Ngarluma

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
nrl
Location
-21.61°, 116.84°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nganarna inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ngaliguru semantic shift Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngayi inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nyindaguru semantic shift Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar yenco and yeenta inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar palu-kurla Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar balu Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location gankara-nguru inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ngardilyilba inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other jurlu inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body bardara inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ngunamarra Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental ngayiny kurnta-ku Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment mirriny unique Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ka Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body murru inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality walyga Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wanka inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body ngarlu inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location gardangga Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality mirrga Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body bilya unique Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour warru inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body marda inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body buyungka-lku Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality burlbu unique Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body guji loan Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture wirrba unique Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body bibi inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngayini Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment gamba inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body bilya(-lgu) unique Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human manyga Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion garlba Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment garndara Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality muthu Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion guga''y Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact gamba inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental yinda(-lgu) unique Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental ngaji_x001E_ku inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact wirnda Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state nyurndiwarni(-gu) Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact binku Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna mujira Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality kurnturrkurru unique Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental pukarrija-lku Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body pincharoo, pin jalgo Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality biju Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment gurndurr loan Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body gurlga inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment barla Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body baja Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna jimbu Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body thurla Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body marna unique Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion bungga Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality warrba Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body jinji Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship jabu Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental wayagabu Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna bardu Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment bugarra Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna wagari Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion yinti-ku Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment birdibirdi Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion burru Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment gubilya Claire Bowern
foot pie body jina Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora japaja Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality waba unique Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state tharra-ku unique Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body gurlgura Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body mara Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body yurlga unique Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental wanyabarri Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality ngunggumarnda Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion milyi(-gu) Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact batha-rrgu inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact guthanyga unique Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ganyirni(-gu) Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar wantharni inheritance Claire Bowern
if si se grammar wayi particle unique Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location thurnu Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body bunga unique Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body yimilngali(-gu) Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact nyurntika-lku Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 710 Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental thurni Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment barrga inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jambu Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body watha Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ngarri(-gu) Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment warlibirdi Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body ngamarri Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality marndiwangga Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna gulu Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body walharn Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human kartu Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna murla Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment wilarra Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ngangga Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body thaya Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human yini Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body nhanka Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality murna Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body ngalyi Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality yijangu Claire Bowern
night noche noite time thunthu unique Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar mirda Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body mulha Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality nhandirndi unique Claire Bowern
one uno um number gunyjimu inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other thayaka-lku unique Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar kunjirri Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human mayaga Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body yimirl unique Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment yoongoo Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour martamarta Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body mayangu unique Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture yirdiya Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora nhayi unique Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality ngurlungurlu Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment nharnu Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental wangka(-gu) Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact yirrba(-gu) unique Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental nhagu Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality bajaburdu unique Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact mirndilyga(-lgu) Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality gambu unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body barrgara Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body wirraku Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state barni Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body gaburn Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment barlbar Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body bamba Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality gurlugurlu Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body bund\ilgo Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment burlgurn unique Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body witharla ngayi(-lgu) Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact garnda Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact jumpi-lku Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact garda-ga(-lgu) Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state karri-ku Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment birndirri Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other muja(-lgu) Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment marnda Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body binyja(-lgu)[future -ru] Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time yarnda Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body nganyurda Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body murramurrarri(-gu) Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion buntha Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body warndi Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar ngunthal unique Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ngungkumarnda unique Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality balya [plural -bura] Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental wanyabarri unique Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar nhurdu Claire Bowern
three tres tres number burrgu Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body mira unique Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ngayi Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment woleberree unique Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact janka(lgu) Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body yalhuru Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body yirra inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality thurrkurl Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wagardarri (-gu) Claire Bowern
two dos dois number gutharra Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body galgarl Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion jeena walki, wakye Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment baba Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality manthi Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nhala unique Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nhalawarra unique Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wantharni Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour mirdamirda Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar ngana Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship ngurranyu unique Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment thurda Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body marrirli Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human manga Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other (<English. + marni-) Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body jaama(gu) Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour biyulu Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae yuŋkurrtyi unique goanna species in Pilbara, but that’s presumably a coincidence 0 0 0 0 0
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus ŋurluwarnta unique 0 0 0 0 0
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia kartukarli inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer missing missing 1 1 0 0 0
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp marrimarri inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris kawiwarnta kawiwarnta loan direction unknown Yindjibarndi 0 0 0 0 0
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna murla semantic shift 0 0 0 0 0
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing 0 2 0 0 0
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis mata mata loan Pilbara missing 0 1 0 0 0
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri parlkarriŋu parlkarriŋu loan direction unknown Yulparija 0 1 1 0 0
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae kuthupulkura unique 0 0 0 0 0
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species thaliwarru unique 0 1 0 0 0
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii karrupurlu unique 0 0 0 0 0
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda ya:rnkarra inheritance 1 0 0 0 0
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula walampari unique 0 1 0 0 0
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) kumpukumpurra kumpukumpurra loan direction unknown WW %kumpurla 0 0 0 0 0
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius wilumarra inheritance 1 0 0 0 0
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis pinkarrara unique 0 0 0 1 0
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis partura inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing 0 1 2 0 1
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota puyura unique 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera paŋa inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
catfish flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda minarraŋu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes winytyun unique 0 0 0 0 0
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus nyurna inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo mutyira inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris wanytya inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae ŋaranti inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong nyamina inheritance 1 1 0 0 0
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae tyankurna inheritance 2 1 2 0 0
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wakari inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
flower flora-fauna (NA) pirtipirti semantic shift butterfly 0 0 0 0 0
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera purru unknown 0 0 0 0 0
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) waramurruŋka inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla pilhaku pilhaku loan direction unknown WW %pilyaku 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) thatharruka inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp waŋkarli unique 0 1 2 0 0
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) warrapa inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera watyapi inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis missing missing 1 0 0 0 0
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus kulu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawarta yawarta loan WW %yawarta 0 0 0 0 0
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae kartarra unique missing 1 1 0 0 0
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic pirna pirna unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae maŋkuru maŋkuru loan direction unknown Nyangumarta 2 1 0 0 0
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata warnturla semantic shift? 0 1 0 0 0
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kumirn inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
native bee flora-fauna (many species) wanpari inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus marrtyuru unique 0 0 0 0 0
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis missing missing 1 1 0 0 1
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya missing missing 0 0 1 0 0
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing 1 1 0 0 1
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca yilinpirrira inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis kurrparu kurrparu loan direction unknown WW WW %kurrparu 0 0 0 0 0
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus pirtanhu unique missing 0 1 0 0 0
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis wirraŋkura inheritance 2 0 1 0 1
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda winyarraŋu inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus missing missing 2 2 0 0 0
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones karlantya inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
shell (generic) flora-fauna pirrapirra pirrapirra loan with meaning change 0 1 0 0 1
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus tyiripuka tyiripuka loan tyiri prickle 0 2 0 0 0
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia malykan malykan loan direction unknown 0 0 1 0 0
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae kanparr inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species paru paru loan direction unknown WW %paru 0 0 2 0 0
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae pilaŋara unique 0 1 0 0 0
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
sugarbag wax flora-fauna pulka inheritance 1 1 0 0 0
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita pirtirra inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides thuli inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera muŋku inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) manthu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata kurlipirn unique 0 0 1 0 0
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina pina unknown 0 0 0 0 0
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wakurra inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) warnta inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma martuwari unique 0 1 2 0 0
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis yirriŋan semantic shift? 0 0 1 0 1
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax wanpaŋu unique 1 0 0 0 0
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys tyirrityirri tyirrityirri loan direction unknown WW WW %tyirrikik reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) parti inheritance 0 1 2 0 0
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna warnda Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna waruma inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna murla unique Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna guthubulgura unique Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna wanyja Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna peela or peelan,worroba Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna mangguru Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna warlu Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna ganbarr Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress missing Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool katyu doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool wirrpa doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material thartu inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material warlikalpuhtharri unique Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport maŋarr unique Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool wana inheritance Claire Bowern
cook food food kampa inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food martumpirri loan direction unknown WW %martumpirri Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology ŋurruŋurru unique Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool binkubuntharri warnda unique Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology maŋkan unique Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology thalu inheritance Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology ŋaripi unique Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool pirtutyula unique Claire Bowern
fire-saw other tyiluŋarta inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other thama doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool kawiwarnta inheritance Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool thayakupu unique Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food murla inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology warruka unique Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology thuŋkari inheritance Claire Bowern
grog food kari semantic shift WW %kari Claire Bowern
hair belt dress purruru unique also ngarirri, shared with Nyangumarta Claire Bowern
headband dress karliwara unique Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology maparnkalara, maparnkarra loan direction unknown WW %maparn Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food malhaŋarra unique Claire Bowern
house (European) other ŋurra semantic shift Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food wiyanu inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology para loan WW %para Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material nhayipa (<Eŋlish.) loan English Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kayirr-wara unique Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool matyarra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
nosepeg other mulyayirta unique Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology piyulu inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology martarr inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool pulka doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food tyintharr doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other mirtu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology kunaŋu doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool kurrtyarta inheritance Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool warlparra loan Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool kurrpiny inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material mirrityi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation kuntharu unique Claire Bowern
tea food tyiyi (<Eŋlish.) loan English WW tea Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics ŋamari semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics pulku inheritance Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other pulka inheritance Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology tyilpa unique? Claire Bowern
windbreak other wuŋku inheritance Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material thartu inheritance Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool thakurra inheritance also parruparru, turtle net, which is a loan Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation patulpa loan English WW bottle Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation mirlimirli loan English WW %milimili Claire Bowern
corpse food missing Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology wara doubtful loan Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tyutyiku loan Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food yapan loan direction unknown areal Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation marntamaraŋka loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation putyi loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tyilaman loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress tyaŋkurru loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture binyjura unique Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture majarra Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool binkubuntharri warnda unique Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture waribi(-lgu) unique Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture barruru unique Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool meero Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool gurrjarda loan Claire Bowern
house other mirdu unknown Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium mobile unknown