkhépa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool tɨááfai (W97) tɨááɸai [loan Witoto] esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool mééje (W97), -iixe (A93) mééxe, -iixe (A93) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool cábɨ́ɨ́cɨga (W97) kábɨ́ɨ́kɨga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool cábɨ́ɨ́cɨga (W97) kábɨ́ɨ́kɨga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture móomoba {peach-palm} móomoba {peach-palm} prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food máchuguiijɨ (cf. machu 'food') (W97) mátʃuguiixɨ agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food máahu, áigúúcúhɨ́ca (casabe caliente o fresco), ítaɨca (casabe de almidón), túucɨ máahu (casabe preparado de la yuca podrida), súcúga (casabe tostada) máaʔu, áigúúcúʔɨ́ca (casabe caliente o fresco), ítaɨca (casabe de almidón), túucɨ máahu (casabe preparado de la yuca podrida), súcúga (casabe tostada)" usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ítácu (W97) ítáku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food cáágɨnɨcu (W97) káágɨnɨku agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food gádameehu (W97) gádameeʔu word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool námita (W97) námita hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool nítɨba (W97) nítɨba (W97) agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool worm: xɨ́ʔɨba, čúʔúi worm: xɨ́ʔɨba, tʃúʔúi can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool cabóvono, cabóhovo, cábuucuba, ígáhaiba, jɨ́hicu, sésu, úújúmeebe (W97) kabóβono, kabóʔovo, kábuukuba, ígáʔaiba, xɨ́ʔiku, sésu, úúxúmeebe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
house other íí-xa, káamooxa {with floor} íí-xa, káamooxa {with floor} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE