Semantic Field
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese


Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla missing missing Jane Hill
Cupeño missing missing Jane Hill
Luiseño to$ngukat policeman, officer, justice of the peace, commander,director, principal (of school), driver unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino missing missing Jane Hill
Serrano wyčy:ka7 police officer unique analysis uncertain, root looks like 'man' to me JHH other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk missing missing Jane Hill
Tübatulabal nahhakkannan sheriff, police, agent unique derived, other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim missing missing Jane Hill
Kawaiisu poro-ga-dy policeman unique poro 'club, nightstick' derived, other complex poro 'to walk with a stick' Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tapicacI lawman, police unknown same in S. Ute derived, other complex tapic 'tie' Press 1979 Jane Hill
Southern Paiute missing missing Jane Hill
Southern Ute tApi-c7a-cI sheriff, policeman unknown same in Chemehuevi derived, other complex tApic7ay 'tie, handcuff' Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone potongkwantyn policeman, cop (one characterized by a club) unique compound Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tyca-ttemah policeman unique compound temaah 'to obey' Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche tyyhtamuh raibo7 policeman, sheriff unique phrase whiteman who ties us up R Jane Hill
Western Mono missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tuggwutumadu police unique compound, other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Plains Miwok ceri:fe policeman loan Spanish WW %cherife simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok čiríife police loan Spanish WW %cherife simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu missing missing Jane Hill
Nisenan missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo missing missing Jane Hill
Wintu činitopi sheriff (lit. one who catches) semantic shift derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki missing missing Jane Hill
Wappo číri:fa7 policeman, sheriff loan Spanish WW %cherife simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun missing missing Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno missing missing Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa kuchutt boss, leader, ruler, chief, policeman unknown also pooliis derived agentive ku- Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa capáy kWaxí:r policeman unknown phrase person catch Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave pi7pa kuchiir policeman unknown phrase achhiir 'imprison many people' Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai missing missing Jane Hill
Kiliwa ipaa-m=kw+skwaa-y policeman (lit. people guard) unknown compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ziix quixáaza soldier, police (persona con arma) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kotiria surara surara loan WW Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Hup podiciya (policia) podicija (policia) loan Portuguese maybe via Tukano Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw lêgad legad missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Eñepa timinchemënë', wariya (on call) (MM); timintʃemënëʔ, warija (on call) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Burarra an-batyirra unique Claire Bowern
Gumatj biḻityuman loan Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ḏapman loan with semantic shift Claire Bowern
Yulparija kaluŋarnarra semantic shift Claire Bowern
Warrwa li:mba, li:nyju loan WW %limpa Claire Bowern
Bardi li:nytya semantic shift Claire Bowern
Nimanburru limb semantic shift Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul limba semantic shift Claire Bowern
Karajarri limpa loan WW %limpa Claire Bowern
Nyikina limpa, linytyu semantic shift Claire Bowern
Jawi linja semantic shift Claire Bowern
Yawuru linju semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ngarluma marntamaraŋka loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga ŋuwahtyirr@h semantic shift Claire Bowern
Mangala rlinytyu loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr widirr unknown Claire Bowern
Walmajarri limpa loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
Mudburra tyikalawurru derived tyikala chain <spinifex wax HAVING derived Patrick McConvell
Jaru ngarrampalyaka unknown Patrick McConvell
Gurindji munungku loan Jaminjung string, semantic shift WW %munungku Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi limpa loan Walmajarri WW %limpa Patrick McConvell
Bunuba limpa loan Karajarri WW %limpa Patrick McConvell
Djapu rdapman loan with semantic shift Claire Bowern
Jingulu ngarrampalyaka unknown Patrick McConvell
Kija mernmertkaliny inheritance tie (mert) REDUP AGENT complex Patrick McConvell
Miriwung tyentupang inheritance string (tyentu) HAING complex Patrick McConvell
Wardaman yinyikpan inheritance <nyik ?tie [not listed] complex Patrick McConvell
Paresi sorare sorare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yukpa kurip sené, porihia, porisia See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Yagua podiciya podisiya See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa ćura'nau'icah s'uraɁnauɁisah See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Cavineña purisha (C&L89) puriʃa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Lokono bariri baɾiɾi police officer (m. or f.) Pet 1987:368 Camille Unger
Kariña typepotyren tɨpepotɨren police officer Courtz 2007:403 Camille Unger