shaman, healer

Semantic Field
culture-mythology
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
chamán, brujo
Meaning Portuguese
xaman, pajé, feiticeiro

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla puul witch doctor, medicine man inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño puul Indian doctor, shaman, wizard inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño puu-la shaman inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino ahu:voroyt doctor, hechicero unique other complex Hill Harrington Jane Hill
Serrano hōrmč shaman unique other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk ca-č shaman inheritance *cha-ch Takic Hill/Miller tsa-17 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ātsowāl shaman, curing shaman (male only), witch; doctor, physician unique maybe related to Numic tso7a 'spirit, ghost' words???pahām'weather shaman' other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim at-să-wal' doctor or shaman unique same as Tub; maybe related to Numic tso7a 'spirit, ghost' other complex Merriam 49:203 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu huvija-ga-dy curing shaman, musician unique from *huvi 'sing'; also poha-ga-dy 'evil shaman', 7uu-poha-ga-dy 'rain shaman' derived, other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi puhWagantY shaman inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute puaganty having supernatural power, medicine man inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex poa-S-kaN-tY Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute puwa-ga-tY medicine man, shaman, combining both religious and curative function inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone puhakantyn medicine man, shaman, traditional doctor inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone poha-kantyn Indian doctor inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived power- Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche puha7aity shaman inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex R Jane Hill
Western Mono puhaγEtu shaman, curer, someone with supernatural power inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex puha-ge-tU power-have-ADJ Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pohaguma medicine man inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok tuj:uk- shaman inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58 simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok husík-pe shaman inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok Pmis *husik 'to doctor'; also túj:uku- 'poison doctor', 7ál:ini 'dreamer shaman' other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok huni:sa- magic man, sorceror inheritance *hu:niş- Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:105; Callaghan 1971:26; kojap:e:nu sucking doctor 114 < kojpa- other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok cemyt:e:ny- sucking doctor inheritance *7u:ten- Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103; also tup:e:le- sorceror (can walk o fire), poison man p. 163 other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok jómta to doctor, doctor loan unknown note Hill Patwin yomta, Southern Pomo yomta 'doctor'; very widespread form WW %jom simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu jómi shaman, doctor loan unknown loan into PM; Ultan 1964:364 lists as PM; very widespread, see also Callaghan 2001:56 WW %jom simplex jôm practice shamanism Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan jom suck out disease,treat; shaman loan unknown loan into PM; Ultan 1964:364 lists as PM; widespread WW %jom simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani 7anThuw shaman inheritance *7angThiw Proto--Yokuts Chumashan loan into PY? Whistler & Golla p. 356 simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi 7angThu shaman inheritance *7angThuw Proto-Nim-Yokuts Chumashan loan into PNY simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami 7engThew shaman inheritance Proto-Yokutsan simplex Whislter & Golla Jane Hill
Washo t'ánu t'íšiwha doctor, curer, healer unknown phrase t'anu 'person'; looks like šiwh- is "cure" Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu Lahit doctor, shaman unknown derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki lamšim doctor, shaman inheritance *lamšim Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo yómto7 shaman, doctor loan unknown widepsread; in Mil, also note Hill Patwin yomta, Southern Pomo yomta 'doctor' WW %jom simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun oo-ten shaman inheritance *7u:ten- Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:104 simplex Merriam 39:113 Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A tα/kin shaman unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M tα/ken shaman unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tsi7masu un brujo, hechizador unknown derived Harrington Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7al-atišwinič one who has dreams from taking jimsonweed; shaman inheritance Proto-Central Chumash 7atishwin is spirit helper or power from them; see also 7al'alqutHopš 'sorcerer' Wash 2001:66 derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno al-al-loos-tes doctor or shaman unknown derived Merriam 38:35 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa kuseyaay (pl. kusteyay) medicine man, doctor, witch unknown derived agentive ku- Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa şkWi:yá: doctor, shaman, medicine man, witch unknown simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave sumach 7ahot witch doctor, Indian doctor unique phrase dream be.good/correct/clean Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai pà:čθéqa blood sucker, medicine man kθí:yi (Indian) doctor p. 392 also pà:tpûyi 'witch doctor', pà:kčē:βa 'healer', 7pâ:kθī:yi "Indian doctor", 7pà:smāča "medicine man" derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa kw+miiy shaman, sorcerer, healer (lit. one who is powerful) unknown derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) cacáaso shaman unknown siplex vb 'to see by means of shamanic power' is identical Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua pɨ̂wt pʉ̂wt, ʧā̃p unknown Derived From pɨ̂w-at 'have coca in mouth; ball in cheek '+ nominalizer In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu pajé; mutawariçawa (mutawar=smoke blower, sawa=nominalizer), puçangaçawa (pusaŋga=remedio, sawa = que tem o habito de) paʒé; mutawaɾasa (mutawar=smoke blower, sawa=nominalizer) pusaŋgasawa (pusaŋga=remedio, sawa = que tem o habito de) inheritance; unique *paje possible donor for Bará bahe'-gɨ́; Alternate: mutawaɾasa, pusaŋgasawa Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani idõ unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Yanomami shapori, hekura ʃapoɾi, hekuɾa inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: hekuɾa (shaman); haɾo-, oʋəh- (healer, to heal?) Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam šapori (EM72) ʃapoɾi inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam šapori (EM72) ʃapoɾi shaman inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria yai jai shaman semantic shift from 'jaguar' Also means 'jaguar' b/c of belief that shamans turn into jaguars Simplex ro Sing suffix In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo yavi javi semantic shift from 'jaguar' Compound medicine-person-Classifier In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano jáí jáí shaman semantic shift from 'jaguar' Also means 'jaguar' b/c of belief that shamans turn into jaguars Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano cũmu kũmu loan - WW Proto-East Tukanoan %kumu Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki dabɨ aguɨ dabɨ agɨ unique Also: dabɨ agɨ Derived dabɨ=healer; tɨnoquɨ=to cure by touching In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup cǝw cǝw inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw sâw ʃəw inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani banakatsu (2), dopatubinü (3), kuwaiba (2)(to become a shaman by relevation of the god Kuwai), kuwainü (2)(a shaman iniciated by Kuwai) banakátsu, dopatúbinü shaman initiated by deity Kuwai unknown North Arawak May be a loan + semantic shift; not clear if this is a native innovation based on loan for 'deity', or itself a loan. kuwai 'deity' In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Guayabero pinhóʔ-in pinhóʔ-in unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
Pemon piasan (A1981); piiayasang (E1977) pɪasan (A1981); piaʎasaŋ (E1977) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio piiyaichang (witch doctor) (E1977) piyaɪtʃaŋ (E1977) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi píásaŋ píásaŋ inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa i'yan, piyan (MM) iʔjan, pijan (MM) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna mari'ichú maɾiʔitʃú shaman inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baniwa malíiri maɺíiɻi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro kanívakáagí kanívakáagí witch doctor, shaman unique Alternate: naikogígí Simplex But found in dictionaries with gender markers In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
Achagua kamálikai kamálikai inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco camaliqueeri; camapuacairi. kamalikeeri; kamapuakairi. In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari máritʃú máɾitʃú In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena maɺieɺi maɺieɺi In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ma'riri maʔriri In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Mandawaka máliri máliɾi In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi wairaˈtyare; ehanare; haholitaharexe wajdjaˈtjare; ehanare; haholitahareʃe inheritance? In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure weričon weritʃon inheritance? In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Bora ñaamáwa ñaamákwa unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane ápíchúubo (W97) ápítʃúubo In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai pyaxi pɨaxi inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana pïjai, pijali pɨjai, pijali inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
Carijona hiyaci (SM) inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó (pï)jai (pɨ)jai inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare hü'wai, kade:hu (KH), aichu:di eda:mo (KH) (means 'healing specialist (of blowing)) hɨʔwai, kade:hu (KH), aitʃu:di eda:mo (KH) inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai physician: k-ehčema-ɲe phjsician: k-ehčema-ɲe unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa tuwano (SM) tuwano (SM) In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo fuati; padye (from Tupian pajé) fuati; padje (from Tupian pajé) unknown; loan Tupi-Guarani In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca supquaguyn supkuaγuɨn In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá haĩmbaná haĩmbaná In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán coraga (Quechua loan from kuraka=chief) coraɣa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feare See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra vĩshinó bĩʃinó loan Jivaroan In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro yachova jaʃowa In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez dʸih; dʸixʸ dʸih; dʸixʸ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna dju-ú-ta (Alv44); ngi1-3xe5ta5xü5 (A58) dʒuʔúʔta; ŋiʔetaʔɨ unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina kwičaneha-eḍza, benane kwitʃaneha-edʒa, benane unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke tə̃́'etúʌ (from tə̃́'etú 'teach') tə̃́ʔetúʌ unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé hauɛ-čʰa hapa-mẽ 'sorcerer, witch'; lit. 'magic-maker' In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave physician: -hei-kon-o; -wɨn-ɨ physician: -hei-kon-o; -wɨn-ɨ unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Warao wisiratu (shaman)ibihi -rotu (ibihi=venom, rotu=owner of, listed as shaman) wisiɾatu (shaman)ibihi -ɾotu (ibihi=venom, ɾotu=owneɾ of, listed as shaman) In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar uwishín, iwishín uwiʃin, iwiʃin In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa iwishin iwiʃin In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna iwishín, pámuk iwiʃín, pámuk inheritance loan into Candoshi; cf. iwishi-inu 'bewitch-NMLZ' In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses dachiacanquid datʃiakankid unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Yagua rimyura rimjura unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua supay, yachac supa, jatʃak In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá sinchi (= 'powerful') sintʃi (= 'powerful') In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua yachaj jatʃax In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano layqa lajqa In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa mEríh mæríh loan N. Arawak *mali- In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva saicua 'curandero' saikʷa unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano kũbũ kũbũ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Addison Martinez, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'kũbũ 'kũbũ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna cũmu kũmu loan - WW %kumu In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Yuruti 'kũũbũ 'kũũbũ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana 'jairo, kũ'bũdõ 'jairo, kũ'bũdõ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano jé (=jaguar) jé (=jaguar) In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tanimuca dye'e wi'ki ʎe'e wi'ki semantic shift? from 'jaguar'? In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo kũmũ kũmũ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page
Tuyuka base-'gɨ́ base-'gɨ́ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja kũbũ, ku'rí, ka bá'hé-gɨ kũbũ, ku'rí, ka bá'hé-gɨ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje chai dʒai semantic shift from 'jaguar' In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona yai jai semantic shift from 'jaguar' In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya dahuë dawɨ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana pyharỹnh pɨhaɾɨ̃ɲ unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama payum, tsumi, icuan (from the verb "to know") pajum, tsumi, ikuan inheritance; unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi payɛ pajɛ inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
Sirionó mao mao unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá paje paje inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina taruuma tarɯɯma unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Nɨpode Witoto manó-ri-raïma manó-ri-raɯma In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto áima, hḯ.ïdo-raïma áima, hɯ́.ɯdo-raɯma In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto aìma aìma (B83) inheritance/Witoto In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá sapuli sapuli inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito siimána siimána inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo shimanaw ʃimanaw In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Becky Walker
Wari tykyninimʔ (Sousa2009) tɨkɨninimʔ (Sousa2009) In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-dosi-kia (Girard 1971) e-dosi-kia (Girard 1971) In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña maru (C&L89) maru inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara ajayiru layḳa In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
Kwazá hirini hirini In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima ukʷam-pa ukʷam-pa In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang kujà kuyə In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi küro køro In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE