Salinan A

Family
Isolate (NAM)
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
sln
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location le:mo/7 (A), unknown Mason 1918; see Turner 1980 for “reconstituted” forms Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar te/n (p. 9); unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other (k)I:/sile7 (A), “all, every”; -isil- p. 58 unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar Tan, ran, an (A), “and, then” unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tcokelti/nai (A only); unknown (Turner 1983:224) Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body chamatan unknown Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment Ta7a/i (A), unknown Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location Te-, um- unknown (Shaul ms Salinan prepositions) Jane Hill
back espalda costas body titc'o/7mo7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality (k)e/sene7 (A) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body ikA/n (A), unknown Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location la:/ko (A), “down, below” unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality (k)etca:/7 (A), , (k)etca/7ate/n unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body *(k)itpetmak (S) “bite, chew”; unknown Jane Hill
black negro preto colour co/wuth (A), unknown Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body a:/kath (A), unknown Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body xot' (A) unknown Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body axa:/kh (A), unknown Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body ico/7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body (ke)tsikna (S), (ke)tsi/ktina “breathe”; unknown Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment ma/ca:L (A), maltintak (S, pl) “blaze, burn”; unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body *(k)itpetmak (S) “bite, chew” unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human as (A), unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion co:UL “climb, chase up unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment pa:/i:7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality Tatil (A only); unknown Jane Hill
come venir vir motion iax, iex (A, M) iaxteL (pl); unknown Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact nep (S), “cook”; unknown Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality (k)esnA/h “true” unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental xa:/ta (A, M) xa/La (pl) “weep” unknown Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact e/ck'waL (A only) “cut, saw, hit”; unknown Jane Hill
day día dia time To:/kena7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state a/xap (A), unknown Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact xa/pek (A), “dig, excavate, climb” unknown Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna Tho:/xo (A), unknown Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality cho:/wUne7 or khtr7o:/ne unknown (Turner 1980:72) Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental *(p)itca:lta/naxo (S) “dream”; unknown Turner 1980:72 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body icim (A only), unknown Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality ts'o/xwan (A), “shrivel, dry” unknown Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment Tcayi/ya (A), Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body ick'o/7ol (A), unknown Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment (t)cxo7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
eat comer comer body icx (A, M), ecxot (pl) “eat”; unknown Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna titaka/L (A), unknown Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body cuke:/neT (A), unknown Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body lamhA/t (A only) “dung”; unknown Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion tom' (A), unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality khwa/7, kwa:ko/lepH unknown (Turner 1980:73) Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body uprent (A), unknown Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship ekh (A), unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental a/xai (A), unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna ecax (A) unknown Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment Ta7a/uh (A), unknown Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna swan (A), unknown Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment makawi/7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion ma:L (A), unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ts'opo/ (A), “fog, frost” unknown Jane Hill
foot pie body icxe:/u (A) unknown Turner 1980 p 59) Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora tata (A), unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality ts'ep (A, M), ts'e/pax (pl) “good, well” unknown Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state map (A), unknown Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body k'uwoke:/th (A), unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body me:n (A), unknown Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar heyo/7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body a:/7ak (A), unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental pesno/xo (A), unknown Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality (kh)me/T'o? (A), “heavy, deep (snow) unknown Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion o/xo:ma7 (A), o/xom'tela7 (pl) unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact *(p)T'ika:/l (A) “strike, beat”; unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other espolo/x (A only) “catch, seize”; unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar ake- p. 35 unknown Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar he:'kh (A), unknown Jane Hill
if si se grammar Ta- “conditional” (on vb) p. 38 unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location rumtoki “to within” texts p. 61 unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body phxath (A), unknown Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact (p)T'eka (A), (p)T'aki (pl) “kill”; loan Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental luane(S), luanile (pl) “know”; unknown Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment ilpoi (A only) unknown Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental *k)e:/yita7 (A), ), (k)e:/yiteL (pl) “laugh, shout” unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment ctan' (A only) stanane/L (pl) unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ok'elo (A), unknown Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body so/non (A), unknown Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ce/wili7 (A only), ce/wilthe (pl) “lie down” unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment sokAnto (A only); (ke)mi/ltop (S) vb loan Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body o/xoyo:te7 (A), ), unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body aacx (A), unknown Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality k'wa:/ka (A), k'wa:/keltha “long, tall” unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tik'e/' (A”, loan direction unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body ck'o/7il (A), “lung, gizzard” unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human lu:wa/' (A), ); *luaya/to (pl); unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna math (A), ), pl ma7The/lakh “meat, flesh, animal” unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment Tats'o:/opi7 (A), loan Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship apai/7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body e:/lekh (A), unknown Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ka:set ka:s:il-e (pl) “name” p. 27; unknown Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality sk'a:m “close” (A) loan direction unknown Turner 1983:224) Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body eTca:i/ (A), unknown Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality (k)te/k'a (A), “young, new”; unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time smA/khai (A), unknown Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ke/ra7, ka/ra7 “no!”; ke/ra7 “not” p. 42 unknown Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body e:/neT' (A), unknown Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality tce, ce, cte- “old, aged” p. 21 unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number t'oL (A), unknown Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other (p)ele:/t'o (A), (p)e/lextLo (pl) “open” unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body tipin, tipni/ya (A only) “pain”, timni/y'a “sickness” unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human k'weL “people” (A only) loan Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact (p)T'etoyo (A), “pound, pulverize” unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment (k)le/shxay unknown Turner 1980:81; Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour (k)itcka:/ten (A), unknown Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body lama/yu (A), unknown Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture Ta:ke/' (A), “road” unknown Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tepa/s (A), unknown Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment ts'ensiL (A), unknown Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental *ho'yi7 (A) “say” unknown Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact (k)uptun (S), (k)uptinil “scratch”; unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental iam, iem (A) unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality (k)Le/7tax (A), (k)Le/7talax (pl) “sharp” unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact et'eyine/ (A), unknown Jane Hill
short corto curto quality (e)sluteya/mo (A), unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body ita/'l (A), unknown Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental o/la7le7 (A) “be ashamed”; loan Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state a/cek (A), unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body sa:/nAt' (A), ) “skin, hide”; unknown Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment opolemo loan Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body ka:u (A), ka/xa:u (pl) sleep; unknown Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality skI/tana (A), unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment Ta/te:t (A), ; unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body me:/s (A), unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body ksha/(:)k' unknown Turner 1980:84 Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact axAtcnAp (A), “split, part”; unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact loxo, lok'o (A), “seize, squeeze, grasp” unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact (p)T'e/kax (A), (pe)T'a/kba:/k “break off, saw off, stab, shoot” unknown Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state eT'e:k (A), unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment TatsuwA/n (M only) pl. Tatcwa:/niL loan direction unknown Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other (k)aten (A only); unknown Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora Ta:/ka7ATh (A), unknown Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment (t)cxa7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body tAknAt (A) unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body kwal unknown Turner 1980:85 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion (k)La:/t'ne (A), unknown Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body etshe/7u (A), unknown Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar pe (A), unknown Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar heyo:/'t (A), unknown Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality kEshmU/TH unknown Turner 1980:85 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality k'ockwe/top (A), unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental a:/ke'n (A), pl a:/ke'n; unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar *aswai (A), “this, these” unknown Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mo7 (A, M) unknown Jane Hill
three tres tres number kLa/pai (A), loan Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body pE:nik'a:i (A only) unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact li:xo7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment T'e/lowA7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact (e)T'a:/k (A only); unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body epaL/l (A), inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body ule:/th (A) ) le:/heT (pl) “teeth” unknown Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other (il)k'elpa, k'ethpha (A), unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number ka/khcu (A), “two” unknown Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body k7okci/7, unknown Turner 1980:86 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion ixa:k (A), unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment (t)ca7, tcha7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ha:7kh, kak (A), unknown Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality ts'a:ts'i (A) “be wet, damp” unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar tas- p. 35 unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar kacta- p. 35 unknown Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar missing Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour mA/ThaL (A), unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar ta- (p. 35 unknown Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship se (A), unknown Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment ts'a:kai/ (A), loan Jane Hill
wing ala asa body T'o/puk (A), unknown Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human ltes'e/7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other ta/LxwaL (A), ta/lxwaltenax “work” loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour Tha/wuT (A), unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mo:m (A), you pl. unknown Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. kc'en abalones (Black) loan Salinan A only Chumash not in M; assignment to %kys very tentative! WW %kys underived Merriam 55:381; Turner 1980:67 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae c'e:ne:šé7 ant, black ant unique Note Miwokan tishinaj forms ?? E.g. Mip tisi:na “ant”. Not recorded for M. underived c'- as prefix, it's same kind of word that Turner 1987:119 notes -- but would be vowel-initial then and have /T-/ Merriam 55:381; Turner 1980:67 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana múi' antelope unique Salinan Widespread Hokan antelope/bighorn word, Wappo moo'-oo; see all the way to Seri haamoja; Cocopa mɂu·ł “antelope, probably related to proto-Yuman *?-mu(w) “bighorn sheep”, perhaps *ahat-m?u·ł ...?? An old arealism? WW %mo: underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus Tmášax badger loan Esselen not in M other complex /T/ probably articular prefix Mason 1918:125; Turner 1983:68 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus mut'-trahl trah'-ko si'-yŭ maTal Tak'o sayo7 bald eagle (white-head-eagle) unique loan translation from elicitation? phrase Merriam 55:371 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata klaúit (kléwet Turner 1983:228) band-tailed pigeon (Merriam 55:371 confirms) unique Salinan A only not in M; underived Mason 1918:123 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp stamakála, stamká(:)l bat (Merriam 55:367 has first form) loan Chumash not in M; Turner 1983:225 compares Southern Chumash *makal; Note Wappo t'áka:la WW %tamakala other complex s- animal prefix; note that word structures in this very poorly-known language must be provisional at best s- animal Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:68 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp 7e:c' Pinacate unique Salinan A only not in M; underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:84 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus 7axó:l tule (Merriam confirms as S. lacustris) loan Costanoan Utian *xo:l ... (Callaghan 1962:106) not in M underived Mason 1918:128; Turner 1980:86 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis šowá skunk unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:83 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus To:xó wolf unique Salinan looks a bit like the tukut “wildcat” words, but usually wolf and mountain lion are similar, not wolf and wildcat other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probablyl Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:87 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis lă-wā'-sit Bighorn loan Yokuts Note similar forms as far east as Tub le:wshe:p “female spirit, perhaps otter”; Yowlumne lew-ā'-sip; le-wā'-sip; Yowlumne lew-ā'-sip; le-wā'-sip; Nim-Yokuts diwècip (Yawdanchi form) WW %lewasip underived must be etymologically complex if not a loan Merriam 65:367 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ca:xwe bird unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:122 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger c'an black ant; Carpenter ant unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:381; Turner 1983:67 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus Taxáy' bear unique Salinan could these be Takic loans meaning "person (vocative)"??? underived unless /T/ is articular prefix Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:68 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus kol' hare (Merriam 55:369 confirms black-tail jackrabbit unique Salinan Compare Chumash *kun(V)7 ? Turner 1983:226; BV Yokuts has kun from Chumash underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:75 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus spo'-nin Blackberry (Rubus vitifolius) unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:387 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus sam' wildcat unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:87 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera sko:kó7 butterfly unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:70 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus teč great California vulture unique Salinan Note Pmie chy:$y- “buzzard” (JHH from Callaghan 2001:325 #111 underived Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:86 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? T'ay' bluejay (Merriam confirms California Jay) loan unknown areal form; Miwokan *T'ayT'ay, Yokutsan similar, etc. WW %chaj underived Mason 1918:125j; Turner 1983:227 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? palá:k:a7 California woodpecker loan Salinan unknown widespread areal form of unknown origin WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:87 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pásel chia loan Takic Proto-Californian(Takic & Tubatulabal) *pasa/i WW %pasv underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:70 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. mec'eko(7) chipmunk (Merriam confirms Eutamias) unique Salinan underived probably etymologically complex Mason 1918:123 Turner 1980:71 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota she-tah'-nil Cliff swallow unique Salinan underived probably complex etymologically Merriam 55:373 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana shōn'-shun coot unique Salinan reduplicated Merriam 55:377 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii map' rabbit (Merriam 55:369 confirms cottontail) loan Migueleño Salinan ultimately probably from Chumash (Turner 1983:226) underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. cho'-lahk Cottonwood unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:385 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans Lk'á coyote unique Salinan other complex L- is prefix (Turner 1987:118) Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:71 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ška:k' crow unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix (with sound symbolic variant?) Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:71 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii moi' Datura loan Chumash WW %moji ~ %moni underived 82.540277777777774304 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus Ta7á7 deer (Merriam 55:367 confirms mule deer) unique Salinan reduplicated Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:72 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana č'o7 pine (Merriam 55:383 confirms P. sabiniana) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:130; Turner 1980:80 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris xoč dog unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:72 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura Ta:xwén(e7) turtledove (Merriam 55:371 confirms) unique Salinan other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probablyl Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:72 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae la:T' duck unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:72 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus tet-tah'-kul Elder unique Salinan reduplicated Merriam 55:385 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus 7aš elk unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:73 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna šwan' fish unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:73 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera Ta:yél flea unique Salinan underived unless /T/ is articular prefix Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:73 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. č'am Flicker unique Salinan A only not in M; underived Merriam 55:373; Turner 1980:87 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera (7)owa:tén fly unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:122; Turner 1980:73 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei troi-yahs' Yucca whipplei unique Salinan other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probablyl Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Merriam 55:397 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon sto7 fox (Merriam Gray Fox Urocyon 55:365) unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:74 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wá:keT frog unique Salinan very widespread frog word of unknown origin; e.g. PUA *wakaC-ta; WW %wakat underived Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:74 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos sáyo7 eagle unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:72 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. kesóy; k'esóy' gooseberry unique Salinan A only not recorded in M underived Turner 1980:75 (from Harrington, Jacobsen) 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer shă-num'-kŭs Gopher or bull snake unique Salinan phrase probably phrasal but no hope of analysis Merriam 55:379 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) k'a:T grass, hay unique Salinan underived Turner 1980:75 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera košoló7 grasshopper unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:75 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. šomk'óm' squirrel (Merriam confirms Gray ground squirrel) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:84 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. Tološ gray squirrel (Merriam confirms Sciurus fossor 55:369 unique Salinan underived unless /T/ is articular prefix Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:84 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus šo:konóy' horned-owl unique Salinan Note Proto-Miwokan *tuk:úli- WW %(hu)tukul underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:80 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis Taxaí grizzly bear (Merriam confirms 55:365) unique Salinan underived unless /T/ is articular prefix Merriam 55:365 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae swah'-kah-kah' horned toad unique Salinan reduplicated Merriam 55:379 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kă-wah'-yo horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Merriam 55:369 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae moc'wél' humming bird unique Salinan A only not in M; underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1983:77 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. Ta:lám' tobacco unique Salinan underived might be that /T-/ is articular prefix Mason 1918:130; turner 1980:86 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp mo-lōp-lah Junco unique Salinan A only not in M; underived falls within stem shapes noted by Turner 1987, but perhaps complex Merriam 55:375 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica trah-nān' Juniper unique Salinan underived /tr/ might be T- articular prefix Merriam 55:383 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera tik'é' louse unique Salinan other complex t- is a prefix Mason 1918:123 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos lah-aht' Mallard unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:377 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. paTáx manzanita (Merriam 55:387 confirms A. glauca, hears tr) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:78 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa mo-ti” broad-leaf milkweed unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:393 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera k7epts7íjin (Harrington); kopts7En (Jacobson) mosquito loan Yokuts not in M; Nim-Yokuts k'asup'; Salinan M kacap underived unless k- is stative, but I suspect a loan Merriam 55:381; Turner 1983:79 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera etskutcháten tarantula-hawk unique not in M; phrase but untranslatable Mason 1918:123 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor Tá'muL puma loan Salinan unknown very widespread word WW %talom underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus k'a:yá:k (Harrington); ka:yák' (Jacobsen) mountain quail unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:371; Turner 1980:81 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. hayék7 mussel unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:58 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata tsoloteka Olivella biplicata unique not recorded in M; underived Heizer/Pinart I:80 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? chă-lā-o Crested Jay (Cyanocitta) unique Salinan underived falls within stem shapes noted by Turner 1987, but perhaps complex Merriam 55:371 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla To pine nuts unique Salinan underived /T/ might be articular prefix Mason 1918:130; Turner 1980:80 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum koyáma Pismo clam loan Obispeño Chumash Turner 1983:226 underived Turner 1983:226 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys nakák pocket-gopher unique Salinan A only not in M; reduplicated Mason 1918:124 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum trah-ah'-luk poison oak unique Salinan A only not in M; reduplicated /tr/ might be T- articular prefix Merriam 55:389 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. sme:koí rattlesnake unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp le-ká(:)t ant (Merriam: red ant (hairy) 55:381 unique Salinan underived could this be L- prefix? Turner 1987:118? Mason 1918:123; Turner 1983:234 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus čol', čola7 (Turner 1983:227; 1980:69) red-winged blackbird unique Salinan Note Central Chumash ʧ'oq underived Mason 1918:125 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis spe:k' red-tailed hawk unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:76 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus xom, xom' roadrunner, ground cuckoo unique Salinan in M underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:82 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica stah'-lït Sageherb unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:391 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss Teteyá:w salmon unique Salinan other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probablyl Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:82 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? xakelé; xa:pelé7 lizard (Merriam confirms scaly lizard 55:379) loan Salinan unknown Note Pmiw *pet:el:li, Mip pit:e:le-, WW %petel underived probably etymologically complex Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:78 from Harrington, Jacobsen 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna abelē lizard loan Salinan unknown Note Pmiw *pet:el:li, Pip pit:e:le-, WW %petel underived probably etymologically complex Heizer/Pinart I:80 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna šk'ot snake, worm, grub; Merriam's “snake, any” 55”379 unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:83 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco skele:lé7 sparrow-hawk loan Salinan unknown This is a widespread form; e.g. Chumash B xelex “hawk sp.”, Maidu ke'-lik-lik'-kim; Proto-UA *kɨlɨ-. This is the sound of this hawk. WW %kili other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:76 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae c'opén spider (this is Merriam's form) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:84 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis smo-kel' little spotted skunk unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Merriam 65:367 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae ho-yoCH toad unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:379 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) hat' tree unique Salinan A only same as Valley Oak not in M underived Heizer/Pinart I:78 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura xopnél red-headed vulture unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:86 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines Ta:wó:y turtle unique Salinan If /T/ is articular prefix, may be related to Miwokan “turtle” words like Mie *7awan:a-, WW %awan other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probablyl Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:86 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia s'ow'-wut Valley Live Oak unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:385 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata 7at white oak (Merriam confirms as “ut” 55:387) unique Salinan same as “tree” underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:78 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica hómlek quail (Merriam 55:371 confirms valley quail) loan Yokuts? not in M; Yokutsan *humn-ul WW %hum underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:81 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis loiná Canada goose (Merriam has tal-wut 55:377) unique Salinan Note Sierra Miwok (Mins) low:ot-u-, probably same as Salinan M t'lai without prefix and with -na underived Mason 1918:123 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus Tay whale unique Salinan underived perhaps has initial /T/ but repeatedly cited by Turner 1987 as a stem Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:87 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos tē:/u te:w (Turner) pelican (may be brown pelican; Merriam) ta'-wah 55:377 loan Chumash Central Chemash hew (Turner 1983:226; t in salinan is a prefix) WW %hew other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probably; Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Mason 1918:125 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica tup'-pa-til wild grapevine loan Spanish not in M; could this be uppa from uva with t- and some increment -til? Perhaps a plural? other complex t- (articular prefix) on vowel-initial stem, probablyl Turner 1987 says should be /T/ Merriam 55:395 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) al-lōs wild oats loan Spanish Spanish arroz WW %arroz underived Merriam 55:395 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica stah'-kil Wild rose unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:387 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) c'eko ná7 sunflower unique Salinan phrase ná7 “sun” Turner 1980:85 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. 7a(:)šwét willow (Salix sp.) unique Salinan A only underived Merriam 55:385; Turner 1980:87 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. mákiL rat (Merriam 55:369 confirms round-tailed woodrat) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) tcoaná caterpillar unique Salinan Same as M but with -na increment other complex -na appears a couple of times; Turner doesn't discuss Mason 1918:124 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper tálmui worm unique not in M; underived Mason 1918:124 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. lemém' yellowjacket wasp unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:381; Turner 1980:68 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia Klam'-mah-yaht'til-taht Yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique Salinan A only not in M; phrase probably a phrase, untranslatable Merriam 55:375 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna ilka/t; unknown Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ca:xwe unknown Turner 1980 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna awa:te/n (A) unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna xutc (A), unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna k'a:Th (A), unknown Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna Taa7 (A), loan direction unknown Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna Ta:li:ye:7 “serpent” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna c'ope/n unknown Turner 1980:84 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food asi/l acorn atole unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason1918 Jane Hill
ball game food pe-ōp-nit te-trel'-lah ball game unknown phrase Merriam 38:411 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology Tuxtine hells unknown Proto-Salinan only plural given other complex T- is prefix Mason 1918 Jane Hill
feather headband dress tish-shah headdress of feathers unknown other complex Merriam 38:391 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool et'oi'yiN' all ' are 7 arrow loan Yokuts T-et'óy'en Turner p. 86 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other umawi/' arrow straightener unknown awi element shared with Salinan M simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material olltša half-circle over the 2 ll's stone bowl unknown Pinart simplex Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material cla< coil basket unknown Proto-Salinan šlá7 'dish' Turner p. 100; Pinart has šuoc, ats, atal p. 75 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material setami/ya cap unknown Pinart p. 74 kamonela?? derived a -ya suffix common Mason 1918 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material xα/nis beads unknown Proto-Salinan Takic kišotel Pinart 76 WW %xene simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool xak'e/I', xak' bow unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation ahts water bottle, large unknown simplex Merriam 38:399 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation α/cime paper, book unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology aTukai lord, señor unknown maybe in religious sense? Pinart has kapitan (Heizer 1952:73 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing simplex Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress ioko/c breechcloth unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
cook food food atsatak (S) cook, make food unknown also nep 'cook' 144, (p)eskona 'cook' 145 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
corpse food xátep corpse unknown simplex Turner 1987 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology ca:wena:ni dance (V) (ceremonial?) unknown Proto-Salinan derived suffix -ni Mason 1918 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology k<enca:niL God unknown other complex k- stative Mason 1918 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool haypké7 digging stick unknown xuasul Pinart 76 simplex turner 1987 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology (p)itca:lta/naxo dream (v) unknown derived Mason 1918 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
earring other kah-nel-tā ear pendant unknown other complex Merriam 38:391 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology lōsh-ně evil spirit or bad spirit unknown simplex Merriam 38:407 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other chem'-mah-ne fireplace loan English WW %chimney simplex Merriam 38:393 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other Ta:/ka'at< Tá:k'ata Turner p. 70, 101 wood unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool š7eneyé7 fishhook? On p. 80 this is 'fishhawk'?? "Fishhook" at Turner p. 101; Mason has tcik' 'fishhawk' p. 126 unknown simplex suffix -ye Turner 1987 Jane Hill
acorn bread food k'enin acorn bread unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology T-eták'ol flute unknown other complex Turner 1987 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other pish-she-ah counters in hand game unknown derived suffix-ya Merriam 38:411 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food maT'-él-ak animals unknown simplex Turner 1987 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology šo:n ghost unknown simplex Turner 1987 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food olient whiskey loan Spanish also te/penca 131 WW %aguardiente simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology tα/kin shaman unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other (T)a:m, (T)e:m house unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food a:mT<e hunt unknown Proto-Salinan derived a:m is probaby 'food' Mason 1918 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology pun-nă-tah puberty dance unknown simplex Merriam 38:409 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material (T)cik< (T)cek in turner p 24 knife unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
mat culture-material Tau'usi:/α' bed unknown ken-nah-le 'mat' Merriam 38:395 derived, other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool T<xo/l mortar unknown Proto-Salinan čoxal Pinart p. 75, tokol 'hopper mortar' Pinart p. 75; may be loan from Yokutsan into ProtoSalinan, note Yokutsan *k'ojwos 'portable mortar' other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
necklace other taaneka necklace unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool copa needle unknown (T)e/tak 'awl' simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ai/ye< < is aspiration wooden pestle unknown pn-ne 'stone pestle' Merriam 38:397 derived suffix -ye Mason 1918 Jane Hill
pinole food ta/tukat meal of seeds unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other T<auun, T<o:/nt pipe unknown Proto-Salinan tetakal Pinart 76 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
pitch food two-sil, smahk resin or pitch unknown other complex Merriam 38:397 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool sekeueTni/a olla, pot unknown derived Mason 1918 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool ame/ya quiver unknown derived Mason 1918 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology teT'αmnai rattles unknown Proto-Salinan Tro-ho-ko cocoon rattle Merriam 38:409 unknown Mason 1918 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology kitpe/lel paint unknown kah-tin Merriam 38:393 reduplicated Mason 1918 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food Ta:kai/' salt unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool koo-chah-lo seed paddle unknown other complex Merriam 38:399 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology sikara/na clothes unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material o/nus skirt unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool tcueyke/'ya trap unknown derived Mason 1918 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology T-eká:kel song unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Turner 1987 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool cenii/ fish-spear unknown towt'ké7 salmon spear Turner 1987:101 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture aso/L cord, line, string unknown 7ašó:l' Turner p. 101; pe-lah thread of milkweed Merriam 38:397 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material moxweto sack, bag loan Yokuts perhaps substratal, very widespread; looks like the antelope word where Salinan has mui7 WW %mok simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing e/nex 'bead measure' 135 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation k'óm'aš sugar unknown simplex Turner 1987 Jane Hill
sweathouse other kua:p< sweathouse unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology T'e' tell, say to unknown mal 'tell, show' Turner p. 140 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics Tala/>M tobacco unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
tule boat transport To/wi'i boat, raft loan into protolanguage Yokuts proto-Yokutsan loan into Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology mut'-trahl-shahk white paint unknown compound Merriam 38:393 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material skop-pah, skup-pin circular winnower unknown simplex Merriam 38:399 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress oxwa/t moccasins unknown T-e-šxa7a:yé7 'shoe' Turner 1987:101; šxéxe7 'shoe' (Jacobsen) Turner 1987:110 illustrating phonological decay (first is Harrington) simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics Tehoni/7 Jacobsen trsc, Turner 1987:18 medicine unknown Proto-Salinan other complex eoni 'give medicine' 139 Mason 1918 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material chen'-nah-mĕ baby basket unknown other complex Merriam's ch- is probably T- Merriam 38:399 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation šméš cat loan Spanish Mason smic p. 124; could this be from the /mis/ loanword with some kind of prefix?? WW %mis other complex s- animal prefix on mis Turner 1987 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation utconek nokek gun loan Pinart phrase Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress ts'wa\keti/' hat unknown Proto-Sainan derived Mason 1918 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material tex unknown Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture aso/L (A only) “cord, line, string” unknown Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture Thxo/l (A), unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture aihe unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool xak'e/i7, xak' (A only, pl xak'eL) “bow” loan Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool et'oi'yiN' (A) , et'eyitinai/ (pl) “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
house other (T)a:m, (T)e:m (A), loan Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium seasonal no