ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit

Semantic Field
culture-mythology
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio
Meaning Portuguese
espirito

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla tewlavel spirit of the dead, deceased person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex tew- see corpse Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cahuilla tewlavel spirit of the dead, deceased person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño pi'mukish ghost, spirit, devil unique contains *muk 'die' compound, other complex pi7 'bewitch', muk 'die sg' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Cupeño pi'mukish ghost, spirit, devil unique compound, other complex pi7 'bewitch' muk 'die' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño toowish 'alaxwish evil spirit inheritance *tywi- Takic Yok-Utian Stubbs 1799 WW %7el phrase Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Luiseño toowish spirit, ghost, deceased person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino she-soo Devil or bad spirit loan unknown should be added to list of substratal vocab in Gab. simplex Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
Gabrielino ah-ni't ghost unique other complex Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
Serrano tyīt death spirit, devil inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Jane Hill
Serrano tyīt death spirit, devil inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tüy-t spirit, ghost, person that has died, 'diablo' inheritance *tew Takic other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tüy-t spirit, ghost, person that has died, 'diablo' inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal āpawwinal devil, ghost, soul unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Tübatulabal āpawwinal ghost unique other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim ah-bo-oo-nat devil or bad spirit unique Same as Tub but these are really same lg other complex Merriam 49:201 Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim tow-tah a dead person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Merriam 49:199 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7yny-pi spirit, ghost inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7yny-pi spirit, ghost inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Jane Hill
Chemehuevi 7ynypI spirit inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Jane Hill
Chemehuevi 7ynypI spirit (spirit, ghost in Press 1979) inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute 7yny-G evil spirit, devil, ghost inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Paiute 7yny-G evil spirit, devil, ghost inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute 7yry-cI ghost, evil spirit, monster inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Givon Jane Hill
Southern Ute 7yry-cI ghost, evil spirit, monster inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tsoapittsi ghost, spirit. Devil, whirlwind inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tsoapittsi ghost, spirit. Devil, whirlwind inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone co7a-ppiccih ghost, monster (mythological creature) inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone co7a-ppyh, co7a ghost, spirit of dead person inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche Tuhkwasi taiboo7 Satan, devil unique phrase Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
Comanche pye tyjaii7 ghost, evil spirit inheritance *ja7ay Numic Stubbs 2011 656; has the *ty- element too like towish, etc. phrase R Jane Hill
Western Mono missing missing Jane Hill
Western Mono tso7Ape ghost, daddy-long-legs spider inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tsa7abu evil spirit inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tah-ko-hub ghost unique tsa7aby L. 748 other complex Merriam 46:459 (Lone Pine, Big Pine) Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok jamlo- devil loan Spanish also tijawlo-; jamlo- probably an earlier loan WW %diablo simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok hu:leh- ghost inheritance *şu:les- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:19 simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok lé:ši-ško-, šu:le-ško- ghost inheritance *şu:les- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:19 other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok jalmycyT:i- monster, big scary thing loan Spanish WW %diablo other complex jalmycy- dangerous, scary Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok su:lehko-, su:lesko- ghost (of a dead person); devil; will-o'-the-wsp inheritance *şu:les- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:19 other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok jawlu- devil, Night Rider loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok 7ël7i7ko- ghost, skeleton inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58 WW %7el other complex suffix -ko 'personal'?? Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Lake Miwok wuTe to be wild, ghost unknown note Mie wyt:a 'to wail for the dead' simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu by/dem májdy evil spirit, diet of snakes only unique phrase byde 'evil, bad, weird, criminal'; májdy 'person' bear??? Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Maidu kulúm májdy spirit person, ghost; lit. "darkness person" unique ŭs-ki-im spirit after leaving body Merriam 41:287. ŭs-wal-loo-loo phrase Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan 7ys devil inheritance Proto-Maiduan 7ys 'devil' in Maidu simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Nisenan missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani hiT'wa:yu7 Evil One inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts Merriam confirms 44:197; also at Porterville Merriam 44:459; note Yawdanchi hitcwaiu 'ghost' Kroeber 275 derived Newman 1944 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani hitwaia-n ghost (objective) inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived verbal noun in -a(7)?? Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi hitcwa/iu ghost inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts note Yawelmani hiT'wa:yu7 'Evil One' in Newman; Merriam gives yem-tah' witch-e 'spirit after leaving body' 44:197; ā-yum'-che' 'ghost' 44:197. me-tri'-ah 44:355 derived verbal noun, see Yawl. Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami el-lit'R devil or bad spirit inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58; compare Cupan 7elel7ish 'bad' and I think this is other places too, find WW %7el simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami elit ghost (Kroeber) inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58 WW %7el simplex Callaghan 1997:58 Jane Hill
Washo dewYú7li7 devil unknown derived d- prefix, and somehow from yuli 'die' Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Washo dewYúli spirit of the dead, ghost, skeleton unknown derived d- Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu tewismet devil, Devil inheritance *tewe Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2000:127 'to fly, go up' includes sense of 'dangerous' derived tew 'dangerous' Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
Wintu Les shade, shadow, ghost, spirit inheritance *Les Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:120 simplex might be from LE 'to be transformed' Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
Yuki yaw'-mŭ devil or bad spirit, ghost loan Spanish WW %diablo simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
Yuki hulk'ilal ghost inheritance *hulk'ilal Proto-North Yukian compound includes "eye" (Schlichter 1985:48) Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo missing missing Jane Hill
Wappo 7unuchápa ghost, spirit unknown also k'á7k'a7 'ghost, spook' simplex My guess is that it's compound but parts unidentifiable Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun hewe:pa devil (or bad spirit CHM) unknown also khukhsu 'devil' , in O's phonology chapter early-15?? simplex Merriam 39:111, Okrand 1977 313 Jane Hill
Mutsun yu-mep-pook ghost unknown nossow 'soul' Okrand 1977:104 compound Merriam 39:111 Jane Hill
Esselen tu+mas-atc-hâ-pa devil or evil spirit (tumas 'dark'??) unknown Henshaw; also hatcox-pa, atchâ-pa 'you are a devil' compound, derived really guessing here but see Shaul 1995:216 for suffix -pa. Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A lōsh-ně evil spirit or bad spirit unknown simplex Merriam 38:407 Jane Hill
Salinan A šo:n ghost unknown simplex Turner 1987 Jane Hill
Salinan M Samt'iL diablo unknown Harrington lists as "M.", from Rosario Cooper simplex Harrington Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tquLmitsi7 L is barred l devil unknown derived Harrington Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno lewlew supernatural being inheritance Yokuts really nasty in Barb; B lewlew 'proper name of a mythological creature' (Beeler); Merriam 37:529 gives no-nah-shush (see other lgs, where is 'devil') WW %lewasip reduplicated Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno nunašiš animal, beast, devil inheritance Proto-Central Chumash also yowoyow, devil, proper name of mythic creature, Beeler 1978:190; also lewlew Ono 1996:87 derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7ahaš, 7ahašiš axa7š Wash 2001:17 heart, ghost, spirit inheritance *-haš Proto-Chumashan Klar 1977:73 derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno nunašïš devil inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7enhešeš ghost, spirit unknown also alcinaxkuhu Lex 10 derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 7echillich devil, ghost, spirit (lit. bad heart) unique WW %7el derived iichih his chest, heart, lungs Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 7echillich devil, ghost, spirit (lit. bad heart) unique Yok-Utian WW %7el derived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa lxwacáq nYšuLY s7uLY devil unknown phrase ghost tail arrow Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Cocopa lxwacáq ghost, television unknown derived xcaq 'be bad' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave nyavdii ghost, devil unknown derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Mojave nyavdii ghost, devil unknown derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai myē(:) ghost, (bad) spirit unknown simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Yavapai myē(:) ghost, (bad) spirit unknown simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa t-kw+hiiy-p devil, evil spirit, goat unknown derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Kiliwa t+hiy spirit, ghost unknown derived perhaps from *hi-y, see hi 'omen' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hai quiita an evil spirit that sounds like a child crying (lit. el que tiene el viento como madre) loan Spanish phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ziix quinej ghost (lit. cosa vacia) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Yir-Yoront wangarr ghost inheritance *wangarr pPNy Poss. a Wanderwort, not pPNy (NE Arnhem & CYP only) Barry Alpher
Gumatj baḻirrpaḻirr unique Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul banbalk doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru banbalk doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr banbalk doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru bilyorr inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu birrimbirr inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhay’yi birrimbirr semantic shift Claire Bowern
Warrwa bulliŋun unique Claire Bowern
Burarra -gubuwupa unique Claire Bowern
Yulparija ku:rti inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta malpu loan Western Desert Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga maramara semantic shift Claire Bowern
Djinang mirri unique Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu mokuy inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu mokuy inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl <ngarree> inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ŋa:ṉuk unique Claire Bowern
Bardi ŋa:rri inheritance Claire Bowern
Mangala palaŋan inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri palaŋan inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina pilyorr inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhangu waŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma warruka unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kukurr inheritance Patrick McConvell
Mudburra kaya inheritance Patrick McConvell
Jaru warrityki inheritance Patrick McConvell
Gurindji kaya inheritance tyanpa is different kind of spirit tyanpa is different kind of spirit Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi pirlirr unknown Patrick McConvell
Bunuba mamu loan direction unknown perhaps from Western Desert WW %mamu perhaps from Western Desert Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng marnten unknown also white man Miriwung jarinyin Patrick McConvell
Djapu ŋa:rnuk unique Claire Bowern
Kija tyuwarri loan Ngarinyin Ngarnyin tyuwaru ghost WW %tyuwari Patrick McConvell
Jingulu warrityki inheritance Patrick McConvell
Miriwung tyumung inheritance Gaj. Tyumeng; also tyarinyin Patrick McConvell
Wardaman marnten unknown Patrick McConvell
Achagua wawáʃi wawáʃi unknown shared Piapoco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco wàwasimi wàwasimi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yukuna jiñá pechu hiɲá petʃu inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana ɲámu 'espírito, curupira' ɲámu 'espírito, curupira' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa íñaimi íɲaimi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro ižo iʒo unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Warekena yenapemi 'diabo' yenapemi 'diabo' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero a'meľ̥ami 'soul, espirit', ka'c̷imehe a'meľ̥ami 'soul, espirit', ka'tsimehe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare mawaɻi mawaɻi See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana uia-ʔu durunai uia-ʔu durunai unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi kayaˈla nitseˈkore kajaˈla nitseˈkure unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure wopičon wopitʃon unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá yuwežɨ-ku-wi; apapaatai juwežɨ-ku-wi; apapaatai unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora naavéne, chítyawáyu naaβéne, tʃʰítʰjakwáju unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane gáija (W97) gáixa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio kuuikta kuɪʔta inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wayana jolok jolok unknown See Language page PLE
Carijona amorehə (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó (wï)rïpë (wɨ)rɨpǝ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Eñepa mahtikiri; tukuəik; kocham (M.M.); koičamun (JP) mahtikiri; tukuəik; kɔtʃam, kɔitʃamun inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Makiritare kahūšawa (IDS) kahu:ʃawa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Makushi ekaton (SM) ekaton (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Mapoyo ñëni-'bë ñɛni-'bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Pemon orodan (A1981); kookoi (E1980); spirit: yaukkuarɨ (E1980) oroda (A1981); kokɔɪ (E1980); ʎaʊʔkʊarɨ (E1980) unknown; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai spirit: ekatɨ spirit: ekatɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa terepko, yorampsi terepko, jorampsi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Northern Emberá nee háure nee háure See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Guayabero dẽep (R18), phɛhmác̶ (Keels) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Macaguan chópinʉ, kayén tʃópinɨ, kajén unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Sikuani ainawi (3), dowatji (2)(not necessarly bad, but it can be), jumape (3)(soul or image); dubate (R18) aínawi, dowátji unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Cofán cocoya kokoja phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra kaniizi kaniiʂi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro yei´tus, a'ta'ca'tua jɨiʔtus, aʔtaʔkaʔtua See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez taaΦiy; eč taaΦiy; eč See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna tchoina-báiguê (Alv44) tʃoinaʔbáige unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina aãsaj aãsaj unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke koé (spirit, not necessarily evil) koé (spirit, not necessarily evil) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Waorani wę́næ (devil) unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï ǫ́nowóka (soul, spirit generic term); yue 'spirit'; aweila 'soul, spirit' unknown See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Pumé yarɨka See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave mo-wei-hin mo-wei-hin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar pasé wakan pasé wakan See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa pasun ('evil spirit'), wakan ('spirit') pasun ('evil spirit'), wakan ('spirit') See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna wa'kan ('ghost') wa'kan ('ghost') inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup baktɨb', nɨm baktɨb', nɨm unknown See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw mâáç mə̌c unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses madu cudu, shedo madu kudu, ʃedo unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo yošini (also means "wind") yošini (also means "wind") inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua bayantu bajantu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua udiyu udiju See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá kuku kuku See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua supai supai See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano manchachikuq 'ghost' (CP94) mantʃatʃikuq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Sáliva õhwaĩhdi ẽdi tãdofaidi õʔwaĩʔdi ẽdi tãdoɸaidi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Cubeo põedecocʉ ('person-image-MSC); ũme põedekokɨ ('person-image-MSC); ũme unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Carapana jõcõrõrĩ xɔ̃k̃ɔɾ̃ɔɾĩ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Desano sĩporã (ghost, heart) sĩpoɾã semantic shift heart' See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Kotiria ~wati ~wati inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna ghost: rʉ̃mʉ; ʉsi; ghost of a dead person: wʉjo ɾɨ̃mɨ; ɨsi; wɨxo unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Tukano wẽrî'kɨ wãti wẽrî'kɨ wãti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Tuyuka wã'tĩ wã'tĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Maihiki aico ago (demon) aiko ago unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Koreguaje vati bati inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona huati, ahuë wati, awɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Karitiana pysãmẽn pɨsãmẽn unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Nheengatu mira angá (mira=forest, anga=spirit); urupari (old expression, redefined to mean Christian devil, "Um mau espirito da mata para os Indios tupi, assimilado mais tarde ao Deus dos Indios tucanos), angá, yurupari (from Christian demon?) mira aŋgá (mira=forest, anga=spirit); urupari (old expression, redefined to mean Christian devil, "Um mau espirito da mata para os Indios tupi, assimilado mais tarde ao Deus dos Indios tucanos) aŋgá (in dictionary, it is listed under both soul and spirit) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Kokama mai mai unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ãŋɛ ãŋɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó aba čekʷayã i̯kʷã (Literally "person invisible bad") aba ǩekʷajã i̯kʷã unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina foonhun, fonhúúnm̈a, núúrama ɸõõʔhũ, ɸõʔɯ̃'ɯ̃'m̵a, nɯ́ɯ́rama unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto joreño (soul), dusisiño (spirit of dead) horɛɲo (soul), duθiθiɲo (spirit of dead) (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Ninam hikalapək (ids) hikalapək (ids) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam xapiri (generic spirit WM99) ʃapiɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yai jai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sanumá sai dɨbɨ sai dɨbɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito nahu+yíni (spirit of dead person); sihuaára (demonio de la selva) nawɨjíni (spirit of dead person); siwaára (demonio de la selva) inheritance? See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo tsamaraw tsamaraw See Language page Becky Walker
Wari jam (Sousa2009) jam (Sousa2009) See Language page PLE
Cavineña ihawa (also means "fox") ihawa semantic shift? fox'? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara supaya supaja See Language page PLE
Movima kaini-wawa kaini-wawa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai aitu; ma.hoi aitu; ma.hoi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kãnhmèg nɛn-nɛ̃ we See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi kanõnõ, honĩtĩ kanõnõ, honĩtĩ See Language page PLE