Warao

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
wba
Location
7.51°, -59.35°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Romero-Figueroa, Andrés. 1997. Warao. Lincom Studies in Native American Linguistics 06. Munich/ Newcastle: Lincom Europa.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page John Blaha
and y e grammar See Language page John Blaha
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment See Language page John Blaha
at en, a em, a location See Language page John Blaha
back espalda costas body See Language page John Blaha
bad mal mal quality asa asa See Language page John Blaha
belly barriga barriga body See Language page John Blaha
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page John Blaha
big grande grande quality irira iɾiɾa See Language page John Blaha
black negro preto colour See Language page John Blaha
blood sangre sangue body See Language page John Blaha
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page John Blaha
bone hueso osso body muhukarare (group of bones) muhukaɾaɾe (gɾoup of bones) See Language page John Blaha
breast pecho, seno peito body See Language page John Blaha
child niño, niña criança human noboto noboto See Language page John Blaha
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page John Blaha
cold frío frio quality See Language page John Blaha
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page John Blaha
day día dia time See Language page John Blaha
dirty sucio sujo quality See Language page John Blaha
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page John Blaha
dry seco seco quality waha waha See Language page John Blaha
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page John Blaha
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page John Blaha
ear oreja orelha body See Language page John Blaha
earth/soil tierra terra environment ina (land?) ina (land?) See Language page John Blaha
egg huevo ovo fauna See Language page John Blaha
eye ojo olho body See Language page John Blaha
far lejos longe quality See Language page John Blaha
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page John Blaha
father padre, papá pai kinship ɾima, dani (pg 44) rima, dani (pg 44) See Language page John Blaha
feather pluma pena fauna See Language page John Blaha
fire fuego fogo environment See Language page John Blaha
flower flor flor environment See Language page John Blaha
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page John Blaha
fruit fruta fruta flora See Language page John Blaha
good bueno bom quality yak yak See Language page John Blaha
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body See Language page John Blaha
hand mano mão body moho moho See Language page John Blaha
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar aru, tai (he) aɾu, tai (he) See Language page John Blaha
head cabeza cabeça body kʷahi (head top) kʷahi (head top) See Language page John Blaha
heavy pesado pesado quality See Language page John Blaha
how? como como grammar See Language page John Blaha
1sg yo eu grammar ine ine See Language page John Blaha
if si se grammar See Language page John Blaha
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page John Blaha
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page John Blaha
lake lago lago environment See Language page John Blaha
leaf hoja folha environment yaroko yaɾoko See Language page John Blaha
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page John Blaha
leg/foot pierna perna body See Language page John Blaha
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment See Language page John Blaha
liver hígado figado body mahi mahi See Language page John Blaha
long largo comprido, longo quality See Language page John Blaha
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna See Language page John Blaha
man/male hombre homem human nibora, noboto (boy) niboɾa, noboto (boy) See Language page John Blaha
meat/flesh carne carne fauna See Language page John Blaha
moon luna lua environment waniku waniku See Language page John Blaha
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ɾani rani See Language page John Blaha
mouth boca boca body See Language page John Blaha
name nombre nome human See Language page John Blaha
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page John Blaha
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page John Blaha
neck cuello pescoço body See Language page John Blaha
new nuevo novo quality See Language page John Blaha
night noche noite time ima (darkness, night) ima (daɾkness, night) See Language page John Blaha
no/not no não grammar See Language page John Blaha
nose nariz nariz body See Language page John Blaha
old viejo velho quality See Language page John Blaha
one uno um number isaka isaka See Language page John Blaha
other otro outro grammar See Language page John Blaha
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page John Blaha
person/human being persona pessoa human See Language page John Blaha
rain lluvia chuva environment See Language page John Blaha
red rojo vermelho colour simo (any shade of a dark color?) simo (any shade of a daɾk coloɾ?) See Language page John Blaha
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page John Blaha
road/path camino caminho manufacture See Language page John Blaha
root raíz raiz flora See Language page John Blaha
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page John Blaha
sand arena areia environment See Language page John Blaha
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page John Blaha
short corto curto quality See Language page John Blaha
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page John Blaha
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page John Blaha
skin piel pele body See Language page John Blaha
sky cielo céu environment See Language page John Blaha
small pequeño pequeno quality sanuka sanuka See Language page John Blaha
smoke humo fumaça environment hekuhu hekuhu See Language page John Blaha
star estrella estrela environment kura kuɾa See Language page John Blaha
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page John Blaha
stone piedra pedra environment hoyo hoyo See Language page John Blaha
tail cola, rabo rabo body See Language page John Blaha
that ese/esa esse grammar tai tai See Language page John Blaha
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tatuma tatuma See Language page John Blaha
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page John Blaha
thin delgado fino quality See Language page John Blaha
this este/esta este grammar tama tama See Language page John Blaha
2sg xx xx grammar ihi, yatu ihi, yatu See Language page John Blaha
throat garganta garganta body See Language page John Blaha
three tres tres number dihana -mo (dihana=bunch, -mo=ABL, (fingers) coming from a bunch) dihana -mo (dihana=bunch, -mo=ABL, (fingeɾs) coming fɾom a bunch) See Language page John Blaha
thunder truenos trovão environment See Language page John Blaha
bite morder morder body See Language page John Blaha
blow soplar soprar body See Language page John Blaha
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page John Blaha
burn quemar queimar environment See Language page John Blaha
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page John Blaha
climb subir subir motion See Language page John Blaha
come venir vir motion See Language page John Blaha
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page John Blaha
count contar contar mental See Language page John Blaha
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page John Blaha
cut/hack cortar cortar impact See Language page John Blaha
die/be dead morir morrer state wab wab See Language page John Blaha
dig cavar cavar impact See Language page John Blaha
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page John Blaha
drink beber, tomar beber body hobi hobi See Language page John Blaha
eat comer comer body nahoro nahoɾo See Language page John Blaha
fall caer cair motion See Language page John Blaha
fear miedo medo mental See Language page John Blaha
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page John Blaha
fly volar voar motion nari, yahak naɾi, yahak See Language page John Blaha
grow crecer crescer state See Language page John Blaha
hear oír ouvir mental See Language page John Blaha
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page John Blaha
hit golpear, pegar bater impact See Language page John Blaha
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page John Blaha
kill matar matar impact n- n- See Language page John Blaha
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental namina namina See Language page John Blaha
laugh reír rir mental See Language page John Blaha
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page John Blaha
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page John Blaha
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page John Blaha
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page John Blaha
say decir dizer mental See Language page John Blaha
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page John Blaha
see ver ver mental mi mi See Language page John Blaha
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page John Blaha
sit sentar(se) sentar state See Language page John Blaha
sleep dormir dormir body uba uba See Language page John Blaha
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body See Language page John Blaha
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page John Blaha
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page John Blaha
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page John Blaha
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page John Blaha
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page John Blaha
steal robar roubar other See Language page John Blaha
suck chupar chupar body See Language page John Blaha
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page John Blaha
swim nadar nadar motion See Language page John Blaha
think pensar pensar mental See Language page John Blaha
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact See Language page John Blaha
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page John Blaha
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page John Blaha
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page John Blaha
walk caminar, andar andar motion kuhu kuhu See Language page John Blaha
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page John Blaha
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page John Blaha
tongue lengua lingua body See Language page John Blaha
tooth diente dente body See Language page John Blaha
two dos dois number mana -mo (mana=pair, -mo=ABL, (fingers) coming from in a pair, pg 55) mana -mo (mana=paiɾ, -mo=ABL, fingeɾs coming fɾom in a paiɾ, pg 55) See Language page John Blaha
water agua agua environment ho ho See Language page John Blaha
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar oko oko See Language page John Blaha
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page John Blaha
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page John Blaha
what? que, qué que grammar kasikaha (what/some/any) kasikaha (what/some/any) See Language page John Blaha
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page John Blaha
where? donde onde grammar See Language page John Blaha
white blanco branco colour hoko (any shade of light color) hoko (any shade of light coloɾ) See Language page John Blaha
who? quien, quién quem grammar sina sina See Language page John Blaha
wife esposa esposa kinship ma tiɾa (my woman? Ma=pos maɾkeɾ, tiɾa =woman) ma tira (my woman? Ma=pos marker, tira =woman) See Language page John Blaha
wind viento vento environment See Language page John Blaha
wing ala asa body See Language page John Blaha
woman/female mujer mulher human tira, iboma (girl) tiɾa, iboma (giɾl) See Language page John Blaha
yellow amarillo amarelo colour See Language page John Blaha
2pl ustedes vocês grammar yatu, -ya yatu, -ya See Language page John Blaha
foot pie body omu omu See Language page John Blaha
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page John Blaha
all todo todos other See Language page John Blaha
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page John Blaha
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page John Blaha
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page John Blaha
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page John Blaha
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page John Blaha
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page John Blaha
bark corteza casca environment See Language page John Blaha
fingernail uña unha body See Language page John Blaha
heart corazón coração body See Language page John Blaha
sun sol sol time hokohi hokohi See Language page John Blaha
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment bubu (hill) bubu (hill) See Language page John Blaha
green verde verde quality See Language page John Blaha
hot caliente quente quality See Language page John Blaha


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page John Blaha
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. saha (kind of bat) saha (kind of bat) See Language page John Blaha
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna See Language page John Blaha
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia John Blaha
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões John Blaha
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges John Blaha
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread John Blaha
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread John Blaha
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica See Language page Widespread John Blaha
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page John Blaha
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page John Blaha
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America John Blaha
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page John Blaha
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America John Blaha
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris beɾoɾo (possible loan fɾom Spanish?) beroro (possible loan from Spanish?) See Language page Not native; widespread John Blaha
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) basayanaɾu basaynaru See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands John Blaha
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia John Blaha
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi John Blaha
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page John Blaha
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page John Blaha
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page John Blaha
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ehe ehe See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. mahoko (geneɾic catfish?) mahoko (generic catfish?) See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page John Blaha
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana John Blaha
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata meɾa mera See Language page John Blaha
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. hue hue See Language page John Blaha
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura he he See Language page John Blaha
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia John Blaha
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page John Blaha
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hube See Language page John Blaha
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America John Blaha
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria naku (geneɾic?) naku (generic?) See Language page Widespread John Blaha
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls John Blaha
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species John Blaha
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua John Blaha
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia John Blaha
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch John Blaha
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm John Blaha
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm John Blaha
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page John Blaha
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries John Blaha
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant John Blaha
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') John Blaha
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree John Blaha
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant John Blaha
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant John Blaha
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant John Blaha
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant John Blaha
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. buratana buɾatana See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. John Blaha
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant John Blaha
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page John Blaha
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays naukamo naukamo See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant John Blaha
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum See Language page plant John Blaha
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna rau ɾau See Language page John Blaha
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub John Blaha
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) John Blaha
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree John Blaha
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree John Blaha
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree John Blaha
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties John Blaha
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub John Blaha
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree John Blaha
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree John Blaha
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant John Blaha
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape John Blaha
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta arukobo, aru (cassava) aɾukobo, aɾu (cassava) See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield John Blaha
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety John Blaha
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato John Blaha
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant John Blaha
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant John Blaha
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page John Blaha
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree John Blaha
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant John Blaha
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine John Blaha
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree John Blaha
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine John Blaha
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page John Blaha
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page John Blaha
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page John Blaha
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page John Blaha
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ahimu (kind of ant) ahimu (kind of ant) See Language page John Blaha
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ɾahi (kind of bee) rahi (kind of bee) See Language page John Blaha
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page John Blaha
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page John Blaha
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page John Blaha
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page John Blaha
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page John Blaha
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda haɾa -sebe (haɾa=aɾm, -sebe=quantity of) hara -sebe (hara=arm, -sebe=quantity of) See Language page John Blaha
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ayawaka ayawaka See Language page John Blaha
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page John Blaha
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page John Blaha
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page John Blaha
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page John Blaha
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page John Blaha
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page John Blaha
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. See Language page John Blaha
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page John Blaha
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page John Blaha
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page John Blaha
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page John Blaha
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page John Blaha
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tobe tobe See Language page John Blaha
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page John Blaha
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page John Blaha
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page John Blaha
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page John Blaha
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page John Blaha
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page John Blaha
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page John Blaha
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page John Blaha
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page John Blaha
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu teko (geneɾic?) teko (generic?) See Language page John Blaha
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page John Blaha
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page John Blaha
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page John Blaha
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page John Blaha
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page John Blaha
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page John Blaha
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page John Blaha
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page John Blaha
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page John Blaha
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page John Blaha
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus masi masi See Language page John Blaha


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material uhu uhu See Language page John Blaha
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page John Blaha
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page John Blaha
bed cama cama culture-material uba -noko (uba=sleep, noko=place of) uba -noko (uba=sleep, noko=place of) See Language page John Blaha
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ha ha See Language page John Blaha
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page John Blaha
canoe canoa canoa transport wahibaka wahibaka See Language page John Blaha
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page John Blaha
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology wisiratu (shaman)ibihi -rotu (ibihi=venom, rotu=owner of, listed as shaman) wisiɾatu (shaman)ibihi -ɾotu (ibihi=venom, ɾotu=owneɾ of, listed as shaman) In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page John Blaha
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page John Blaha
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page John Blaha
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page John Blaha
firewood leña lenha other See Language page John Blaha
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page John Blaha
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page John Blaha
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology esemoi esemoi multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page John Blaha
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page John Blaha
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page John Blaha
machete machete facão culture-material buare buaɾe See Language page John Blaha
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page John Blaha
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hatabu hatabu hunting, warfare See Language page John Blaha
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hat (veɾb?) hat (verb?) See Language page John Blaha
bow arco arco subsistence tool hatabuɾu (bow and aɾɾows?) hataburu (bow and arrows?) arco See Language page John Blaha
paddle/oar remo remo transport hahe hahe See Language page John Blaha
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page John Blaha
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page John Blaha
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page John Blaha
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology matáro (Goeje1930) matáro (Goeje1930) See Language page John Blaha
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool dáu a-mútu (Goeje1930) dáu a-mútu (Goeje1930) See Language page John Blaha
wax cera cera other See Language page John Blaha
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page John Blaha
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page John Blaha
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture See Language page John Blaha
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page John Blaha
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page John Blaha
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page John Blaha
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page John Blaha
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page John Blaha
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page John Blaha
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page John Blaha
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page John Blaha
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page John Blaha
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page John Blaha
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page John Blaha
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page John Blaha
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page John Blaha
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page John Blaha
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page John Blaha
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page John Blaha
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page John Blaha
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
salt sal sal food See Language page John Blaha
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page John Blaha
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page John Blaha
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page John Blaha
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food uku aisiko yaba (yaba=fish, uku=angling line, aisiko=fish) uku aisiko yaba (yaba=fish, uku=angling line, aisiko=fish) See Language page John Blaha
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page John Blaha
hunt cazar caçar food kub (to hunt) haɾako (hunting) kub (to hunt) harako (hunting) See Language page John Blaha
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page John Blaha
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool ewehi ewehi esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page John Blaha
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page John Blaha
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page John Blaha
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page John Blaha
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page John Blaha
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page John Blaha
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page John Blaha
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page John Blaha
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ibihi ibihi hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page John Blaha
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page John Blaha
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page John Blaha
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page John Blaha
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page John Blaha
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
house other hanoko hanoko [Carib loan?] See Language page John Blaha