Bará

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
pok
Location
0.20°, -70.25°
Notes
Status as a distinct variety unclear; may be a dialect of Barasano or Waimaha. Coordinates for location are approximate.
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Instituto Linguistico de Verano.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
and y e grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment pe'ka-wã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
at en, a em, a location -pɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
back espalda costas body huku'bíro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bad mal mal quality jã'jã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
belly barriga barriga body paga, 'páa-ga See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
big grande grande quality pai-'gɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
black negro preto colour jĩ́ĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
blood sangre sangue body dii See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body jĩ'kããwã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bone hueso osso body õ'ã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
breast pecho, seno peito body õ'pea See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
child niño, niña criança human wi'bã́-gɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
cold frío frio quality jɨhɨ'a See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality keo'ro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
day día dia time ɨ̃'bɨ̃riko See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dirty sucio sujo quality ĩ'rĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dry seco seco quality See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality aho'joa-ti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dust polvo poeira environment po'ká See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
ear oreja orelha body ãbõ'pe-ro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
earth/soil tierra terra environment di'ta, je'pa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
egg huevo ovo fauna di'é See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
eye ojo olho body ka'pea See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
far lejos longe quality 'joa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fat/grease grasa gordura body ɨ'hé See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
father padre, papá pai kinship pa'kɨ, 'kakɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
feather pluma pena fauna póa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fire fuego fogo environment pe'kabẽ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
flower flor flor environment o'oro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment bue-ri See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fruit fruta fruta flora dɨ'ka See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
good bueno bom quality ã'jṹ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body poa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hand mano mão body ã'bõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kɨ̃'ɨ̃́ (masc.), kõ'ṍ (fem.) See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
head cabeza cabeça body dɨ'pɨa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
heavy pesado pesado quality dɨ̃'kɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
how? como como grammar de'ero See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
1sg yo eu grammar jɨ'ɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
if si se grammar -ri, -gɨ, -go, -ra See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location po'péa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
intestines intestinos intestinos body ɨ'tá bĩhĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
lake lago lago environment o'pa-taro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
leaf hoja folha environment pũũrõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body a'kúdĩjã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
leg/foot pierna perna body jĩ'kã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bɨ'po wããjorihe See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
liver hígado figado body jẽbẽ-di'tí See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
long largo comprido, longo quality jóa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kia-bɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
man/male hombre homem human baho'kɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dii'ró See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
moon luna lua environment jã'bĩ-bãlɨ̃ bũ'ĩpũ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pa'ko, 'kako See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
mouth boca boca body ɨ'hero See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
name nombre nome human wã'bẽ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
near/close cerca de perto quality ãdã-'ãhã, pɨto-'aha See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
neck cuello pescoço body wã'bɨ̃ã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
new nuevo novo quality wãbã- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
night noche noite time jã'bĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
no/not no não grammar bãdĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
nose nariz nariz body ĩ'kĩã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
old viejo velho quality bɨ'kɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
one uno um number hi'ka- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
other otro outro grammar ã'pĩ́, ape-'gó, ape- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
person/human being persona pessoa human baho'ka (people) See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
rain lluvia chuva environment o'ko See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
red rojo vermelho colour hũ'ã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
right/right hand derecha direita location/body diabã'kɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
road/path camino caminho manufacture bã'ã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
root raíz raiz flora dɨ̃'kõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
rotten podrido podre quality boa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sand arena areia environment di'tatupari See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality aho'joa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
short corto curto quality 'joa-ti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
shoulder hombro ombro body ã'kõrõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
skin piel pele body kahe'ro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sky cielo céu environment ɨ̃'bɨ̃ kahero See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
small pequeño pequeno quality pe'e-kɨ̃ãhã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
smoke humo fumaça environment ũ'bẽ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
star estrella estrela environment jõ'kõã-wɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ju'kɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
stone piedra pedra environment ɨ̃'tã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
tail cola, rabo rabo body pĩ'kõõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
that ese/esa esse grammar i'ká See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kɨ̃́hã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ɨhé-be'ti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
thin delgado fino quality ɨhe-bẽdĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
this este/esta este grammar ati-'ga See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
2sg xx xx grammar bɨ'bɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
three tres tres number iti'á- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
thunder truenos trovão environment bɨ'po See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bite morder morder body ba'ká See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
blow soplar soprar body pu'tí, wĩ'ĩpũ, 'páapu See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
burn quemar queimar environment 'hóe(-), 'ɨ̃ɨ̃ (intransitive) See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
climb subir subir motion See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
come venir vir motion 'dóo See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
count contar contar mental See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
cut/hack cortar cortar impact -ta See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
die/be dead morir morrer state di'á-jai- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dig cavar cavar impact ko'á See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
drink beber, tomar beber body hĩ'dĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
eat comer comer body báa(-) See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fall caer cair motion jã́ã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fear miedo medo mental u'i See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fly volar voar motion wɨ'ɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hear oír ouvir mental tɨ'ó See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hit golpear, pegar bater impact 'páa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kɨ'o See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
kill matar matar impact hĩ'ã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental bã'hĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion kõ'ã́, jo'há See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
say decir dizer mental ĩ'ĭ́- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
see ver ver mental ĩ'ã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sit sentar(se) sentar state du'í- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sleep dormir dormir body kã'dĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body wĩ'dĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact be'é See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact jẽ'ẽdijo, bi'pé See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact 'túupua See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state dɨ̃'kɨ̃, wɨ̃'bɨ̃dɨ̃kã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
steal robar roubar other See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
suck chupar chupar body u'u See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
swell hincharse inchar body bi'pí See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
swim nadar nadar motion báa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
think pensar pensar mental tɨ̃gẽjã / wã'kũ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact 'dée-ko, kõ'ṍ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact hi'á See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
vomit vomitar vomitar body ɨ'hóti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
walk caminar, andar andar motion wáa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
tongue lengua lingua body jẽ'bẽro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
tooth diente dente body u'pi-ga See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
two dos dois number pɨa- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
water agua agua environment o'ko See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar bã'dĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ɨ̃'hã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
wet mojado molhado quality puu-, we'wo-, bĩ'bĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
what? que, qué que grammar jẽ'ẽ́, de'éro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
when? cuando quando grammar de'ero bi'iri See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
where? donde onde grammar dõ'ṍ, dõõ-pɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
white blanco branco colour bu'ti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
who? quien, quién quem grammar dõ'ã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
wife esposa esposa kinship dɨ̃'bõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
wind viento vento environment wĩ'dõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
wing ala asa body keeruupu See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
woman/female mujer mulher human baho'ko, dũbĩ'õ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
yellow amarillo amarelo colour e'wɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
2pl ustedes vocês grammar bɨ̃́hã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
foot pie body dɨ'po See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
all todo todos other dĩ'ĩ́-oeti-ra See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
lung pulmón pulmão body je'eri hãrĩke See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bark corteza casca environment ju'kɨ́ kahero See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fingernail uña unha body ãbõ 'kéro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
heart corazón coração body je'erika See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sun sol sol time ɨ̃'bɨ̃riko-bãkɨ̃ bũ'ĩpũ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ɨ̃'ã́-gɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
green verde verde quality hɨ̃'bẽ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hot caliente quente quality a'hí See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. o'ho See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna bĩ'dĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wã'dõpĩ See Language page Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. da'he See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ka'ta See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae bĩ'bĩ See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes bɨ'pɨpako See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. 'bãã See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica we'ko See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ju'ka See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris eka-'rikɨ 'jai See Language page Not native; widespread Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) bɨ'ko See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri pã'bõ See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨ'ho See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wa'i See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae bɨ'ɨ́ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura tɨ'bɨro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ju'a See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes pĩ'dõ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae pĩ'dõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ã'jã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox e'ri (rattlesnake) See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria 'uu, ṹú hũwɨ̃ See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ɨ̃'dé-jõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca pátu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) bu'ha, ju'ta See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bía See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum ã'dɨ̃́ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. o'o See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) 'táa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays 'ódika See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum bɨ̃'dṍ See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ju'kɨ-gɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana bũ'hã́ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ki'ɨ́ See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas jã'pĩ́ See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. jã'bṹ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) waa-'gá ('gourd', H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi ka'pí See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bẽkã-'bɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. bẽkã-bɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis bũ'bĩã-bɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera dõkẽã-'bɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera be'toa-bɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. bɨ̃'tẽ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera bu'tua-bɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae bɨ'pɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca 'jai See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ẽ'bõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella a'ke See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus wa'u (spider monkey) See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis 'diajo See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu kii-je'he See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari je'he See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. 'buu See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris día-jehe See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) hẽ'bẽ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus wĩ'ĩpotɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris we'kɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus jã'bã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein, Amanda Meeks


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bed cama cama culture-material kõã'rõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material pũũ'gɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material dui'ro, kũ'bũro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
canoe canoa canoa transport kũ'bũã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology ju'kɨ́-tuti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology bahe'-gɨ́ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
firewood leña lenha other pe'ka See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wide-ríca-pĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool kõ'bẽã especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool te'mu-rikɨ hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
spear lanza lança subsistence tool sa'gaja See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bow arco arco subsistence tool te'mu-rika-beto arco See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
paddle/oar remo remo transport waa-riká-pĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kõbẽ-'rɨ, ho'tɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology jã'hã́-gã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
wax cera cera other See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture -da See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology duti-'gɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
salt sal sal food bṍã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool bu'pua currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool waa-'gá ('gourd', H&R) See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture hĩdĩ-rike prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
house other wi'i See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
Linguistic exogamy