Muisca

Family
Chibchan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
chb
Location
6.25°, -74.17°
Notes
extinct since before 1950
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
González de Pérez, María Stella. 1987. Diccionario y gramática Chibcha: manuscrito anónimo de la Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia: Instituto Caro y Cuervo. González de Pérez, María Stella. 2007. Chibcha. In Mary R. Key, Intercontinental Dictionary Series. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/ Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment fusque, sucta puske, sukta See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location na na See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body gutaquyn γutakuɨn See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality achuenza aʂuentʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body ie, ieta ie, ieta See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location hicha- hiʂa- See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality cuhuma kuhuma See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour amuyhyzyn mague amuɨhɨtʂɨn maγe See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body hyba hɨβa See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body atomansuca atomansuka See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body quyne kuɨne See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body fihista βihista See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human guasgua cha γuasγua ʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment faoa βaoa See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality zquyensuca tʂkuɨensuka See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ocasa okasa See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time sua sua See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality amuyhyzen mague amuɨhɨzen maγe See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality buchua βuʂua See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment fusque puske See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body cuhuca kuhuka See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment iegui ieγi See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna bgye βγɨe See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body upqua upkua See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality ahuen mague ahuen maγe See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship paba, pabi paβa, paβi See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna gaca γaka See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment gata γata See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment uba uβa See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment faoa paoa See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora quyeuba kuɨeuβa See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality cho ʂo See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body zye tʂɨe See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body yta ɨta See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar asy asɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body zysquy tʂɨskuɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality afihizan mague apihitʂan maγe See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar ia hacobe ia hakoβe See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar hycha hɨʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location huia huia See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body zimsua tʂimsua See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment xiua siua See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment quye kuɨe See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body goca γoka See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment pquahaza pkuahatʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body tyhyba tɨhɨβa See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality gahasio γahasio See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna cue, cumne kue, kumne See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human muysca muɨska See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna chimy ʂimɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment chie ʂie See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship guaia γuaia See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body guyhyca γuɨhɨka See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human hyca hɨka See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body gyquihicha γɨkuihiʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality fihiza pihitʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time za tʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body saca saka See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality saca saka See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number ata ata See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar ata gue ata γue See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body iuquyn iukuɨn See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human muysca muɨska See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment siu siu See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour heczen mague hektʂen maγe See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture ie ie See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora chihiza ʂihitʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment guanza γuantʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality asicaz bquysqua asikatʂ βkuɨskua See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality asuhucaza asuhukatʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body pquáqueüá pkuakueua See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body huca huka See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment guatquyca γuatkuɨka See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality inguezunga inγetʂunγa See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment ie ie See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment fagua paγua See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment hyca hɨka See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body suhuca suhuka See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar asy asɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality achimy gue aʂimɨ γe See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality asiten mague asiten maγe See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar mue mue See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body fiza pitʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number mica mika See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body zemonsuca tʂemonsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body obas bcusqua oβas βkuskua See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body fihizca pihitʂka See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment bgai pquasuca βγai pkuasuka See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body bgyiasuca βγɨiasuka See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion ichiegosqua iʂieγoskua See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion zehusqua tʂehuskua See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact zmohoquysuca tʂmohokuɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental zeconsuca tʂekonsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact zemascasuca tʂemaskasuka See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state bgysqua, ys bcasqua βγɨskua, ɨs βkaskua See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact bgyisuca βγɨisuka See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental muysua muɨsua See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body zebiohotysuca tʂeβiohotɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body zequychyquysuca tʂekuɨʂɨkuɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion zebenansuca tʂeβenansuka See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental bsiesesuca βsiesesuka See Language page Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion acosynsuca akosɨnsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state zemuysquynsuca tʂemuɨskuɨnsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion bchiy-suca βʂiɨ-suka See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ys bgyisuca ɨs βγɨisuka See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other cam bquysqua kam βkuɨskua See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact bgusqua βγuskua See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental zemucansuca tʂemukansuka See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental zegyguasuca tʂeγɨγuasuka See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ybcac izone ɨβkak itʂone See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body zica, mica tʂika, mika See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental zegusqua tʂeγuskua See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact bcoiquesuca βkoikesuka See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental zemistysuca tʂemistɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact bgyisuca βγɨisuka See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state hichan izasqua hiʂan itʂaskua See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body zquybysuca tʂkuɨβɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body zmuysquysuca tʂmuɨskuɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body zquyhyzygosqua tʂkuɨhɨtʂɨγoskua See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact sacan btasqua sakan βtaskua See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact zbiosqua tʂβioskua See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state quypquas zsquansuca kuɨpkuas tʂskuansuka See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other isapqua gosqua isapkua γoskua See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body bchuchysuca βʂuʂɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body yc abiasqua ɨk aβiaskua See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion inyhyz agosqua inɨhɨtʂ aγoskua See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental ybunsuca, zegusqua ɨβunsuka, tʂeɨuskua See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact yc btasqua ɨk βtaskua See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact bcamysuca βkamɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other yz zukuscansuca ɨz tʂukuskansuka See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body bcosqua βkoskua See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion ies inasqua ies inaskua See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other ichosqua iʂoskua See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body zequyhyquysuca tʂekuɨhɨkuɨsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body pqua pkua See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body sica sika See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number boza botʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment sie sie See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar chie ʂie See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality iotupqua iotupkua See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar ipqua ipkua See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar fesua pesua See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar epquac oa epkuak oa See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour pquyhiso pkɨhiso See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar xieoa sieoa See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship gui γi See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment fiba piβa See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body gaca γaka See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human muysca fucha muɨska puʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour atybansuca atɨβansuka See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mie mie See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body quihicha kuihiʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar fihistan pihistan See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other azonuca atʂonuka See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body iomquym iomkuɨm See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body gacata γakata See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body fumy pumɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body ixiunsuca isiunsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body abasynsuca aβasɨnsuka See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment huca huka See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body ytyquyn ɨtɨkuɨn See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body nymsuguy nɨmsuγuɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time sua sua See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment gua γua See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality achysquyn mague aʂɨskuɨn maγe See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality amon mague amon maγe See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. supqua supkua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna sue sue See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae sue sue See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes simte simte See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae umpa umpa See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family sumne sumne See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris to to See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna gua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura zihita tʂihita See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata muyhyzyso muɨhɨtʂɨso See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura fupqua pupkua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna muyso aquyca gue muɨso akuɨka γe See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria cuegui kueγi See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) hua hua See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) quyhysa kuɨhɨsa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays aba aβa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum hosca hoska See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna quye kuɨe See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum iomza iomtʂa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas iomza iomtʂa See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) zihiba tʂihiβa See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ize itʂe See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ize itʂe See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis busuapquame βusuapkuame See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria chutagui tʂutaγui See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora sosua sosua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones quysua kuɨsua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea suaguaia suaγuaia See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera muyza muɨtʂa See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ybsa ɨβsa See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. chue ʂue See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda biza βitʂa See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae sospqua sospkua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca comba (tiger) komβa See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha mizegui (generic term) mitʂeγi See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti fuquy pukuɨ See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus chuhuca tʂuhuka See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus chihica; guahaki (R95) ʂihika See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus hycabai (from 'caballo') hɨkabai (from 'caballo') See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tobia tobia See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material quypqua kuɨpkua See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology cupqua (not specified as small or not) kupkua See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology supquaguyn supkuaγuɨn In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other ca ka may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other ja γa See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology guaha ioque γuaha ioke malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool quyecho kuɨeʂo hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool supqua supkua See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool hacapa hakapa arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool zoia tʂoia See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool bugun βuγun agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture zimne tʂimne See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation ioque 'paper, leather, skin' joke 'paper, leather, skin' See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation su amne 'sugar cane?' su amne 'sugar cane?' See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material guan guan See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation nymy 'wild cat' nɨmɨ 'wild cat' See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress pquapqua pkuapkua See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology psihipqua psihipkua See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool tamyxiquy tamɨʃikuɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food nygua, niwa nɨgua, niwa See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ty-scua (vb.) tɨ-skua (vb.) See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool fuhuta puhuta currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool supqua supkua hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food funtago, chihizego puntaγo, ʂihitʂeγo See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food cugo kuγo Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool zihiba tʂihiβa See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool guyne γuɨne See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture fapqua (not specified as manioc or corn beer) βapkua prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food iefun (bread of indians) iepun usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture hyca hɨka if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
house other gue γe See Language page Daniel Valle