Mandawaka

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
mht
Location
1.07°, -66.72°
Notes
Related to Adzaneni, Yabaana, Masaca. The name 'Baré' is sometimes used as a cover term for separate languages: Baré, Mandahuaca, Guarekena, Baniwa, Piapoko.
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Ramirez, Henri. 2001. Línguas Arawak da Amazônia setentrional: comparação e descrição. Manaus: Editora da Universidade.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Ana Paula B.
and y e grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment háli háli See Language page Ana Paula B.
at en, a em, a location See Language page Ana Paula B.
back espalda costas body See Language page Ana Paula B.
bad mal mal quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
belly barriga barriga body See Language page Ana Paula B.
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Ana Paula B.
big grande grande quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
black negro preto colour See Language page Ana Paula B.
blood sangre sangue body Vra-mi Vɾa-mi See Language page Ana Paula B.
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Ana Paula B.
bone hueso osso body jahi jahi See Language page Ana Paula B.
breast pecho, seno peito body See Language page Ana Paula B.
child niño, niña criança human See Language page Ana Paula B.
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
cold frío frio quality iheː-ri iheː-ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B.
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
day día dia time See Language page Ana Paula B.
dirty sucio sujo quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Ana Paula B.
dry seco seco quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
ear oreja orelha body See Language page Ana Paula B.
earth/soil tierra terra environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
egg huevo ovo fauna See Language page Ana Paula B.
eye ojo olho body di di See Language page Ana Paula B.
far lejos longe quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page Ana Paula B.
father padre, papá pai kinship See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather pluma pena fauna ahanáhe ahanáhe See Language page Ana Paula B.
fire fuego fogo environment iʒíːde iʒíːde See Language page Ana Paula B.
flower flor flor environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
fruit fruta fruta flora See Language page Ana Paula B.
good bueno bom quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body See Language page Ana Paula B.
hand mano mão body káhi káhi See Language page Ana Paula B.
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
head cabeza cabeça body wa wa See Language page Ana Paula B.
heavy pesado pesado quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
how? como como grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
1sg yo eu grammar nújaha, nu- nú-jaha See Language page Ana Paula B.
if si se grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Ana Paula B.
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Ana Paula B.
lake lago lago environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
leaf hoja folha environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page Ana Paula B.
leg/foot pierna perna body See Language page Ana Paula B.
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
liver hígado figado body See Language page Ana Paula B.
long largo comprido, longo quality amẽhikáli amẽhikáli See Language page Ana Paula B.
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tsúida tsúida See Language page Ana Paula B.
man/male hombre homem human aʒína-he aʒína-he See Language page Ana Paula B.
meat/flesh carne carne fauna See Language page Ana Paula B.
moon luna lua environment kéːri kéːɾi See Language page Ana Paula B.
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page Ana Paula B.
mouth boca boca body núma núma See Language page Ana Paula B.
name nombre nome human See Language page Ana Paula B.
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Ana Paula B.
neck cuello pescoço body núli núli See Language page Ana Paula B.
new nuevo novo quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
night noche noite time daimijáwi daimijáwi See Language page Ana Paula B.
no/not no não grammar (haapa) (haapa) See Language page Ana Paula B.
nose nariz nariz body htáku htáku See Language page Ana Paula B.
old viejo velho quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
one uno um number See Language page Ana Paula B.
other otro outro grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Ana Paula B.
person/human being persona pessoa human náwi náwi See Language page Ana Paula B.
rain lluvia chuva environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
red rojo vermelho colour kílali kílali See Language page Ana Paula B.
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Ana Paula B.
road/path camino caminho manufacture iwáhu, éːmuhu iwáhu, éːmuhu See Language page Ana Paula B.
root raíz raiz flora See Language page Ana Paula B.
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
sand arena areia environment ka-he ka-he See Language page Ana Paula B.
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
short corto curto quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page Ana Paula B.
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
skin piel pele body jáːbaru jáːbaɾu See Language page Ana Paula B.
sky cielo céu environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
small pequeño pequeno quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
star estrella estrela environment ewíːne ewíːne See Language page Ana Paula B.
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone piedra pedra environment íːha íːha See Language page Ana Paula B.
tail cola, rabo rabo body See Language page Ana Paula B.
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
thin delgado fino quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
2sg xx xx grammar híjaha, hi- híjaha, hi- See Language page Ana Paula B.
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Ana Paula B.
three tres tres number See Language page Ana Paula B.
thunder truenos trovão environment é:nu (R01) é:nu (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B.
bite morder morder body See Language page Ana Paula B.
blow soplar soprar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
burn quemar queimar environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
climb subir subir motion See Language page Ana Paula B.
come venir vir motion wínawa wínawa See Language page Ana Paula B.
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
count contar contar mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
cut/hack cortar cortar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
die/be dead morir morrer state See Language page Ana Paula B.
dig cavar cavar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
drink beber, tomar beber body V́ra V́ɾa See Language page Ana Paula B.
eat comer comer body See Language page Ana Paula B.
fall caer cair motion See Language page Ana Paula B.
fear miedo medo mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Ana Paula B.
fly volar voar motion See Language page Ana Paula B.
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Ana Paula B.
hear oír ouvir mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Ana Paula B.
hit golpear, pegar bater impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Ana Paula B.
kill matar matar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page Ana Paula B.
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Ana Paula B.
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
say decir dizer mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
see ver ver mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
sit sentar(se) sentar state (hẽ)hũka (hẽ)hũka See Language page Ana Paula B.
sleep dormir dormir body make make See Language page Ana Paula B.
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Ana Paula B.
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ema ema See Language page Ana Paula B.
steal robar roubar other See Language page Ana Paula B.
suck chupar chupar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
swim nadar nadar motion See Language page Ana Paula B.
think pensar pensar mental See Language page Ana Paula B.
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Ana Paula B.
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Ana Paula B.
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
walk caminar, andar andar motion See Language page Ana Paula B.
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Ana Paula B.
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
tongue lengua lingua body néne néne See Language page Ana Paula B.
tooth diente dente body e e See Language page Ana Paula B.
two dos dois number See Language page Ana Paula B.
water agua agua environment ú:ni ú:ni See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar wájaha, wa- See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
what? que, qué que grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
white blanco branco colour See Language page Ana Paula B.
who? quien, quién quem grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
wife esposa esposa kinship V́ju V́ju See Language page Ana Paula B.
wind viento vento environment káli káli See Language page Ana Paula B.
wing ala asa body See Language page Ana Paula B.
woman/female mujer mulher human ináː-lutʃa ináː-lutʃa See Language page Ana Paula B.
yellow amarillo amarelo colour See Language page Ana Paula B.
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
foot pie body See Language page Ana Paula B.
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Ana Paula B.
all todo todos other makéri makéri See Language page Ana Paula B.
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Ana Paula B.
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Ana Paula B.
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Ana Paula B.
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page Ana Paula B.
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Ana Paula B.
bark corteza casca environment See Language page Ana Paula B.
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Ana Paula B.
heart corazón coração body See Language page Ana Paula B.
sun sol sol time gamúːwi gamúːwi See Language page Ana Paula B.
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment idáha idáha See Language page Ana Paula B.
green verde verde quality See Language page Ana Paula B.
hot caliente quente quality See Language page Ana Paula B.


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. hiʒíːri hiʒíːɾi See Language page Ana Paula B.
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna sése sése See Language page Ana Paula B.
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. kuíːʒi kuíːʒi See Language page Amazonia Ana Paula B.
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. dáːse dáːse See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Ana Paula B.
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. malaːi malaːi See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Ana Paula B.
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B.
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B.
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. adáːlu adáːlu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica wáːlu wáːlu See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B.
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Ana Paula B.
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Ana Paula B.
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wadúːli wadúːli See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B.
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Ana Paula B.
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B.
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris tʃíːnu tʃíːnu See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B.
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Ana Paula B.
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri dalíwa, adáːna (tatu-canastra) dalíwa, adáːna (tatu-canastɾa) See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Ana Paula B.
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kadíːri kadíːɾi See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B.
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus damái damái See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page Ana Paula B.
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Ana Paula B.
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae umáːi umáːi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. kulíːri kulíːɾi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page Ana Paula B.
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B.
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Ana Paula B.
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. náːtuli náːtuli See Language page Ana Paula B.
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Ana Paula B.
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B.
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Ana Paula B.
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna See Language page Ana Paula B.
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B.
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B.
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Ana Paula B.
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B.
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B.
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Ana Paula B.
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B.
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Ana Paula B.
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Ana Paula B.
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Ana Paula B.
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B.
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Ana Paula B.
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B.
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Ana Paula B.
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens há:ti See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Ana Paula B.
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Ana Paula B.
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Ana Paula B.
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Ana Paula B.
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. dé:rihe dé:ɾihe See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B.
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Ana Paula B.
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Ana Paula B.
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B.
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum dé:ma See Language page plant Ana Paula B.
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna See Language page Ana Paula B.
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Ana Paula B.
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Ana Paula B.
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Ana Paula B.
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Ana Paula B.
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Ana Paula B.
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B.
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Ana Paula B.
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Ana Paula B.
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Ana Paula B.
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B.
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B.
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ká:ni See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B.
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B.
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B.
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant Ana Paula B.
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Ana Paula B.
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Ana Paula B.
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Ana Paula B.
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Ana Paula B.
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. kú:na kú:na See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B.
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Ana Paula B.
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Ana Paula B.
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Ana Paula B.
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Ana Paula B.
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis má:ha má:ha See Language page Ana Paula B.
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Ana Paula B.
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Ana Paula B.
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Ana Paula B.
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Ana Paula B.
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Ana Paula B.
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Ana Paula B.
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Ana Paula B.
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Ana Paula B.
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera ʒíːtu ʒíːtu See Language page Ana Paula B.
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page Ana Paula B.
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Ana Paula B.
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B.
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Ana Paula B.
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. See Language page Ana Paula B.
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera káma káma See Language page Ana Paula B.
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Ana Paula B.
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Ana Paula B.
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Ana Paula B.
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page Ana Paula B.
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca dáːwi dáːwi See Language page Ana Paula B.
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B.
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Ana Paula B.
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Ana Paula B.
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella huái huái See Language page Ana Paula B.
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Ana Paula B.
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Ana Paula B.
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Ana Paula B.
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis inéwi inéwi See Language page Ana Paula B.
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Ana Paula B.
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Ana Paula B.
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari ahiːda ahiːda See Language page Ana Paula B.
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Ana Paula B.
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Ana Paula B.
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. híʒi híʒi See Language page Ana Paula B.
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kéːsu kéːsu See Language page Ana Paula B.
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Ana Paula B.
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) dáha dáha See Language page Ana Paula B.
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus íːri íːɾi See Language page Ana Paula B.
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Ana Paula B.
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris é:ma é:ma See Language page Ana Paula B.
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus See Language page Ana Paula B.
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Ana Paula B.


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
canoe canoa canoa transport í:ta í:ta See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology máliri máliɾi In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B.
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B.
firewood leña lenha other See Language page Ana Paula B.
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B.
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Ana Paula B.
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Ana Paula B.
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool há:li há:li agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B.
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
wax cera cera other See Language page Ana Paula B.
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture See Language page Ana Paula B.
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B.
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Ana Paula B.
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Ana Paula B.
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B.
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Ana Paula B.
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Ana Paula B.
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B.
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
salt sal sal food See Language page Ana Paula B.
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool wirúhune wiɾúhune currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B.
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Ana Paula B.
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Ana Paula B.
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B.
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B.
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture jaláki jaláki prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B.
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food matʃúka matʃúka agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B.
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Ana Paula B.
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B.
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool mawákuli mawákuli hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool duhí:zi duhí:zi agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B.
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B.
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B.
house other haní:ʒi haní:ʒi See Language page Ana Paula B.