Cofán

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
con
Location
0.28°, -77.06°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Borman, M. B. (comp). 1976. Vocabulario Cofan: Cofán - Castellano, Castellano -Cofán. Serie de Vocabularios Indígenas Mariano Silva y Aceves. No. 19.ILV, Quito. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment cusepa kɯsɛpa See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location (~ a place) -ni; -tti ni, thi See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body sepacco sɛpakho See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality egae, ega'o ɛɣaʔo See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body tto´pa thopa See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality rande (Spanish loan?), -cco ɾaⁿdɛ, kʰo See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour sinje´on, si'an si̡ʔãn See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body anjampa ãhãpa See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body san'ccoa (meaning listed is "shin") sãʔkhoa See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body tsu´tta tsɯʔtʰa See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body utu´cho ɯthɯʔtʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human du´shu/pusheshu du´shu, aipano (baby) dyʔʃɯ, aipano See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment unji´mba ɯnhimba See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality cha´ndio tʃaʔndio See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ñoa´me ɲoaʔmɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time a´ta aʔta See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality ámunde'tssi amɯndɛʔtshi See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna tsampi´su ain tsampiʔsu ain See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality samba samba See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tsimbi'cco tsi̡mbiʔkho See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment ande'su ccuttopa'si andeʔsɯ khɯthopaʔsi See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body tsosina tsosina See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment ande andɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna arapa dusu´cho aɾapaⁿdɯsɯʔtʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body tso´fe tsoʔɸɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality biani biani See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body yaya'pa jaijaʔpa See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship quitsa kitsa See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna tose, te'ta tosɛ, tɛʔta See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment si´nge siʔⁿgɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment te'ta tɛʔta See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ccuttopa'si khɯthopaʔsi See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora na, tetacho na, tɛtatʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality ño´a, ñotssi ɲotshi See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tose tosɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body tive, tivenaccu tiβɛ, tiβɛnakʰɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar jova, tsa hoβa, tsa See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body tsove tsoβɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality tssai'a tshaiʔa See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar ma'caen maʔkãɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar ña ɲa See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar ta, -nda ta, nda See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body tto'pa, tifocho'pa thoʔpa, tiɸotʃoʔpa See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment singu'ccu siŋgɯʔkhɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment naje, ccaque, ccaqueje khakyɛ, khakyɛhɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body pave'fa pavɛɸa See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body ttena'ngo, tsu'tte thɛnaʔŋgo, tsɯʔthɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tsanda veyaen tsanda βɛʒãɛ̡ See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body sansan sãsã See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality bia´a biaʔa See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna sinsin si̡sin See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human tsandie tsandiɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna aña´cho, na aɲaʔtʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment cose'su chiga, ccovu kosɛʔsɯ tʃiɣa, khoβɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship chan tʃan See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body aya´fa aijaʔɸa See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human inise inisɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality pporotsse phoɾotshɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body tsifo tsiɸo See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality cuna kɯna See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time cose kosɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar me'i, -mbi me̡ʔI, mbi See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body tsofa´ttu tsoɸaʔtʰɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality tssoru tshoɾɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number fue´cco ɸïɛʔkʰo See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar fuesu ɸɯɛsɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human a´i aʔi See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment unjin u̡hi̡ See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour cu´a kɯʔa See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body tansin'fa tãsi̡ʔɸa See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture tsai'qui tsaiʔki See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora setsa´fa sɛtsaʔɸa See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality congomba koŋgomba See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment sisipa sisipa See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality tsintssia tsi̡tshia See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality re'richo ɾɛʔɾitʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body opipa'cho opipaʔtʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body ttono thono See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment sefacco sɛɸakho See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality re´ri, chipiri, -cho tʃipiɾI, tʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment onfe´mba õɸɛʔᵐba See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment o´fe oʔɸɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora quini'cco, ttemba kiniʔkho, thɛmba See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment patu patɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body atse´fa atsɛʔɸa See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar tsa tsa See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar jo´e, jondeccu, tsendeccu hoʔɛ, hoⁿdɛkʰi, tsɛⁿdɛkʰi See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tombu'tssi, tombu'choa tombɯʔtshi, tombɯʔtʃoa See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality saije'ccoa saihɛʔkhoa See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar vue, va ɸa See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar que kʸɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body tsifoma, andian'cho tsiɸoma, andi̡ãʔtʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number ccoanifué´cco (fue=one) kʰʷanɪɸïɛʔkʰo See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment tsanda tsanda See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body tsaiye tsaije See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body ufaye ɯɸaijc See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body qquendyaye khyɛndjajɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment oqueye okyɛjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body tse´tseye tsɛʔtsɛjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion jiye hijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact otaeñe otaɛɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental i´nañe iʔnaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact chhiyiye, chattuye tʃhijijɛ, tʃathɯjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state panjen, paye pajɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact canshaeñe, changoeñe kãʃãe̡ɲɛ, tʃangwɛ̡ɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental jeñe hɛɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body cui´ye kïiʔjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body añe ãɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion amppiye ãphijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental dyoye (v.) dʒojɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion ai'jeye aihɛjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion chhajeye tʃahɛje See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state coeñe koɛɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental pañañe paɲãɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion ccúyaye khɯjajɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact tssaiye tshaije See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other indiye, a'mbiañe indijɛ, aʔmbi̡ãɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact fi´ttiye fiʔtʰijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental in´jañe, atesuye inʔhãɲɛ, atɛsyjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental féñañe fɛɲaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ccuiye khɯijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body canseye kansɛjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other fettaye fɛthajɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental suye sɯjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact dequiañe dɛkyiaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental cañe, átteye athejɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state dyaiye dʒaijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body anañe anãɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body shonchañe, tssu'juye ʃõtʃaɲɛ, tshɯʔhɯjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body attuiye athɯijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact doñañe, tsse'tsseye doɲãɲɛ, tshɛʔtshɛjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mandyiye mandʒijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ccutsuye khɯtsɯjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other cca´lnañe khaʔlnaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body sutsaye sɯtsaijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body ppuye phɯjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion cca'yaye khaʔjajɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental asi'ttaeñe asiʔthãɛ̡ɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ttovaye thoβajɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tandañe tandaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body a´juye aʔhɯjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion jácañe hakãɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other semañe sɛmaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body sha´ruye ʃaʔɾɯjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body menzanza´fa mɛndzandzaʔɸa See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body tte´tto thɛʔtho See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number ccoangi´cco kʰʷaŋgiʔkʰo See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment tsa´ccu tsaʔkʰɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ingi iŋgi See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality tssipa'o tshipaʔo See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar jongoesu hoⁿgwɛsɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar maqui maki See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar mani mani See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour totoa totoa See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar majan mãhã See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship cocama pushe (of a white person), chan (mother), pushe kokama pɯʃɛ, tʃan, pɯʃɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment fingian fiŋgi̡ã See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body sanccopa sãkhopa See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human pushesu pyʃɛsɯ See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour quiyopa kijopa See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar que'i kʸɛʔi See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body tsu´tte tsɯʔthɛ See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other poiyi'cco pwijiʔkho See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tsu´tte nemba´cho tsɯʔthɛ nɛmbaʔtʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body tssotssopa tshotshopa See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment ttono thono See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body quitsicco kitsikho See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body injama´cho i̡hamaʔtʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time coeje chiga kwɛhɛ tʃiɣa See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ccota´cco khotaʔkho See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality inzian indzi̡ã See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality sa´vutssi, ju'rutssi hɯʔɾɯtsi See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. quitsa kitsa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna choin tʃoi̡ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. uttetsu See Language page Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. socu, coya pishira (OP79), gio´ngion (OP79) sokɯ See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans tuntun See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. vatsara´cco (OP79), pa´on (OP79) See Language page Different types have different localized ranges phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae fongo, macaco´va (OP79), firiccoshe (OP79) See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae a'tse aʔtsɛ See Language page Widespread phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae dasa'ro dasaʔro See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes poscongo, fundondo (OP79), poscongo (OP79) poskoŋgo See Language page Widespread phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. oma'ndo omaʔndo See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica picori, sese, panicco oma´ndo, cu´a oma´ndo (OP79), tsove nanamba (OP79), tsanda ttofi (OP79), ttofi (OP79) pikori See Language page Widespread phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ppuppuju'cho phɯphɯhɯʔtʃo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae macama, cancancaon pindo (OP79) See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ccompana See Language page Widespread South America phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family vacapi βakapi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba ttesi vasaga, masha thɛsi βasaga See Language page Widespread South America phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae toronzé'nze, a´cho cocosumo (OP79) toronzɛʔnzɛ See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ain ai̡ See Language page Not native; widespread phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis joven, tsampi'su ain tsampiʔsɯ ain See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) betta bɛtha See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri iji ihi See Language page Widespread in Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. sa'ndi, noe´su saʔndi See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. vatova See Language page Throughout Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus fambi (doesn't specify "electric", but root for "to electrocute" is fambiañe) ɸambi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna avu aβɯ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. garop´ita garopiʔta See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae loro loro See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. ccuivo khɯiβo See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. cugupa'cho (variety of catfish with "yellow spots") kɯgɯpaʔtʃo See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ttesi, sapo (Sp. Loan) sapo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ivana (Arawak/Spanish loan?), ampashiro iβana See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata tofa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. shipare See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ccosha khoʃa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes canjansi (same as boa) kãhansi See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae canjansi (same as anaconda) kãhansi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna anttanfasi iyo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox tunto, cachapa iyo katʃapa ijo See Language page Widespread South America phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria poca, taricaya poka See Language page Widespread phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis fanjan See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) sina sina See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS palm Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS palm Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) shichha ta´va ʃitʃha taʔβa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra ufaque´su ta´va ɯɸakyɛʔsɯ taʔβa See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens ccoma khoma See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea mani (S. or other loan) mani See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus chiviya [loan Quechua] tʃiβija See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum caofa´cco kaoɸaʔkho See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. geño ɣɛɲo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. se´va sɛʔβa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ppu´ppu phɯʔphɯ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum ccumba khɯmba See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna quini´cco kiniʔkʰo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana cuña kɯɲa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS shrub Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. fiño ɸiɲo See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana atsa atsa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS shrub Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS large tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. cancho (Spanish loan) cantʃo See Language page Widespread Amazonia phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia otsepaecho tsaja otsɛpaɛtʃo tsaha See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta seje´pa a´mba sɛhɛʔpa aʔmba See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensif Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta a´mba aʔmba See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum sisa, atta sisa, atha See Language page secondary scrub vegetation phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas quefa (sweet potato), sisa, atta kyɛɸa (sweet potato), sisa, atha See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) cunonga censo, cunonga ccosu'cho 'calabaza larga con cuello, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl'; ichhoro'cho 'Crescentia cujete' See Language page indigenous gardens phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant; tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. ccoa, cco'a (loan Tukanoan? 'calabaza, zapallo') khoa, khoʔa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. ccuccufa khɯkhɯɸa See Language page secondary forest, floodplain phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS vine Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. seña´mba sɛɲaʔmba See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS shrub/tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi oco yaje oko jahɛ See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS vine Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola ccumba khɯmβa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata congi, ono koŋgi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. comantsia, daécco komantsia See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis fancon, tuño nasi (honeybee) tɯɲo nasi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria shipicco ʃipikho See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae tumbamba tumbamba See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera sian, ttuviya sian See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora iyofa ijoɸa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda shajasi ʃahasi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones tini, shishittoshe tini See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea zian´cho See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera binshin binʃin See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera tenquén'cho tɛ̡kɛnʔtʃo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae shishi (onomatopoeia?) ʃiʃi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. shiñosi, toro toro See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae fiju ɸihu See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. anchan antʃã See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ovepa´cho, tsuttavu´vu (flying termite) oβɛpaʔtʃo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tsuye tsɯjɛ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita pa'tta paʔtha See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda choro tʃoro See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae onsinsiñe, ccayaju onsinsiɲɛ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ttesi; siau tési (R95) thɛsi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. macamarina (Sp. Loan) makamarina See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha con´sin See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] raju See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella ongu oŋgɯ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons ongu (gen. capuchin) oŋgɯ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus duye (gen. spider monkey) dɯjɛ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae carachopa, pando karatʃopa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis choni (gen. otter) tʃoni See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis choni (gen. otter) tʃoni See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu saquira See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari monda See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae shinda ʃinda See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua conshombi See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris yovuru joβɯrɯ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) chanange See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus dushupa duʃupa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae tutuye tɯtɯjɛ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris ccovi danta; kubi, kuubi (R95) khoβi danta See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus shan'cco ʃanʔkho See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material saparo (shared Quechua), otata´cco saparo, otataʔkho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material poti poti phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material anajenlcho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material anae´ma anaɛʔma phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material mesa (Spanish loan) mesa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport shago ʃaɣo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture ccosha khoʃa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology ccosha khoʃa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology coraga (Quechua loan from kuraka=chief) coraɣa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feare See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology coraga (Quechua loan from kuraka=chief) coraɣa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material fundui´si ɸɯndɯiʔsi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology sarupa (ropa); ondiccu'je (cushma) sarupa; ondikhuʔhe phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other na´inchoe, pporotsse naʔintʃoɛ, phorotshɛ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other si´tsi siʔtsi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology cocoya kokoja phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology chiga (god, sun) tʃiga (god, sun) phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology dendo´cco dendoʔkho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material chhichhi´cco tʃhitʃhiʔkho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material machiti (Spanish loan) matʃiti phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ovacco´cho oβakhoʔtʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool seje´cco sɛhɛʔkho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool sata, dasan´cho (steel spear) sata, dasanʔtʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool battittianccu βathithi̡ãkhɯ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport chhochhori´ndi tʃhotʃhoriʔndi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool api api phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tasa (Spanish loan) tasa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other tuño tuño phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food cuñajun'cho (sugar, honey) kuñahunʔʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture simba'fa simbaʔɸa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ccaqueje khakyɛhɛ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology settaen´cho sethãɛ̡ʔtʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology otiffacu otifakɯ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology cáraña karaɲa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation escoera eskoera phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation tevaen'je teβaenʔhe phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ayo'o ajoʔo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation arapa arapa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology atuʔtti atuʔthi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other canchimba (Span loan) phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation sutsapa'cco (sugar cane); cuñajun'cho (sugar, honey) sutspaʔkho; kuñahunʔʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material foño ɸoño phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapato sapato phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sundaro, sondaro sundaro, sondaro phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation mishi miʃi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation potaé'ngo (from 'shoot, scatter') potaéʔngo (from 'shoot, scatter') phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress ontsianccu (from 'put/carry on head') ontsiankhu phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology coen ('old one, chief'; from 'adult') koen ('old one, chief'; from 'adult') phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food ansi ansi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology setta'poen'cho sethaʔpoenʔtʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ufacco´cco ɯɸakhoʔkho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool finfincco ɸinɸinkho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food mappi´choeñe maphiʔtʃoɛ̡ɲɛ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food panzaye pãdzajɛ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool cunonga censo, cunonga ccosu'cho 'calabaza larga con cuello, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl'; ichhoro'cho 'Crescentia cujete' phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture tsetse´pa tsɛtsɛʔpa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ppu'ppu sundafo'cho 'harina de maiz' phɯʔphɯ sɯndaɸoʔtʃo 'harina de maiz' phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food casave kasaβɛ [loan] phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food tumba´ccu tɯmbaʔkhɯ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool seje´pa sɛhɛʔpa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool oficco oɸikho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool "quendecco (not specified only for fish) kwɛndɛkho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture patuvo´cho patɯβoʔtʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
house other etti, antteye ɛthi, anthɛjɛ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle