Yanomam

Family
Yanomaman
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
guu
Location
1.68°, -64.88°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Migliazza, Ernest C. 1972. Yanomama grammar and intelligibility. PhD diss, Indiana University. Milliken, William, Bruce Albert, with Gale G. Gomez. 1999. Yanomami, A Forest People. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Smole, William J. 1976. The Yanoama Indians. University of Texas Press: Austin.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location fesika fesika inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kõ, kotao kõ, kotao inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
all todo todos other prewə, kõmiri pɾewə, kõmiɾi inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
and y e grammar šo ʃo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment yɨpušip jɨpuʃip inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
back espalda costas body yaupə jaupə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
belly barriga barriga body pɨs pɨs inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
big grande grande quality pata (animate), prewə pata, pɾewə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bite morder morder body wɨtɨ wɨtɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
black negro preto colour uši uʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blood sangre sangue body ĩyə, ĩə ĩjə, ĩə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blow soplar soprar body hora hoɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bone hueso osso body ũ ũ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breast pecho, seno peito body sufu up sufu up inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breathe respirar respirar body hẽrekamo hẽɾekamo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
burn quemar queimar environment ĩši, fraa ĩʃi, fɾaa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body watika, waški watika, waʃki inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
child niño, niña criança human ufuru (boy), moko (EM72 "girl") ufuɾu, moko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
climb subir subir motion tu tu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cloud nube nuvem environment kroke kroke unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
cold frío frio quality sãi, sãhi, wahati (to feel cold) (EM72) sãi, sãhi, wahati (to feel cold) (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
come venir vir motion fuime fuime inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cook cocinar cozinhar impact hari haɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
cry llorar chorar mental ɨ̃kɨ ɨ̃kɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cut/hack cortar cortar impact paka, manɨ paka, manɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
day día dia time wakara, haru (both EM72, "light time") wakaɾa, haɾu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
die/be dead morir morrer state noma noma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dig cavar cavar impact tiə, thətha tiə, tʰətʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
dirty sucio sujo quality šami ʃami inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream soñar sonhar mental mahari mahaɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
drink beber, tomar beber body koa koa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dry seco seco quality wehe, ariki wehe, aɾiki inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality pusi pusi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dust polvo poeira environment hĩ hĩ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
ear oreja orelha body yə̃məka jə̃məka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
earth/soil tierra terra environment mašitha (EM72 "earth") maʃitʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eat comer comer body wa (trans.), ia (intrans.), wɨtɨ (bite, EM72) wa (trans.), ia (intrans.), wɨtɨ (bite, EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
egg huevo ovo fauna nathe natʰe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eye ojo olho body mamo mamo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fall caer cair motion ke ke inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
far lejos longe quality praha, payək pɾaha, pajək inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fat/grease grasa gordura body wĩte, tapɨ (both "fat") wĩte, tapɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
father padre, papá pai kinship fa fa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fear miedo medo mental kɨri kɨɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather pluma pena fauna missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fire fuego fogo environment wakə wakə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish xx xx fauna yuri (small, generic) juri inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion karə kaɾə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
flower flor flor environment horehore hoɾehoɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fly volar voar motion inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment irowasi iɾowasi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
foot pie body mafuk (EM72) mafuk (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fruit fruta fruta flora himohimo himohimo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
good bueno bom quality totihi (EM72), topra (EM72) totihi, topɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
grow crecer crescer state kau kau unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body fethak (EM72) fetʰak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hand mano mão body imik (EM72) imik (EM72) doubtful loan (into protolg?) Panoan See Language page Kelsey Neely
head cabeza cabeça body wiik (face), fe (head) fe (head), wi:k (face) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hear oír ouvir mental hĩri hĩri inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heavy pesado pesado quality hute missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
hide esconder esconder motion hõya hõja unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
hit golpear, pegar bater impact šə ʃə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other fua fua inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
how? como como grammar wetinaha wetinaha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
if si se grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location fišomiha fiʃomiha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
intestines intestinos intestinos body šik ʃik inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body natoši, šuhuti natoʃi, ʃuhuti inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
kill matar matar impact waika, nomama waika, nomama unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lake lago lago environment yokoto jokoto inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
laugh reír rir mental ĩka, ĩkara ĩka, ĩkaɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leaf hoja folha environment fena fena inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body hai hai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion pɨrɨa pɨɾɨa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
liver hígado figado body amok (EM72) amok inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
long largo comprido, longo quality rape ɾape inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna noma (EM72) noma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
meat/flesh carne carne fauna yãhi jãhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
moon luna lua environment poripo (EM72) poɾipo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship na na inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mouth boca boca body kafik, fes (both EM72) kafik, fes (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
name nombre nome human wãfe (EM72) wãfe (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
near/close cerca de perto quality ahate ahate inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
neck cuello pescoço body orafi oɾafi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
new nuevo novo quality tute tute inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
night noche noite time tɨtɨ, rua (both EM72, "dark time") tɨtɨ, ɾua inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
no/not no não grammar ma (EM72) ma doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Kelsey Neely
nose nariz nariz body fušu (EM72) fuʃu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
old viejo velho quality repa (EM72, inanimate), hote (EM72, inanimate), pata (EM72, elderly, respected) ɾepa, hote, pata inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
one uno um number moni (EM72) moni (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
open/uncover abrir abrir other kero (EM72) keɾo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body hariri, rãamo (EM72) haɾiɾi, ɾãamo inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
person/human being persona pessoa human yãnomam jãnomam inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pasu (EM72) pasu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rain lluvia chuva environment maa (EM72) maa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
red rojo vermelho colour wakə wakə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
right/right hand derecha direita location/body tɨma (EM72) tɨma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
road/path camino caminho manufacture piriyo pirijo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
root raíz raiz flora nasiki (EM72) nasiki inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rotten podrido podre quality tare (EM72) taɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sand arena areia environment mrakmrakap (EM72) mɾakmɾakap inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
say decir dizer mental ku ku inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
scratch rascar rasgar impact kikoka (EM72) kikoka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
see ver ver mental mɨ, ta (both EM72) mɨ, ta (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality namo (EM72) namo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact nia (EM72) nia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
short corto curto quality hotohi (EM72) hototi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoulder hombro ombro body hako (EM72) hako inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
sit sentar(se) sentar state ro (EM72) ɾo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
skin piel pele body si (EM72) si inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sky cielo céu environment hutumos (EM72) hutumos inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sleep dormir dormir body mi (EM72) mi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
small pequeño pequeno quality wãsiap, sĩrip (both EM72) wãsiap, sĩɾip inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
smoke humo fumaça environment wakɨši (EM72) wakɨʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body rĩša, rĩarišipra (EM72) ɾĩʃa, ɾĩaɾiʃipɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
spit escupir cuspir body kašə (EM72) kaʃə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pakaropre (EM72) pakaɾopɾe unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact afufa (EM72) afufa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state upra (EM72) upɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
star estrella estrela environment pirim ãfu, šitikari (EM72) piɾim ãfu, ʃitikaɾi loan (into protolanguage?) Carib, e.g. Pemon sírikɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
steal robar roubar other thõmɨmu (EM72) tʰõmɨmu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone piedra pedra environment maama (EM72) ma:ma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
suck chupar chupar body ususa (EM72) ususa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
swell hincharse inchar body šuwə, furu (EM72) ʃuwə, fuɾu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
swim nadar nadar motion pokatu, karɨ, hərə (EM72), kərə (EM72) pokatu, kaɾɨ, həɾə, kəɾə inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tail cola, rabo rabo body šina (EM72) ʃina inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
that ese/esa esse grammar mihi, kihi (both EM72) mihi, kihi (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality šuɨ, šuwə ʃuɨ, ʃuwə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thin delgado fino quality ahate ahate inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
think pensar pensar mental pifi, pifiku pifi, pifiku inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
this este/esta este grammar fei (EM72) fei (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2sg xx xx grammar kafɨwa (EM72) kafɨwa (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
three tres tres number yãmi (EM72 "few") jãmi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact šəyə ʃəjə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thunder truenos trovão environment yãrɨ jãɾɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact õka, faroko õka, faɾoko inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
tongue lengua lingua body aka (EM72) aka (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tooth diente dente body na (EM72) na (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other šimore ʃimoɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
two dos dois number porakapi (EM72) poɾakapi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
vomit vomitar vomitar body sufra sufɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
walk caminar, andar andar motion fu (EM72) fu (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
water agua agua environment maup (EM72) maup inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wet mojado molhado quality here (EM72) heɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
what? que, qué que grammar wɨtipi (EM72) wɨtipi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
when? cuando quando grammar wɨti thəm wɨti tʰəm inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
where? donde onde grammar wɨti ha wɨti ha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
white blanco branco colour au, aɨ (both EM72) au, aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
who? quien, quién quem grammar wɨtipi (EM72) wɨtipi (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wife esposa esposa kinship thɨwə- (EM72) tʰɨwə- inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wind viento vento environment watori, iproko watoɾi, ipɾoko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wing ala asa body fako fako inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
woman/female mujer mulher human thɨwə (EM72) tʰɨwə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
work trabajar trabalhar other kĩa, ohotemo kĩa, ohotemo inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yawn bostezar bocejar body kafik rerea kafik ɾeɾea inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yellow amarillo amarelo colour frãre (EM72) fɾãɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bad mal mal quality hošimi, manahikə hoʃimi, manahikə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kama (he/she, EM72), thə (it, inanimate EM72) kama, tʰə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1sg yo eu grammar kamiyə (EM72) kamije inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leg/foot pierna perna body mathak matʰak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
man/male hombre homem human wãro (EM72) wãɾo doubtful loan (into proto-language?) MAYBE Carib source; cf. warawok in Akawaio, warayoʔ in Macushi, warato in Pemon See Language page Kelsey Neely
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kama kəp (dual EM72), kama thəp (pə) (pl. non-dist. EM72), thəp (pl. inan. EM72) kama kəp, kama tʰəp (pə), tʰəp inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ta (EM72) ta inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kamiyamak (pl. incl. EM72) kamijamak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar kamiyafɨk (dual excl. Em72) kamijafɨk inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2pl ustedes vocês grammar kafɨ wafɨk (dual EM72), kafɨ wamakə (pl. EM72) kafɨ wafɨk (dual EM72), kafɨ wamakə (pl. EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bark corteza casca environment fisi fisi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fingernail uña unha body imi (finger), nasik (EM72, "nail, claw") imi, nasik inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heart corazón coração body mašikop (EM72) maʃikop inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sun sol sol time motokaši (EM72) motokaʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment hefu (EM72), maamak (EM72) hefu, ma:mak inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
green verde verde quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
hot caliente quente quality yopi, fuuši (both EM72) jopi, fu:ʃi unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana nana (WS76); manokorima (bold), ɨrepërima (white-haired)(both WM99, nom. Class: si) nana (WS76); manokoɾima (bold), ɨɾepəɾima (white-haired inheritance cf. Witoto Witoto nonó-; see also Yan manokorima (bold), ɨrepërima (white-haired) uncoded si See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Kelsey Neely
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. krepu uhi (Inga edulis WM99), rĩa moxiririma hi (inga acumitata) krepu uhi (WM99),kɾepu uhi, ɾĩa moʃiɾiɾima hi inheritance Nadëb also rĩa moxiririma hi (inga acumitata) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Kelsey Neely
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. thõmɨ tʰõmɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Kelsey Neely
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Kelsey Neely
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae šiho, koye (both unknown species) ʃiho, koje (both unknown species) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Kelsey Neely
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri opo opo inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum xaraka si yai, xuhutima si, napë si (WM99 - three varieties of Gynerium sagitt.) ʃaɾaka si jai, ʃuhutima si, napə si inheritance other Gynerium sagitt.: ʃuhutima si, napə si; si = CLF "palm" (Ferreira) uncoded si si = "palm" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Kelsey Neely
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ahuãri hi (WM99) ahuãɾi hi inheritance hi = CLF "tree" (Ferreira) uncoded hi hi = "generic tree" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Kelsey Neely
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. koratha (generic); [types: manito, paixima, rëprare, rokoa, rokoma, uxipirima, xiahima, yarimɨna (all WM99, nom. Class: si)] koɾatʰa (generic); [types: manito, paiʃima, ɾəpɾaɾe, ɾokoa, ɾokoma, uʃipiɾima, ʃiahima, jaɾimɨna] loan (into protolanguage?) Carib, prob. original meaning 'bastard plantain (sororoca?)' Yukpa kuratana; also see Yan manito, paixima, rëprare, rokoa, rokoma, uxipirima, xiahima, yarimɨna (all WM99, nom. Class: si) uncoded si See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Kelsey Neely
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis himoto himoto inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna fek, yaro (EM72 fek, jaɾo inheritance also fek uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala hwapoma hi (WM99, fusaea longifolia) hwapoma hi unique hi = CLF "tree" (Ferreira) uncoded hi hi = "generic tree" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Kelsey Neely
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba hoko si (WM99) hoko si inheritance si = CLF "palm" (Ferreira) uncoded si si = "palm" (Ferreira) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Kelsey Neely
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) maɨfɨs ('calabash'), horokoto ('gourd', EM72) maɨfɨs ('calabash'), horokoto ('gourd', EM72) inheritance also maɨfɨs uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Kelsey Neely
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] wãro uhi (couepia caryophylloides), hɨha amo hi (couepia sp.), hawari hi (bertholletia excelsa)(all WM99) wãɾo uhi, hɨha amo hi, hawaɾi hi inheritance also wãro uhi (couepia caryophylloides), hɨha amo hi (couepia sp.); hi = CLF "tree" (Ferreira) uncoded hi hi = "generic tree" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Kelsey Neely
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata unknown species ʃiho missing also koje? uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kayu kaju loan (into protolg?) North Arawak e.g. Wapishana kaʃu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum oru xihi (WM99) oɾu ʃihi loan - WW %eroi, Carib missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum oɾu ʃihi oɾu ʃihi loan Carib WaiWai orosɨ; see other Carib eroi forms WW %eroi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Kelsey Neely
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Kelsey Neely
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu poxe nakɨ (WM99) poʃe nakɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) yɨ̃ɨkɨk (EM72) jɨ̃:kɨk (EM72) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Kelsey Neely
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura oko oko inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. paruri paɾuɾi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kaya kaja loan Arawak? cf. Yukuna kawaja or Carib? cf. Carijona kayak missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris hiem (EM72) hiem (EM72) unknown shared Yan-Yanmi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Kelsey Neely
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. mapiapë (WM99) mapiapə unknown uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yuri (small, generic) juɾi inheritance subgroup Narrower uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Kelsey Neely
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera noma noma inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mroro (EM72) mɾoɾo inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana tana (IDS) tana (IDS) loan North Arawak missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Kelsey Neely
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Kelsey Neely
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Kelsey Neely
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi hoɾoma hoɾoma unknown missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Kelsey Neely
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Kelsey Neely
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] iro (EM72) iɾo inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tẽšo (EM72) tẽʃo (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Kelsey Neely
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tɨhɨ (EM72) tɨhɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Kelsey Neely
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Kelsey Neely
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. maima si (WM99) maima si inheritance but cf. North Arawak manáka si = CLF "palm" (Ferreira) uncoded si si = "palm" (Ferreira) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. kaxetema (dioscorea piperifolia, vine, not tuber WM99) kaʃetema (WM99) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Kelsey Neely
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ara (EM72, red), kurikaya (EM72, blue) ara (EM72, red), kurikaja (EM72, blue) loan into protolanguage - WW %arara Panare ara; also Arawak, e.g. Mandawaka adáːlu; see also Yan kurikaya (blue macaw) WW %ara Narrower uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays shidi (WS76); uxirima (black grains), hrare (orange grains), aurima (white grains) (all WM99, nom. Class: mokɨ) ʃidi; uʃiɾima, hɾaɾe, auɾima inheritance? uxirima (black grains), hrare (orange grains), aurima (white grains) uncoded mokɨ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Kelsey Neely
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta naškoko (EM72); aurima ("white"), hayokoari("mythical tapir-like animal"), hutuwisasi("capuchin monkey tail"), puuxirima("short"), wakërima ("red"), yanaema ("ant") (all WM99, nom. Class.: koko); kõaimirima (WM99, bitter manioc general term, nom. Class: naʃkoko, auɾima, hajokoaɾi, hutuwisasi, pu:ʃiɾima, wakəɾima, janaema, kõamiɾima inheritance also aurima ("white"), hayokoari("mythical tapir-like animal"), hutuwisasi("capuchin monkey tail"), puuxirima("short"), wakërima ("red"), yanaema ("ant") (all WM99, nom. Class.: koko); kõaimirima (WM99, bitter manioc general term, nom. Class: si); koko = uncoded si, koko koko="round tuber" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Kelsey Neely
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta watim kok (EM72); nashi (WS76); raparima ("long"), uxirima ("black"), yãhihirima ("sticky") (all WM99, nom. Class. Koko); witatirima (WM99 - sweet manioc generic term, nom class: si) watim kok; naʃi; ɾapaɾima, uʃiɾima, jãhihiɾima, witatiɾima inheritance nashi (WS76); raparima ("long"), uxirima ("black"), yãhihirima ("sticky") (all WM99, nom. Class. Koko); witatirima (WM99 - sweet manioc generic term, nom class: si); koko = CLF "round tuber" (Ferreira) uncoded si, koko koko="round tuber" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa rioko si (WM99) ɾioko si unique si = CLF "palm" (Ferreira) uncoded si si = "palm" (Ferreira) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Kelsey Neely
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ukiši (EM72) ukiʃi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Kelsey Neely
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana kuai si (WM99) kuai si loan Carib kuwai (Mauritia sp.) Nheengatu kawajá; si = CLF "palm" (Ferreira) uncoded si si = "palm" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Kelsey Neely
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Kelsey Neely
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes rasha (WS76); ɾaʃa inheritance uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Kelsey Neely
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Kelsey Neely
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Kelsey Neely
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua koanari si (WM99) koanaɾi si unique si = CLF "palm" (Ferreira) uncoded si si = "palm" (Ferreira) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Kelsey Neely
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. šɨmɨ (EM72) ʃɨmɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda sinokoma aka (WM99, giant land snail) sinokoma aka unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna orukɨk (EM72) oɾukɨk inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Kelsey Neely
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas jucomo (WS76); ãkõtarima, õsimõhõrima, wakërima ("red") (all WM99, nom. Class: kɨkɨ); hõkõmo uritʰeri a (WM99, wild sweet potato) hukomo, ãkõtaɾima, õsimõhõɾima, wakəɾima, hõkõmo uɾitʰeɾi a inheritance also ãkõtarima, õsimõhõrima, wakërima ("red") (all WM99, nom. Class: kɨkɨ); hõkõmo uritʰeri a (WM99, wild sweet potato) uncoded kɨkɨ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris šama (EM72) ʃama inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum peenahe (EM72); bee najeco (WS76) pe:nahe; beenaheko inheritance also beenaheko uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Kelsey Neely
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. mayup (Em72) majup inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna futifi (EM72) futifi (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui paxo hwãtemo hi (pouteria caimito), hõrõmana hi (pouteria cladantha), yãwaxi hi (pouteria hispida), poxe mamokasi hi (pouteria sp.) (all WM99) paʃo hwãtemo hi, hõɾõmana hi, jãwaʃi hi, poʃe mamokasi hi unique also hõrõmana hi (pouteria cladantha), yãwaxi hi (pouteria hispida), poxe mamokasi hi (pouteria sp.) ; hi = CLF "tree" (Ferreira) uncoded hi hi = "generic tree" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Kelsey Neely
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Kelsey Neely
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus pašo (EM72) paʃo inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia õema ahi (pourouma bicolor ssp.), waraka ahi (pourouma melinonii) (both WM99) õema ahi, waɾaka ahi unknown waraka ahi (pourouma melinonii) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Kelsey Neely
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. aja aco (WS'76); aurima ("white"), keteterima ("sweet"), uxirima ("black/deep blue") (all WM99, nom. Class: akɨ) aha ako; auɾima, keteteɾima, uʃiɾima inheritance aurima ("white"), keteterima ("sweet"), uxirima ("black/deep blue") (all WM99, nom. Class: akɨ) uncoded akɨ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna hiem hiem inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna kaja unique See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool šaraka ʃaɾaka inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool poo (palm wood); haowatima (steel fragment set in stick) (both WM99) poo; haowatima (both WM99) palm wood, steel fragment set in stick inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: haowatima Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material wɨ: large carrying basket, most common basket Doubtful loan into protolanguage Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Carib, Makiritari Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material wɨɨ (most common); xotehe (WM99, for food storage) wɨ: , ʃotehe basket for food storage Doubtful loan This word and the one for “disposable basket” look almost like they could have been borrowed from the same language at different stages of development or different languages in the same family, but no likely candidate. Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material topə topə bead inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
bed cama cama culture-material kama kama loan Span/Port Also appears in Arawak (e..g Yavitero kama); Eñepa kaama; Hup káma; Siona cama; Yanomam kama Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bow arco arco subsistence tool šarak nafi ʃaɾak nafi inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Compound ʃaɾak, “arrow” arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa kanawa loan - WW Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam? %kanawa Could be loan into protolanguage. WW occurs in e.g. Wapishana, khanawa; various Carib (kanau, kanawa, kanowa, kanáw); Guayabero, kanáw; Candoshi, kánó; Jivaro, kán; Matses, cano; Napo Lowland Quichua, kanu; Siriano, cũma; Yanomam (kanaw, kanae). Ultimate WW %kanawa Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
cat gato gato acculturation mɨʃɨ missing North Arawak? Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
chicken gallina galinha acculturation poyo pojo loan Spanish Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pata pata leader, elder inheritance Proto-Yanomamo? shared ninam, yanomam; doubtful inheritance Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool napɾuʃi, himo napɾuʃi, himo inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Alternate: napɾuʃi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food haɾi cook in pot Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely
dance (generic) culture-mythology heɾi Inheritance Proto-Yanomamo? Not attested in Sanuma; Alternate: pɾaɨa Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology omama (WM99 - progenitor figure) omama progenitor figure unknown Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology mahaɾi mahaɾi inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool yafufa, yauwa jafufa, jauwa inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: jauwa Simplex esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
firewood leña lenha other kõã ãʃo kõã ãʃo inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Compound koa, “fire”; ãšo “unclear” See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food rəkə (EM72) ɾəkə inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool matiɾiawə ãʃitʰa matiɾiawə ãʃitʰa [materiawǝ is Pt loan] loan Portuguese material' + 'string' Compound matiɾiawə 'material' ãsitʰa 'string, thread' See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food naši (EM72) naʃi semantic shift? Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam from 'manioc' Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food hĩkɨ̃ (IDS) hĩkɨ̃ (IDS) manioc flour inheritance/sem shift? Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology puɾinama usi puɾinama usi flute doubtful loan Arawak, cf. Baniwa pheelóma Other complex identified as a multimorphemic word, but unclear what the parts mean multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food yaro (EM72) jaɾo inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely
genipap culture-mythology tana genipa (paint) Loan Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam North Arawak Could be loan into protolanguage Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool maɨfɨs ('calabash'), horokoto ('gourd', EM72) maɨfɨs ('calabash'), horokoto ('gourd', EM72) unknown; doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW *fesi Proto-Yanomamo %koto/matoko inherited form is 'gourd' Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool hɨrɨka (EM72) hɨɾɨka inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kopeta missing Spanish Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material rakamthok (EM72) ɾakamtʰok vine hammock, cotton hammock inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: yɨ̃kɨk; The word for cotton is “yɨ̃ɨkɨk,” the word for a cotton hammock seems to come from this. Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
hat sombero chapéu dress he yoho-a he joho-a semantic shift? Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Phrase he yoho-a”head cover” See Language page Kelsey Neely
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology šapori (EM72) ʃapoɾi inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
honey miel mel food puu, puu u(ku) (MM07) puu, puu u(ku) (MM07) honey (most common) inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Compound puu, “bee” only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely
hunt cazar caçar food rame fu (EM72) ɾame fu (EM72) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Other complex unclear See Language page Kelsey Neely
knife cuchillo faca culture-material thõmɨna (EM72) tʰõmɨna knife (tooth of agouti) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
paper papel papel acculturation papʰeo papʰeo loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material prato (IDS) pɾato (IDS) dish loan Spanish/Portuguese Nheengatu parátu (from POR); see also Arawak (e..g Yucuna paɾatú); Carib (e.g. Makushi pɨratu); Jivaro (e.g. Aguaruna parátu); Hup padatu=b'ɔk Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool hapoka (EM 72) hapoka (EM 72) inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool weyeri hi (WM99) wejeɾi hi (WM99) missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
salt sal sal food sayu saju loan Span/Port (via Carib?) May originate in Span/Port sal Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
school escuela escola acculturation eskuera eskuera loan Spanish Nheengatu iskola; see also Huaorani ekoeda Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapato sapato loan Spanish/Portuguese Tariana sapatu; Yanomam sapato; Hup capatu Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
soldier soldado soldado acculturation wayu waju unknown Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
spear lanza lança subsistence tool šokopi, faɾo (EM72); rahaka (WM99) ʃokopi, faɾo; ɾahaka inheritance; unknown Alternate: faɾo, ʃokopi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation asuka asuka loan Spanish/Portuguese Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material yaasfenak, kuai si (palm for thatch; WM99) yaasfenak, kuai si (palm for thatch; WM99) roofing leaves inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food koyotomasi (WM99) kojotomasi inheritance? Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely
tobacco (native) narcotics peenahe tobacco Inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material wɨɨ (WM99, large carrying basket) wɨ: inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology iɾo sikɨ iɾo sikɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology xapiri (generic spirit WM99) ʃapiɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
paddle/oar remo remo transport kanarete (IDS) kanaɾete (IDS) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ãsitʰa (IDS), natha, thok nak (EM72) ãsitʰa (IDS), natʰa, tʰok nak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture missing prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
house other yãno (EM72) jãno inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
9000 large HG medium seasonal Interfluvial